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Optical Experiment
1. DC characteristics of LED and PIN Photo Diode.
2. Mode Characteristics of Fibers
3. Measurement of Connector and Bending Losses.
4. Fiber Optic Analog and Digital Link
5. Numerical Aperture Determination for Fibers
6. Attenuation Measurement in Fibers











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FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION LINKS
AIM:
To study the fiber optics analog and digital link.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.Fiber optic trainer kit
2.Patch chords
3.CRO
THEORY:
Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals.
Basically a fiber optic link contains three main elements a transmitter, an optical fiber and a
receiver. The transmitter modulates takes the input signal in electrical form and then transforms it
into optical energy to the receiver. At the receiver, light is converted back into electrical form
with the same pattern as originally fed to the transmitter.
PROCEDURE:
ANALOG LINK:
1. Switch ON the power supply to the board.
2. Connect 1KHZ sine wave function generator output to the input of the emitter circuit.
3. Connect the emitter output to detector input by using fiber optic cable.
4. Connect the output of detector to input of amplifier.
5. Switch ON the power supply.
6. Observe the detected signal at post Analog out on oscilloscope.
7. To measure the analog bandwidth of the photo transistor vary the input signal frequency
and observe the detected signal at various frequencies.
8. Plot the detected signal against applied signal frequency and from the plot determines the
3dB down frequency.

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ANALOG LINK:



DIGITAL LINK:


MODEL GRAPH:
ANALOG LINK

INPUT WAVEFORM OUTPUT WAVEFORM






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DIGITAL LINK

INPUT WAVEFORM OUTPUT WAVEFORM








DIGITAL LINK
1. Connect the power supply to the board.
2. Connect 1KHZ sine wave function generator output to the digital buffer by means of
patch chords.
3. Connect the input to the emitter output to detector input by using fiber optic cable.
4. Switch ON the power supply.
5. Switch ON emitter a device to digital mode.
6. Observe the detector signal at post TTL OUT on oscilloscope.
7. To measure the digital bandwidth of the photo transistor vary the input signal frequency
and observe the detected signal at various frequencies.
8. Determine the frequency at which the detector stops recovering the signal. This determine
the maximum the bit rate on the digital link.
RESULT: Thus the 650nm fiber optic analog and digital link was studied.
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NUMERICAL APERTURE


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MEASUREMENT OF NUMERICAL APERTURE
AIM:
To measure the numerical aperture in optical fiber.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Fiber optic trainer kit
2. Patch chords
3. Optical Fiber
4. Screen
THEORY:
Numerical aperture refers to the maximum light collecting capacity of the fiber at which the
light incident on the fiber end is totally internally reflected and is transmitted properly along the
fiber. The cone formed by the reflection of the angle along the axis of the fiber is the cone of
acceptance else it is refracted out of the fiber.
PROCEDURE:-
NUMERICAL APERTURE:

1. Connect the power supply board.
2. Connect the function generator of 1 KHz sine wave output to the input of emitter circuit.
3. Connect the one of fiber cable to the output sockets of emitter circuit.
4. Hold the white screen facing the fiber such that its cut face is perpendicular to the axis of true
fiber.
5. Hold the white screen with four concentric circles [10, 15, 20,25mm] vertically at a suitable
distance to make a red spot from the fiber coincide with 10mm circle.
6. Record the distance of the screen from the fibers end and note the diameter of spot.
7. Compute the numerical aperture using the formula N.A.= [r / (d
2
+ r
2
)

]




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TABULATION:
NUMERICAL APERTURE:

Distance
D(mm)
Radius
r = [BC + DE] / 4


N.A.= [r / (d
2
+ r
2
)

]










8. Vary the distance between the fiber and the screen and making coincide with the circle.
9. Note down the circle distance.
10. Tabulate the various distances and diameter of the circles made on the white screens and
compute numerical aperture.


RESULT:
Thus the Numerical aperture and bending loss in optical fiber has been measured
and tabulated.




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DIAGRAM:


TABULATION:
ANGLE (DEGREES) OUTPUT POWER(db)












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MODE CHARECTERISTICS OF SINGLE MODE FIBER
AIM:
To select the mode field characteristics of fiber.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Single mode fiber
2. LD deliver module
3. XYZ positioner
4. Rotation stage with mounting post setup
5. Power meter with pin note adapter
THEORY:
For single mode fiber the geometric distribution of light in the propagating mode is
important when predicting the performance characteristics of these fibers. Thus, a fundamental
parameter of a single mode fiber is the mode field diameter. This parameter can be determined
from the mode-field distribution is analogous to the care diameter in multimode fibers, except
that in single mode fibers. Distribution of an Gaussian field,
E(r)=E(0)exp(-r
2
/W
0
2
)
Where r is the radius, E
0
is the field at zero radius & W
0
is the width of the electric field
distribution.
PROCEDURE:
1. Force the beam from the LD unit in SM fiber.

2. Insert the SM mode to a connecter holder mounted in XYZ positions &connect the other
end to the fiber mounted in XYZ positions.

3. Adjust the distance between the screen& the fiber to get the required image size is viewed
on the screen.

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4. Keep the LD driver potentiometer at minimum position & turn ON position.

5. Increase the LD power supply to the maximum position by turning the potentiometer in
the clockwise.

6. Adjust the collimating lens of the LED unit to get the bright spot on the screen.

7. Focus the output light from the fiber to the white screen, then rotate the filter till get the
Clear output

8. Sample image which is shown in fig.


















RESULT:
Thus the mode characteristic of single mode fiber has been drawn.
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MEASUREMENT OF ATTENUATION, COUPLING AND BENDING LOSSES IN
OPTICAL FIBER

Aim:
The objective of this experiment is to measure the losses in an optical fiber communication link.
The experiment not only enables one to determine the propagation loss in the fiber, but also to
get a feel for bending and coupling losses.
Equipment Required:
1. OFT.
2. Two channel, 20MHZ Oscilloscope.
3. Function generator, 1HZ-10 MHZ.
4. Fiber alignment unit.
Theory:
PROCEDURE:
Attenuation at 850 nm:
1. Take the 1m fiber and setup and analog link using LED1 in the Optical Tx1 block and detector
PD1 in the Optical Rx1 block [850nm link]. Drive a 1V p-p 10 KHz sinusoidal signal with zero
d.c. Observe the signal on the oscilloscope. Use the BNC I/Os for feeding in and observing
signals. Adjust the GAIN such that the received signal is not saturated. Do not disturb the level
of the signal at the function generator or the gain setting throughout the rest of the experiment.
2. Note the peak value of the signal received and designated it as V1. Replace the 1m fiber by the
3m fiber between LED1 and PD1. Again note the peak value of the received signal and designate
it as V3. If is the attenuation in the fiber and I1 and I3 are the exact length of the 1m and 3m
fibers in meters respectively, we have

Where is in nepers/m, and P1 and P3 are the received optical power with 1m and 3m fiber
respectively. Compute in dB/m for 850nm wavelength using =4.343 where is in nepers/m.
Attenuation at 650nm:
3. Now setup the 650nm link using LED2, detector PD1 and the 1m fiber. Observe the signal on
the oscilloscope. Adjust the GAIN such that the received signal is not saturated. Note the peak
value of the 1m fiber with the 3m fiber between LED2 and PD1. Again without disturbing the
GAIN, note the peak value of the received signal and designate it as V3. Compute in dB/m for
a 650nm wavelength using the expressions given Step2.
Bending Loss:
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4. Set up the 850nm analog link using the 1m fiber. Drive 1Vp-p sinusoidal signal of 10 KHz
with zero d.c. and observe the received signal on the oscilloscope. Now bend the fiber in a loop
as shown in Figure.

Reduce the diameter of the loop slowly and observe the reduction of the received signal. Keep
reducing the diameter of the loop to about 2 cm and plot the amplitude of the received sign
versus the diameter of the loop. (Do not reduce the loop diameter to less than 1cm)
Coupling Loss:
5. Connect one end of the 1m fiber to LED2 and the other end to the detector. Drive the
LED with a 10 KHz TTL signal. Note the peak signal received and designated it as V1
[ensure that the GAIN is low to prevent saturation.] Now disconnect the fiber from the
detector. Take the 3m fiber and connect one end to the detector. The optical signal can be
seen emerging form the other end of the 1m fiber. Bring the free ends of the two fibers as
close as possible and align them as shown in Figure using the Fiber Alignment Unit.





Observe that the received signal varies as the free ends of the fibers are brought closer
and moved apart. Note the received signal level with the best possible alignment and
designate it as V4. Using the attenuation constant value obtained in Step3, Compute the
coupling loss associated with the above coupling of the two fibers using
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Where is the attenuation constant in dB/m at 650nm and is the coupling loss in dB. Now
move the two fibers a bit apart in the Fiber Alignment Unit and note the decrease in the output
voltage. Measure the coupling loss also.
6. With the two ends of the fiber are aligned as close as possible, place a drop of
glycerine/isopropylene through the hole provided in the Fiber Alignment unit so as to cover the
fiber ends. Note that the received signal now increases. Compute the coupling loss in the
presence of a index matching fluid like glycerin.
8. Now try aligning the two fibers without using the Fiber Alignment unit. Estimate the losses as
the two fibers are offset laterally and also when the two fibers are at an angle as shown Figure.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
BENDING LOSS


BENDING LOSS:
Number in turns Output voltage(v)














RESULT:
Thus various losses in an optical fiber communication link are measured.

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