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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS AND EMERGING ENGINEERING RESEARCH, VOL 2, ISSUE 8 10

ISSN 2347-4289
Copyright 2014 IJTEEE.

Wireless Sensor Networks: A Distance Based
Energy Aware Routing Algorithm

P. Nandhini, Dr. V. Radhika

Research Scholar,Sri Krishna Arts Science College,Kuniamuthur, Coimbatore-641 008, Tamilnadu, India.
M.C.A., M.Phil., Phd,Hod, Department Of Computer Science,Sri Krishna Arts & Science College, Kuniamuthur, Coimbatore-641
008,Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract: Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be
easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like
clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. Wireless sensor networks are large scale networks consisting of a large number of tiny sensor
nodes and few base stations, which communicate using multi-hop wireless communications. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing
(DEAR) algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models.
During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among
involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at
similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all
sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, routing, hotspot, hop number, energy efficiency, network lifetime

1. INTRODUCTION
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received lots of
attention in recently years due to their wide applications like
military and disaster surveillance, industrial product line
monitoring, agricultural and wildlife observation, healthcare,
smart homes, etc. Cheap and tiny sensor nodes are usually
randomly deployed in a physical environment to be
monitored and they will transmit their collected data to
certain remote sink node (or base station) in an
autonomous and unattended manner. Energy efficiency and
balancing is one of the primary challenges to the successful
application of WSNs since the sensor nodes are powered
with limited batteries and they cannot be easily recharged
once deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing
algorithms or protocols have been proposed with
techniques like Clustering, data aggregation, multi-path and
location tracking as can be seen from related work.
However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like
total energy consumption or delay during the routing
process, which might cause some hotspot nodes as well as
a partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes.
Since the network lifetime is usually defined as the time
when the first node dies from lack of energy, huge amounts
of energy will be wasted by the remaining sensor nodes.
The main objective in this paper is to prolong network
lifetime via an energy efficient and balancing routing
algorithm and our contributions are listed as below:
Given the source to sink node distance d, the optimal
multi-hop number and the corresponding individual
distance d
i
can be determined based on the theoretical
analysis of energy consumption under event based and
time based traffic model.
Based on (1), a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing
(DEAR) algorithm is proposed which consists of route
setup and route maintenance phases. The distance
factor is treated as the first parameter during the
routing process and the residual energy factor is the
second parameter to be considered. The DEAR
algorithm can balance energy consumption for all
sensor nodes and consequently prolong the network
lifetime.
Simulation results and comparisons are provided with
discussion details.

2. RELATED WORK
Up to now, many techniques have been proposed to
improve the energy efficiency in different layers of WSNs.
Then another kind of energy efficient routing algorithms
based on soft computing techniques such as genetic
algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO) and swarm
intelligence (SI) are introduced. Finally a few recent studies
from hop-based or distance-based energy aware routing
algorithms are provided.



Figure 1: Routing protocols in sensor networks: A
taxonomy.

2.1. Traditional Energy Efficient Routing
The traditional routing protocols in WSNs can be classified
into flat (or data centric, hierarchical and location based
routing. Among flat routing protocols, SPIN (Sensor
Protocols for Information via Negotiation can be viewed as
the first data-centric routing protocol which utilizes the data
negotiation method among sensor nodes to reduce data
redundancy and save energy. Direct Diffusion is another
representative data-centric routing protocol for
WSNsHierarchical routing protocols are very suitable for
WSNs since they can not only provide good scalability for
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS AND EMERGING ENGINEERING RESEARCH, VOL 2, ISSUE 8 11
ISSN 2347-4289
Copyright 2014 IJTEEE.

hundreds or thousands of sensors, but also perform data
aggregation by cluster head within each cluster. LEACH is
one of the most famous hierarchical routing protocols for
WSNs. PEGASIS is viewed as an improved version of
LEACH. It is a chain based routing protocol which can save
more energy compared to LEACH. The message can get
aggregated along the chain and finally be sent to sink node
via direct transmission by one random node on the chain.
The main shortcoming is that PEGASIS requires global
knowledge of the whole network. Besides, it does not need
global knowledge of the whole network and all intelligent
decisions are made locally by sensor nodes. 2.2. Soft
Computing Based Energy Efficient Routing

2.3. Hop-Based Energy Efficient Routing
In hop-based routing, the metric of (optimal) hop number or
corresponding individual distance is treated as the primary
factor in order to achieve energy efficiency during routing
process. It can be seen that the factor of hop number or
hop distance is not specifically proposed and addressed by
most of the energy efficient routing protocols above, when
in fact, it has very important impact on many network
metrics like energy consumption, latency, routing overhead,
interference.

3. SYSTEM MODEL AND PROBLEM
STATEMENT

3.1. System Model

3.1.1. Network Model
The traditional WSNs can be regarded as an undirected
graph G = <V, E> where V represents the set of vertices
and E represents the set of edges (or links) [9]. Sink node
(or BS) can be placed either inside or outside the area to be
monitored. We assume that there are N nodes randomly
scattered in a two dimensional square field [X, Y]. There
exists a link E(i, j) between node I and node j if the
Euclidean distance d(i, j) is not larger than the radio
transmission radius R, namely d(i, j) R. Here, undirected
graph means bi-directional communication link. In other
words, if node j can receive packet from its neighboring
node i, it is believed that node i can receive packet from
node j in a reverse way. The objective in this paper is to find
a set of optimal or sub-optimal individual distances during
routing process so that the energy is consumed at similar
rate for all involved sensors.

3.1.2. Traffic Model
There are four types of traffic patterns in WSNs, which are
time-based, event-based, query-based and hybrid traffic
pattern [1]. Usually, routing is trigged when a source node
has traffic to send. It is worth noting that traffic pattern has a
very important impact on routing performance like energy
consumption, latency, etc.Time-based traffic pattern is used
when each sensor nodes take turns to report their collected
data in a time series manner.

3.1.3. Energy Model
The energy consumption model we use here is called first
order radio model.


Figure2: Radio energy dissipation model.

3.2. Problem Statement
Many traditional routing protocols can improve the
performance of energy efficiency and network lifetime by
introducing intelligent clustering methods or considering
residual energy, etc. However, most of these energy
efficient routing protocols do not consider the energy
consumption under various traffic models, which is an
important factor that influences the hotspot problem.



Figure3:Hop spot nodes under HEAR algorithm (a) when
BS is inside; (b) when BS is outside.

4. DISTANCE-BASED ENERGY AWARE
ROUTING (DEAR) ALGORITHM

4.1. Theoretical Analysis of Hotspot Problem

4.1.1. Event-based Traffic Model


Figure4:One dimensional linear network.

Once an event is detected by the source node, it will send
an l-bits message through either direct transmission or
multi-hop transmission to the remote sink node. Since multi-
hop transmission is more energy efficient when d is large,
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS AND EMERGING ENGINEERING RESEARCH, VOL 2, ISSUE 8 12
ISSN 2347-4289
Copyright 2014 IJTEEE.

here we study the n-hop transmission from source to sink
node.

4.1.2. Time-Based Traffic Model
Under the time-based traffic model, each node will take
turns to transmit its data to a sink node. Therefore, the key
difference between time-based and event/query-based
traffic model is the packet length. For example, node 1
which is the furthest from sink node only needs to transmit
its data once while node n which is closest to sink node has
to transmit its own data once and help forward the data (n
1) times along the line. On the other hand, given the source
to sink node distance d, there might be several multi-hop
routes with different hop number n. There exists the highest
hop number above with the minimal energy consumption for
each sensor node and this is the optimal multi-hop number
we need.

4.2. DEAR Algorithm
In the DEAR algorithm, each sensor node has two tables.
One is the routing table which contains information like
source node, previous and next hop node. The other table
is the neighbor table which contains neighbors information
like distance between them, distance to the sink node,
residual energy, node degree, etc. Thus, each node can
make intelligent decisions about the next hop based on the
DEAR algorithm and the algorithm is easy to implement for
practical engineering applications. The key strength of
DEAR algorithm is that given the source to sink node
distance d and hardware parameters in , we can provide
energy efficient route with the optimal multi-hop number
and corresponding individual distance under the practical
sensor network. The energy will be consumed at similar
rate for all sensor nodes so that energy efficiency and
energy balancing can be achieved and network lifetime can
be prolonged.

4.2.1. Basic Assumptions
We make the following basic assumptions similar to :
All sensor nodes are static after deployment.
The communication links are symmetric.
Each sensor node can control its power level to the
neighbors.
Each sensor node can know the distance to its
neighbors and to the sink node.
We assume ideal MAC layer conditions.
Algorithm 1.



5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

Figure5: Total energy consumption when BS is inside.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS AND EMERGING ENGINEERING RESEARCH, VOL 2, ISSUE 8 13
ISSN 2347-4289
Copyright 2014 IJTEEE.




Figure6:.Total energy consumption when BS is outside.

From both figures, we can see a similar trend of energy
consumption for the four routing algorithms where the direct
transmission algorithm consumes the largest energy while
our DEAR algorithm consumes the least energy. The total
energy means the summation of energy consumption for
each algorithm up to the current simulation round.



Figure7: Network lifetime.

As can be seen from, direct transmission usually has the
shortest lifetime in a large scale network scenario or when
the average source to sink node distance is large. For the
MRE algorithm, a node chooses its next hop based on the
remaining energy which is irrelevant to the distance
distribution.

5.3. Discussion
Given the source to sink node distance and the hardware
parameter values in , we can determine the transmission
manner, the optimal multi-hop number as well as the
corresponding individual distances. The key difference
between DEAR and other energy efficient routing
algorithms is that we try to let each node consume the
energy at similar rate rather than to minimize the total
energy consumption during each routing process. The
shortcoming of the DEAR algorithm is the requirement of
knowing the source to sink node distance, which can be
obtained through GPS devices, certain localization or
positioning techniques with additional computing and
communication overhead. Also, the DEAR algorithm is not
usable in sparse network environments or when there are
obstacles between the neighboring nodes. In both cases,
the next hop node based on our DEAR algorithm might not
be found.

6. CONCLUSIONS
To efficiently reduce and balance the energy consumption
in WSNs, we proposed a Distance-based Energy Aware
Routing (DEAR) algorithm based on theoretical analysis
and numerical illustration under different energy and traffic
models. Given the source to sink node distance, the optimal
multi-hop number as well as the corresponding individual
distance can be determined so that all sensor nodes can
consume energy at a similar rate. During the routing
process, we treat distance distribution as the first parameter
and the residual energy as the secondary parameter. The
final results show that DEAR can ensure better energy
efficiency and energy balancing performance comparing
with other popular multi-hop routing algorithms.For future
research, we plan to extend our work by studying the
influence of hop number and hop distance on other network
metrics such as latency, communication overhead, packet
delivery ratio, etc. Also, we will consider probability based
energy efficient routing which integrates in factor of hop
distance, residual energy and node degree.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS AND EMERGING ENGINEERING RESEARCH, VOL 2, ISSUE 8 14
ISSN 2347-4289
Copyright 2014 IJTEEE.


[7]. Lindsey S, Raghavendra CS. PEGASIS: Power
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AUTHORS













Miss. P.Nandhini received her B.Sc (CT) Anna University
Coimbatore in 2010 from Karpagam College Of
Engineering, MCA degree from Anna University Chennai in,
2013 from Nehru Institute Of Information Technology And
Management. Currently she is pursuing her Mphil(cs) at
SriKrishna Arts And Science College, Coimbatore.














Mrs. V. Radhika received her B.Sc (Phy), MCA and M.Phil
degree from Bharathiar University in1993, 1996 and 2003
respectively. Currently she is pursuing her PhD at
Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore. She is
the Prof & Head of the Department of Computer Science,
SriKrishna Arts And Science College, Coimbatore. She has
14 years of teaching experience. Her areas of interest
include Non-linear filtering techniques in Digital image
processing and object oriented programming.