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1.

n 1 ; 2 n 1

x[n] 2 n 1 ; 1 n 4
0
; elsewhere

i)

## Sketch and calculate Energy of x(n)

5
4
3
2

x(n)

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-3

Energy, Ex

-2

x ( n)

-1

x ( n)

0
n

(1) 2 0 2 12 2 2 2 2 4 2

n 2

1 0 1 4 4 16
26 J

x(n) 1 0 1 2 2 4

## y (n) x(2 n) a (n) 4 2 2 1 0 1

5
4
3
2

y(n)=x(2-n)

ii)

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-2

-1

Energy, Ey

y ( n)

y ( n)

4 2 2 2 2 2 12 0 2 (1) 2

n 1

16 4 4 1 0 1
26 J

## Sketch and calculate Energy of z[ n] x[ n] [ n 2]

iii)

x(n) (n 2) 1 0 1 2 2 41 0 0 0 0 0

z ( n ) 1 0 0 0 0 0

2
1.5
1

z(n)

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-3

-2

-1

Energy, Ez

z ( n)

z ( n)

(1) 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2

n 2

1 0 0 0 0 0
1J

2.

x(n) {4, 2, 5, 3, 2, 6}

h(n) {5, 4, 2, 8}

a)

y ( n) x ( n) h( n)

## Using sum by column:

x(n)
h(n)

4
5
20

y(n)

20

b)

2
4
10
16

26

-5
-2
-25
8
-8

3
8
15
-20
-4
32
23

-25

h(n) tri (n / 3) 13

2
3

y ( n) x ( n) h( n)
Using sum by column:

2
3

1
3

-6

10
12
10
16
48

-30
8
-6
-40
-68

-24
-4
24
-4

12
16
28

-48
-48

x(n)
h(n)

4.00
0.33
1.33

y(n)

1.33

2.00
0.67
0.67
2.67

-5.00
1.00
-1.67
1.33
4.00

3.33

3.67

X ( z)

3.

a)

3.00
0.67
1.00
-3.33
2.00
2.67

2.00
0.33
0.67
2.00
-5.00
1.33
1.33
0.33

2.33

-6.00
-2.00
1.33
3.00
-3.33
0.67
-0.33

-4.00
2.00
2.00
-1.67
-1.67

z2
( z 1)( z 2 z 0.5)

X ( z)
z

2
z
( z 1)( z z 0.5)
X ( z)
A
B
B

z
( z 1) ( z 0.5 j 0.5) ( z 0.5 j 0.5)

z
( z z 0.5)
2

z 1

1
A
2
(1) (1) 0.5
A 2

z
( z 1)( z 0.5 j 0.5)

z 0.5 j 0.5

0.5 j 0.5
(0.5 j 0.5 1)(0.5 j 0.5 0.5 j 0.5)

0.5 j 0.5
(0.5 j 0.5)( j )

B 1

-6.00
1.33
1.00
-3.67

-4.00
0.67
-3.33

-2
-2.00

X ( z)
2
1
1

z
( z 1) ( z 0.5 j 0.5) ( z 0.5 j 0.5)
X ( z)

2z
z
z

## ( z 1) ( z 0.5 j 0.5) ( z 0.5 j 0.5)

n
n
x(n) 2(1) n u (n) 2 0.5 cos
u (n)
4

b)

1
y[n]
2

n 1

u[n 1]
n

1 1
y (n) u (n 1)
2 2
n

1
2 u (n 1)
2
Y ( z)

2z 2
z 12

x ( n) u ( n)
X ( z)

z
z 1

2z 2
Y ( z ) z 12 2 z ( z 1) 2 z 2
2z
H ( z)

1
1
z
X ( z)
z2
z 2 z 12
z 1
n

1
1
h(n) 2 u (n 1) 2 u (n) 4 0
2
2

n
2(1/2)^n
u(n+1)
sig1

-1
4
1
4

0
2
1
2

1
1
1
1

2
0.5
1
0.5

3
0.25
1
0.25

4
0.125
1
0.125

5
0.0625
1
0.0625

6
0.03125
1
0.03125

7
0.015625
1
0.015625

8
0.007813
1
0.007813

u(n)
sig2

0
0

1
2

1
1

1
0.5

1
0.25

1
0.125

1
0.0625

1
0.03125

1
0.015625

1
0.007813

sig

4.

## x (t ) 2 cos( 2t ) 3 sin( 20t ) 5 sin(30t )

S = 100;
t s 1 / 100 0.01
N = 10
n = [0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]
x(n) 2 cos(2nt s ) 3 sin( 20nt s ) 5 sin(30nt s )
x ( n) 2 cos( 2n(0.01)) 3 sin( 20n(0.01)) 5 sin(30n(0.01))

## x(n) 2 cos(0.02n) 3 sin(0.2n) 5 sin(0.3n)

x(0) 2 cos(0) 3 sin(0) 5 sin(0) 2
x(1) 2 cos(0.02 ) 3 sin(0.2 ) 5 sin(0.3 ) 0.2857

x(n) 2 0.2857 0.0821 3.2727 6.6394 6.9021 3.0351 2.5886 5.8558 4.1198

MEE 10603

Q1.

i)
ii)

(2)

y e (n) x(1.5 n)
x( 32 n)

(1)

x( 322 n )

(2)

## 0.5,2.5,4.5, 0.5,1.5,5.5,2.5,1 1,2.5,5.5,1.5, 0.5,4.5,2.5,0.5

1,2,3,6, 1,6,3,2,1

iii)

(2)

n
d(n+2)
u(n)
-u(n-3)
+
x(n)
z(n)

-3
0
0
0
0
2
0

-2
1
0
0
1
-5
-5

-1
0
0
0
0
11
0

0
0
1
0
1
-3
-3

1
0
1
0
1
1
1

2
0
1
0
1
-9
-9

3
0
1
-1
0
-5
0

4
0
1
-1
0
1
0

5
0
1
-1
0
0
0

6
0
1
-1
0
0
0

(4)

## z (n) 5,0 3,1,9

Q2.

x(n) r (n 3) r (n 2) u (n 1) (n) 2u (n 1)

i)

n
r(n+3)
-r(n+2)
u(n+1)
d(n)
-2u(n-1)
x(n)

(1)

-5
0
0
0
0
0
0

-4
0
0
0
0
0
0

-3
0
0
0
0
0
0

-2
1
0
0
0
0
1

-1
2
-1
1
0
0
2

0
3
-2
1
1
0
3

1
4
-3
1
0
-2
0

2
5
-4
1
0
-2
0

3
6
-5
1
0
-2
0

4
7
-6
1
0
-2
0

5
8
-7
1
0
-2
0

6
9
-8
1
0
-2
0

3
4
-3
-1
0
0

4
5
-4
-1
0
0

5
6
-5
-1
0
0

6
7
-6
-1
0
0

(4)

x(n) 1,2, 3

h1 (n) r (n 1) r (n) u (n 1) (n 2)

ii)

n
r(n+1)
-r(n)
-u(n-1)
d(n-2)
h1(n)

-5
0
0
0
0
0

-4
0
0
0
0
0

-3
0
0
0
0
0

-2
0
0
0
0
0

-1
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
1

1
2
-1
-1
0
0

h1 (n) 1,0,1

iii)

h2 (n) u (n 3) u (n 2) 2 (n 1)

2
3
-2
-1
1
1

(4)

n
u(n+3)
-u(n+2)
-2d(n-1)
h2(n)

-5
0
0
0
0

-4
0
0
0
0

-3
1
0
0
1

-2
1
-1
0
0

-1
1
-1
0
0

0
1
-1
0
0

1
1
-1
-2
-2

2
1
-1
0
0

3
1
-1
0
0

4
1
-1
0
0

5
1
-1
0
0

6
1
-1
0
0

(4)

x(n)
h1(n)

1
1
1

2
0
2
0

x(n)*h1(n)

x(n)
h1(n)

1
1
1

2
0
2
0

x(n)*h2(n)

3
1
3
0
1
4

3
0
3
0
0

0
2
2

3
3

-2

0
0
0
0

0
0
-2
-2

(2)

0
-4
-4

-6
-6

(2)

## 1,2, 4,2,3 1,2,3,0,2, 4,6

1,2,3,1,4, 8,8,3

Q3

a)

(2)

1
z 2 z 2 3z
1

z ( z 1)( z 3)
A
B
C

z ( z 1) ( z 3)

X ( z)

1
( z 1)( z 3)

1
z ( z 3)

1
z ( z 1)

z 0

z 1

z 3

1
1

(1)(3)
3

1
1

(1)(4) 4

1
1

(3)(4) 12

(1)

(2)

(2)

(2)

11 1 1 1 1
X ( z)

3 z 4 z 1 12 z 3
1
1
1
x(n) (n 1) (1) n 1 u (n 1) (3) n 1 u (n 1)
3
4
12

b)

(3)

## y (n) 2 x(n 1) x(n) 3 x(n 2)

x ( n) u ( n)

Y ( z ) 2 zX ( z ) X ( z )

3
X ( z)
z2

2 z 1 2 X ( z )
z

H ( z)

Y ( z)
3
2z 1 2
X ( z)
z

(2)

(2)

X ( z)

z
z 1

(1)

3
z
Y ( z) H ( z) X ( z)
2 z 1 2
z
z 1
3
2
2z z 3

z 1
3
2z
z2
3

z 1 z 1 z 1

(2)

y (n) 2u (n 2) u (n 1) 3u (n 1)

(2)

Q4a)
The Fourier transform of a rectangular pulse Fig. 3.9.a of duration T seconds is obtained as

R( f ) r (t ) e j2ft dt

j2fT / 2

e
j2f

T /2

1.e

T / 2
j2fT / 2

j2ft

dt

sin(fT )
T sinc( fT )
fT

## where sinc(x)= sin(x)/x.

b) Fig. shows the spectrum of the rectangular pulse. Note that in the frequency domain most
of the pulse energy is concentrated in the main lobe within a bandwidth of 2/Pulse.Duration
i.e. BW=2/T. However, there is pulse energy in the side lobes that may interfere with other
electronic devices operating at the side lobe frequencies.
The rectangular pulse is a particularly important signal in digital signal analysis and digital
communication. A rectangular pulse is inherent whenever a signal is segmented and processed
frame by frame, each frame is the result of multiplication of the signal and a rectangular
window. Furthermore, the spectrum of a rectangular pulse can be used to calculate the
bandwidth required by pulse radar systems or by digital communication systems that transmit
pulses.
b)
More than two samples is required per cycle of a sinewave and hence for a signal with a
bandwidth of B Hz the sampling rate need to be greater than 2B.
c)
Bit rate rb = 44100162=1411200 bps
Bandwidth =2 rb = 2822400 Hz