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Northwest Evaluation Association



Idaho State Aligned
Learning Continuum
Release 1.0
Northwest Evaluation Association
Learning Continuum

Table of Contents

Section 1 Introduction
Section 2 Goal Translation to Norms Chart

Mathematics
Section 3 Number Sense
Section 4 Estimation and Accurate Computation
Section 5 Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving
Section 6 Concepts and Principles of Measurement
Section 7 Concepts and Language of Algebra, Functions, and
Mathematical Models
Section 8 Concepts and Principles of Geometry
Section 9 Data Analysis, Probability, Statistics

Reading
Section 10 Word Analysis
Section 11 Vocabulary
Section 12 Literal Comprehension
Section 13 Interpretive Comprehension
Section 14 Evaluative Comprehension
Section 15 Literary Analysis

Language Usage
Section 16 Writing Composition and the Writing Process
Section 17 Writing Composition and Structure
Section 18 Correctness and Clarity: Grammar and Usage
Section 19 Correctness and Clarity: Conventions-Punctuation
Section 20 Correctness and Clarity: Conventions-Capitalization
Section 21 Correctness and Clarity: Conventions-Spelling
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Northwest Evaluation Association
Introduction to the Learning Continuum


Purpose of the Learning Continuum
The Learning Continuum began as a cooperative partnership with one of NWEAs member
districts, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Its development is an example of how a spark of an idea can
become a tool that benefits teachers across the country.

For years, teachers using NWEAs Achievement Level Tests or Measures of Academic Progress
have been getting valid and useful data on their students. But, they have also continually asked
us the same question, How do I actually put this information to use in my classroom? In
response to this need, and driven by our commitment to improve the learning experience for all
children, we developed the NWEA Learning Continuum, which is but one answer to this
question.

The purpose of this document is to help guide instruction based on reports from an Achievement
Level Test or computerized Measure of Academic Progress. The Learning Continuum enhances
a teachers ability to provide targeted instruction for individual students or groups of students. It
is not intended to be a replacement for district curriculum or standards that are already in place.

Development and Organization of the
Learning Continuum
We developed the continuum by looking at curriculum from an analytical point of view. NWEA
researched each and every test item in our item banks (over 15,000 items) in mathematics,
reading, and language usage. We used only the items that had successfully passed field testing
and were available for use on tests. As we reviewed each item, we looked at the difficulty of the
items, the skills and concepts being assessed, and any new vocabulary or symbols that were
introduced. By doing this, a learning continuum of these skills and concepts began to unfold.
Thus, this document was born.

The Learning Continuum contains separate sections for each subject (mathematics, reading, and
language usage). Within each subject are the main goal strands commonly found in standards
and curriculum documents. The goal strands are then broken down into ten-point RIT bands.
Within each band, sub-categories, which further divide the content within the goal area, break
down the skills and concepts found in the NWEA item banks. Skills that cross several RIT bands
appear at the earliest RIT band where they are prominently seen, and these skills are not repeated
in the following RIT bands. Therefore, it is important to not only focus on the RIT band where
the student is functioning, but to watch for any holes that may have appeared earlier in the
continuum.

Only skills and concepts showing up in the NWEA item banks are listed in this document. We
realize that many districts have additional topic areas that will not show up here. We encourage
them to use the Learning Continuum as a tool to supplement the documents already in use by a
district.
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Primary Use of the Learning Continuum
Given a students (RIT) achievement score (e.g. a mathematics RIT score of 187), teachers
identify the portion of the Learning Continuum (e.g. mathematics RIT scores between 181-190)
that represents the childs instructional level. The skills and concepts listed at RIT ranges below
that should be ones the student knows and has mastered.

A teacher uses the students overall RIT score as the starting place, then finds the appropriate
RIT band within each goal area. As the teacher works on specific goals, he/she can use the
Learning Continuum as a guide to watch for differences in students achievement levels.

These RIT bands can be helpful in preparing for flexible small group instruction within a
classroom. By putting students together who have similar instructional needs, a teacher can
better meet the needs of all students. Our goal is to create maximum growth for all students,
whether they are in the lowest quartile or the highest quartile. As students master the skills and
concepts within a RIT band, they can be shifted to another flexible group.

Educators should be aware of the achievement differences of students. For too long, school
districts have used a students age (grade level) as the primary criterion for selecting instructional
materials and lessons. We believe that a students current achievement level should be the
dominant consideration when grouping for instruction, selecting materials, and providing
instruction. The Learning Continuum will help teachers know when it is time to move a student,
or students, beyond the conventional curriculum at a particular grade level and when it is time to
develop skills that may have been presented in earlier grades.

In creating the Learning Continuum, we have attempted to create one continuous document
representing skills and concepts as they progress in difficulty. Their order is not based on any
one districts curriculum. One important note about the mathematics portion of the Learning
Continuum is that all skills and concepts are listed together in one document, regardless of the
typical grade level we see them introduced. Therefore, elementary, middle school, and upper
courses such as algebra and geometry content are included together. There is a natural
progression that can be followed from one RIT band to the next. We challenge you to think
outside the box in using this document.

If a students RIT score is borderline between two RIT bands, use the lower one first. Based on a
students performance, teachers can do further assessments to determine where the student is and
should be.

Other Uses of the Learning Continuum
The Learning Continuum will have many uses, and we urge districts in the NWEA community to
explore these uses and report back to us on their experiences. Some possible uses of the
continuum are:

Materials Selection As teachers begin to explore the diversity of students performance
levels within a class, it will become necessary to get better at sharing materials. The
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Learning Continuum can guide teachers in finding more appropriate materials for
students at the extreme ends of the spectrum.
Sharing Resources Following on the heels of materials selection is the ability to know
who to go to for getting appropriate materials for students. We encourage districts to
develop better ways to share resources, not only within a building but also across
buildings.
Gifted and Talented, Title I, and ESL Programs We hope the Learning Continuum will
serve as a guide to constantly push the envelope with all students in order to help them
grow as much as possible.
Curriculum Planning The continuum may become an invaluable resource during
curriculum development or program revision.
School Improvement Planning Knowledge of student achievement relative to the
Learning Continuum will likely raise questions about how we group for instruction, how
we use instructional time, how we structure our schools, how we organize our staff, and
how we design our facilities.
Monitoring Student Progress The Learning Continuum can be used as a guide to keep
track of where students are on the continuum. Checklists can be made from the document
to assist with this tracking.
Individual Education Plans We should always focus on the targeted growth we, as
educators, want a student to make. The Learning Continuum can help us identify specific
skills that will ensure students growth.
Parent Conferencing The continuum may help parents think of activities that will
engage their child in additional learning. It may also help parents better understand their
childs academic status and progress.

Future of the Learning Continuum
The Learning Continuum began as a collaborative effort among NWEA members and will now
evolve as a result of the efforts and contributions of all who use it. This first edition is only the
beginning of what promises to be a substantial contribution to the future of education. As always,
NWEA client members will be called upon to share their ideas, insights, and the products of their
work so that all NWEA members can benefit from an improved product and expanded services
related to the Learning Continuum.

We have enclosed a fax-back form to gather your initial reactions to the Learning Continuum.
We are eager to hear from you and urge you to share with us so that all educational agencies
within the NWEA community, and the children they serve, may benefit from your experiences.
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Northwest Evaluation Association
Goal Score Translation Chart

This chart is useful in translating the Hi, Av, and Lo goal scores from the NWEA class report. It is built
from the 2002 Achievement Level Test norms with the traditional breakdown of Lo equal to percentile
scores < 33, the Hi equal to percentile scores > 66, and Av equal to percentile scores between 33 and 66.

To use, find the students grade on the chart below and then find the descriptor for the goal that you are
referencing. Use the students overall RIT score as another guide. Refer to the Learning Continuum for
detailed skills and concepts that should be further assessed and instructed. There is a chart for each
subject. Seasons are broken down within the charts.

Mathematics
Fall Winter Spring
Grade
Level
Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi
2 < 173 173 182 > 182 < 178 178 188 > 188 < 183 183 193 > 193
3 < 185 185 196 > 196 < 190 190 200 > 200 < 195 195 205 > 205
4 < 196 196 206 > 206 < 200 200 210 > 210 < 203 203 214 > 214
5 < 204 204 215 > 215 < 207 207 219 > 219 < 210 210 223 > 223
6 < 209 209 222 > 222 < 212 212 225 > 225 < 215 215 229 > 229
7 < 214 214 228 > 228 < 217 217 232 > 232 < 220 220 236 > 236
8 < 220 220 235 > 235 < 223 223 239 > 239 < 226 226 243 > 243
9 < 223 223 238 > 238 < 230 230 244 > 244 < 236 236 250 > 250
10 < 226 226 241 > 241 < 236 236 248 > 248 < 245 245 255 > 255

Reading
Fall Winter Spring
Grade
Level
Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi
2 < 170 170 186 > 186 < 176 176 191 > 191 < 181 181 195 > 195
3 < 183 183 197 > 197 < 188 188 201 > 201 < 192 192 205 > 205
4 < 194 194 206 > 206 < 197 197 209 > 209 < 200 200 212 > 212
5 < 201 201 213 > 213 < 203 203 215 > 215 < 206 206 218 > 218
6 < 206 206 218 > 218 < 208 208 220 > 220 < 211 211 222 > 222
7 < 210 210 222 > 222 < 212 212 224 > 224 < 214 214 226 > 226
8 < 214 214 226 > 226 < 216 216 228 > 228 < 219 219 230 > 230
9 < 217 217 228 > 228 < 218 218 230 > 230 < 220 220 231 > 231
10 < 219 219 231 > 231 < 220 220 231 > 231 < 220 220 232 > 232

Language Usage
Fall Winter Spring
Grade
Level
Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi
2 < 172 172 187 > 187 < 177 177 192 > 192 < 183 183 196 > 196
3 < 187 187 199 > 199 < 191 191 203 > 203 < 194 194 206 > 206
4 < 197 197 208 > 208 < 199 199 210 > 210 < 202 202 213 > 213
5 < 204 204 214 > 214 < 205 205 216 > 216 < 207 207 218 > 218
6 < 208 208 219 > 219 < 210 210 221 > 221 < 211 211 222 > 222
7 < 211 211 222 > 222 < 213 213 224 > 224 < 214 214 225 > 225
8 < 215 215 225 > 225 < 216 216 226 > 226 < 217 217 227 > 227
9 < 217 217 226 > 226 < 217 217 228 > 228 < 218 218 229 > 229
10 < 218 218 228 > 228 < 219 219 229 > 229 < 219 219 229 > 229

Number Sense includes ratios, proportions, fraction-decimal relationships,
exponents, number theory, place value, and the relationship between numbers.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160
Whole Numbers
Match sets of objects to numerals 0-40 to demonstrate an understanding of one-to-one
correspondence
Identify and count numbers 0-20
Identify and order ordinal numbers (first to tenth)
Fractions
Identify equal parts of a region (halves, thirds, fourths)
Represent fractions by using models and drawings
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Compare and order numbers and sets of objects 0-10

RIT scores between 161 and 170
Whole Numbers
Identify missing numbers in a series through 100
Identify the number that is one more than, one less than, 10 more than, and 10 less
than a given number
Count objects that are grouped into tens and ones
Fractions
Identify one-half of an object from a picture
Place Value
Identify and understand the place value and value of each digit in numbers through the
hundreds
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Order numbers 0-100
Money
Identify value of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter

RIT scores between 171 and 180
Whole Numbers
Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set
is equal to, more than, or less than the other
Count and write by 10s to 100
Distinguish between odd and even numbers
Count by 2s to 20
Round 2- and 3-digit numbers to the nearest hundred and tens
Fractions
Identify one-half of an object or set
Identify fractional parts of a region or group
Number Sense NWEA, 2003

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Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Write numerals in expanded form through the thousands place
Money
Identify value of a one dollar bill
Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $1.00

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Whole Numbers
Identify one more and one fewer
Count and write by 2s and 3s
Round 2- and 3-digit numbers to the nearest hundred and tens
Identify the value of Roman Numerals using I, V, and X
Factorization/Divisibility
Apply rules of divisibility by 5
Identify the greatest common factor of two whole numbers each of which is less than 100
List some common multiples of two whole numbers
Fractions
Separate regions into sub regions that are equivalent (halves, thirds, fourths)
Read, shade, and write fractional parts of a group
Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)
Decimals
Identify the greater or lesser of two decimals
Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Match number words to numerals to the ten thousands place
Identify and understand the place value and value of each digit in numbers through the
hundred thousands
Add whole numbers using place value
Identify and understand place value for decimals (tenths, hundredths, and thousandths)
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Order sets of objects 0-20
Identify the greater or lesser of two numerals
Order numerals through 999
Identify the numeral that comes before, between, or after any given numeral through 999
Compare and order fractions
Compare and order decimals to the hundredths place
Money
Identify the coins: pennies, nickels, and dimes
Identify the value of a penny, nickel, dime, quarter, and one dollar bill
Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $1.00
Combine and identify equivalent values of coins and bills up to and including $1.00
Make change to $1.00 by counting on or subtracting

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Whole Numbers
Order numerals through 9999
Number Sense NWEA, 2003

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Count and convert to dozens
Round 4- and 5-digit numbers to the nearest hundred thousand, thousand, hundred or ten
Factorization/Divisibility
Identify numbers as prime or composite
Apply rules of divisibility by 2s
Complete a factor tree for a number (prime factorization)
Understand and demonstrate that many whole numbers break down in different ways (e.g.,
12 = 4 x 3 = 2 x 6 = 2 x 2 x 3)
Identify the least common multiple of two whole numbers
Fractions, Ratio and Proportion
Write equivalent fractions using pictorial representation
Write improper fractions from picture presentations
Find equivalent fractions using multiples and factors
Write mixed numbers as improper fractions and improper fractions as mixed numbers
Identify the least (lowest) common denominator of two fractions
Express a fraction as a decimal and vice versa
Solve proportions using the cross product method
Decimals
Write a decimal for a shaded region (to tenths place)
Round decimals to the nearest whole number
Identify and understand place value for decimals (tenths, hundredths, and thousandths)
Money
Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $100.00
Percents
Model percents using a 10 x 10 grid
Write a decimal or fraction as a percent and vice versa
Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Identify the number and written word for ordinal numbers
Write numerals in expanded form through the hundred thousands
Match word names to numerals through billions
Identify place value using model to count
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Compare and order fractions and mixed numbers
Exponents
Exponential representation of 3 multiplied numbers (2x2x2)

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Whole Numbers
Round to the nearest millions and billions
Write the Roman numeral equivalent of Arabic numbers 1-2000 and vice versa
Factorization/Divisibility
Apply rules of divisibility
Identify the greatest common factor of two whole numbers each of which is less than 100
List the prime and composite numbers less than 50 in a word problem
Number Sense NWEA, 2003

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Fractions, Ratio and Proportion
Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)
Write the missing number in two equivalent ratios
Use a number line to identify a fractional point
Decimals
Write a decimal for a shaded region (hundredths)
Write a terminating decimal as a fraction or mixed number
Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, hundredth, or thousandth
Multiply a decimal by multiples of 10, 100, or 1000
Percents
Write a decimal or fraction as a percent or vice versa
Integers
Order integers on a number line
Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Understand and identify the place value and value of each digit in numerals through the
billions
Write the word name for a decimal and vice versa
Write numerals in expanded form through the hundred billions
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Order numbers from least to greatest and greatest to least
Compare and order numbers through the billions
Order decimals and fractions to the hundred thousandths
Identify the greater or lesser of 2 integers
Ordering integers that include fractions and wholes
Ordering exponential values
Exponents and Scientific Notation
Write whole number in exponential form and compute the power of a number

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Factorization/Divisibility
Understand and use rules of divisibility
Identify the greatest common factor of two whole numbers: list the factors or prime
factorization
Identify the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers
Fractions, Ratio and Proportion
Write improper fractions from picture presentations
Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)
Compare and order fractions and mixed numbers
Identify and order decimal and fractional coordinates on a number line
Decimals
Round monetary amounts to the nearest single coin or bill which could be used to pay for a
purchase up to and including $20.00
Write the decimal equivalent of a fraction and label as repeating or terminating
Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, or hundredth
Write a terminating decimal as a fraction or mixed number
Number Sense NWEA, 2003

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Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, hundredth, or thousandth
Identify and order decimal and fractional coordinates on a number line
Percents
Express a fraction as a decimal and as a percent
Integers
Identify the greater or lesser of 2 integers
Order integers on a number line
Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Understand and identify the place value and value of each digit in numerals through the
billions
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Compare and order fractions with the same denominator and with different denominators
Order decimals to thousandths; identify the greater or lesser of two decimals to thousandths
Exponents and Scientific Notation
Order of powers
Write a whole number or a decimal in scientific notation
Write a number expressed in scientific notation in standard form

RIT scores between 221 and 230
Fractions, Ratio and Proportion
Model and write numerical fractions
Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)
Understand the concept of ratio using concrete and pictorial models
Determine if a pair of ratios is equal or not equal using the equivalent fractions method
Write the missing number in 2 equivalent ratios
Solve proportions using the cross product method
Factorization/Divisibility
Identify the least common denominator for 3 or more fractions: list the multiples or prime
factorization
Decimals
Identify and order decimal and fractional coordinates on a number line
Relate fractions to decimals
Write a decimal or mixed decimal for a fraction (2/3=0.66)
Percents
Write a ratio (fraction) as a percent and a percent as a ratio (fraction): denominators of 100
Integers
Understand the meaning of integers
Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Match word names to numerals to the hundred thousands in decimals
Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities
Order a set of integers from least to greatest
Place numbers in correct order on a number line
Exponents and Scientific Notation
Identify and use powers of 10
Number Sense NWEA, 2003

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Number Sense NWEA, 2003

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Square Roots
Evaluate expressions using square roots
Absolute Value
Definition and application of absolute value

RIT scores between 231 and 240
Fractions, Ratio and Proportion
Define ratio
Write ratios in a variety of ways
Decimals
Write a decimal or mixed decimal for a fraction
Write a whole number or a decimal in scientific notation (negative exponents)
Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation
Write numerals in expanded form through the billions
Understand and identify place value and value of each digit in numerals through the hundred
billions
Square Roots
Identify perfect squares in a list of numbers and calculate the positive square root of a
perfect square

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Integers
Understand the meaning of integers
Square Roots
Evaluate expressions using square roots

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Exponents and Scientific Notation
Evaluate powers with a negative exponent

RIT scores between 261 and 270
Percents
Change a percent to a fraction (including mixed numbers)
Square Roots
Understand properties of square roots
Irrational Numbers
Define irrational numbers

RIT scores between 271 and 280
Exponents and Scientific Notation
Evaluate power of zero
Factorization/Divisibility
Identify the lowest common multiple of numbers in their prime factored state
Set Notation
Use inequalities to represent set notation

Estimation and Accurate Computations includes estimation, addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division of whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
percents, and positive and negative numbers, use of exponents, roots,
logarithms and matrices.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores lower than 150
Whole Numbers
Identify fact families with sums 0-18 in horizontal format
Understand the concept of subtraction using symbols; subtract two numbers in vertical
format

RIT scores between 151 and 160
Whole Numbers
Combine sets through manipulative and pictorial addition problems
Add three 1-digit numbers
Add 2-and 3-digit numbers with no regrouping
Subtract a 1-digit number from a 2-digit number with regrouping
Understand the concept of multiplication using symbols; recall multiplication facts with
one factor as 1,2,3,4,5 and other factor 0-9

RIT scores between 161 and 170
Whole Numbers
Separate sets through manipulative and pictorial subtraction problems
Add a 2-digit number and a 2-digit number with no regrouping
Subtract a 1-digit number from a 2-digit number with no regrouping
Subtract a 2-digit number from a 2-digit number with no regrouping
Subtract 2-and 3-digit numbers with no regrouping
Decimals
Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

RIT scores between 171 and 180
Whole Numbers
Add 1- and 2-digit numbers with regrouping
Add two 2-digit and 3-digit numbers with regrouping
Subtract two 2-digit numbers with regrouping
Understand the concept of multiplication using concrete objects
Add 2-, 3- and 4-digit numbers with regrouping
Multiply a 2- or 3-digit number by a 1-digit number with no regrouping
Multiply a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number with regrouping
Divide a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number with remainder
Multiply a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number
Fractions
Estimation and Accurate Computations 1 NWEA, 2003
Add fractions with like denominators
Decimals
Add whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

RIT scores between 181 and 190
Whole Numbers
Subtract a 2-digit number from a 3-digit number with a single regrouping
Identify the division facts related to a multiplication fact with one factor as 1,2,3,4,5 and
the other factor 0-9
Understand the concept of division using concrete objects
Subtract a 3- or 4-digit number from a 4-digit number with regrouping
Use strategies to develop computational fluency with multiplication: zero property,
property of one, arrays, doubles, nine patterns
Multiply a 3-digit by a 1-digit number with regrouping (including zero)
Multiply three 2-digit numbers (one is 10)
Identify the division facts related to a multiplication fact
Divide a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number with no remainder (basic facts to 9)
Solve one-step word problems involving division
Add 2 or several multi-digit numbers with regrouping
Subtract multi-digit numbers with regrouping
Divide a 3-digit or 4-digit number by a 1-digit number
Divide a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with no remainder
Add multi-digit numbers without using a calculator
Multiply multi-digit numbers
Fractions
Subtract mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping
Decimals
Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)
Add decimals to hundredths place using both horizontal and vertical format (not the same
number of digits)
Subtract decimals to hundredths place (not the same number of digits)
Multiply a decimal by a whole number
Divide a decimal by a whole number and vice versa
Compute simple addition or subtraction problems involving monetary amounts up to
$10.00
Compute and count change up to and including $5.00 (addition and subtraction only)

RIT scores between 191 and 200
Whole Numbers
Solve one-step word problems involving multiplication
Subtract multi-digit numbers with regrouping
Multiply a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with no regrouping
Multiply a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with regrouping
Subtract multi-digit numbers without using a calculator
Estimation and Accurate Computations 2 NWEA, 2003
Multiply a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number with regrouping
Multiply a 3-digit number or 4-digit number by a 2-digit number or 3-digit number with
zeros
Add whole numbers using place value
Fractions
Express 1 in many different ways (1/1, 2/2, 4/4)
Subtract fractions with like denominators
Add fractions having unlike denominators, answer in lowest terms
Decimals
Add whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (not the same number of digits)
Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (not the same number of
digits)
Compute basic operations with monetary amounts up to and including $20.00
Add decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without regrouping
Subtract decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without
regrouping
Multiply a decimal by a decimal, vertical form (tenths or hundredths)
Compute simple addition or subtraction problems involving monetary amounts up to
$10.00
Compute half price greater than $20.00
Percents
Find a percent of a number (6% of 30)
Exponents
Identify the base and the exponent of a given numerical expression and calculate its value
Order of Operations
Evaluate numerical expressions using the order of operations

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Whole Numbers
Understand the concept of division using pictorial representation
Use front-end estimation strategy for multiplication and division
Divide a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with a remainder
Subtract multi-digit numbers without using a calculator
Multiply by multiples of 10 and 100 with an emphasis on mental math
Divide a 3-digit number by a multiple of 10
Divide a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number (no zeros)
Fractions
Add mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping
Subtract mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping
Subtract mixed numbers with unlike denominators with regrouping
Multiply a fraction by a fraction; answer in lowest terms
Multiply mixed numbers
Decimals
Add decimals to hundredths place using both horizontal and vertical format
Subtract decimals to hundredths place
Estimation and Accurate Computations 3 NWEA, 2003
Compute and count change greater than $20.00
Subtract decimals through hundred-thousandths with a calculator
Compute and count change up to and including $10.00 (addition and subtraction only)
Solve written word problems involving the addition or subtraction of monetary amounts
Percent
Find a percent of a number

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Whole Numbers
Divide a 3-digit or 4-digit number by a 1-digit number
Use multiplication as a check for division
Multiply by multiples of 10 and 100 with an emphasis on mental math
Divide a 4-digit number by a 2-digit number
Fractions
Add fractions with like denominators, answer in lowest terms
Add mixed numbers with unlike denominators with regrouping
Multiply a whole number by a fraction
Divide a fraction by a fraction
Divide a mixed number by a whole number or a fraction
Decimals
Add decimals through hundred-thousandths with a calculator
Multiply a decimal by a decimal, factors to thousandths
Divide a decimal by a whole number and vice versa
Compute basic operations with monetary amounts up to and including $20.00
Integers
Add integers with like signs
Add integers with unlike signs
Add several integers
Multiply integers with unlike signs
Divide integers with unlike signs
Squares
Calculate the square of any number less than 100

RIT scores between 221 and 230
Whole Numbers
Develop computational fluency with division facts
Divide multi-digit numbers using a calculator
Introduce the math strategy of compatible numbers in estimating for all four operations
Fractions
Add and subtract fractions with like denominators; change improper fractions to mixed
numbers
Subtract fractions having unlike denominators, answer in lowest terms
Add and subtract whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers
Use estimation to solve problems involving mixed numbers
Estimation and Accurate Computations 4 NWEA, 2003
Divide a whole number, fraction or mixed number by a mixed number
Decimals
Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)
Write a number sentence to solve one-step word problems involving the operations of
addition, subtraction, and multiplication of fractions and decimals
Subtract decimals through hundred-thousandths with a calculator
Multiply a decimal by multiples of 10, 100, or 1000
Divide a whole number (or decimal) by a decimal to thousandths
Integers
Divide integers, like signs
Percent
Find the percent one number is of another (20 is what % of 90)
Find a number from a percent (4 is 9% of what number)

RIT scores between 231 and 240
Whole Numbers
Divide a 2-digit number or a 3-digit number by a 1-digit number with remainder
Divide multi-digit numbers using a calculator
Fractions
Add fractions having unlike denominators with answer reduced to lowest terms
Subtract fractions having unlike denominators with answer reduced to lowest terms
Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping
Add and subtract mixed numbers with unlike denominators with regrouping
Add and subtract whole numbers, fractions, and mixed numbers
Multiply a fraction by a fraction; answer in lowest terms
Multiply mixed numbers
Divide a fraction by a fraction
Divide a mixed number by a whole number or a fraction
Multiply three factors using fractions, mixed numbers, and whole numbers in any
combination, answer in lowest terms
Divide a whole number, fraction, or mixed number by a mixed number
Decimals
Add whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)
Subtract decimals to the hundredths place (not the same number of digits)
Subtract decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without
regrouping
Subtract a decimal from a whole number
Multiply a decimal by a decimal, factors to thousandths place
Divide a decimal by a whole number and vice versa
Divide a whole number (or decimal) by a decimal to thousandths place
Compute and count change greater than $20.00
Integers
Add integers with unlike signs
Add several integers
Estimation and Accurate Computations 5 NWEA, 2003
Estimation and Accurate Computations 6 NWEA, 2003
Multiply integers with like signs
Divide integers with like signs
Percents
Find the percent one number is of another (8 is what % of 20?)
Find a number from a percent (20 is 45% of what number?)
Exponents and Scientific Notation
Evaluate expressions using the order of operations that include exponents
Find products by applying rules for exponents

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Fractions
Multiply a whole number by a fraction
Integers
Subtract integers, subtracting a negative
Exponents
Understand and use the rules of exponents, including negative exponents
Roots
Simplify an expression containing imaginary roots

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Integers
Use the additive inverse property to solve problems
Use order of operations rules
Logarithms
Solve logarithmic functions
Properties
Identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational,
and real numbers
Matrices
Multiplication of matrices

RIT scores between 261 and 270
Fractions
Add and subtract rational numbers with unlike denominators (may involve integers)

RIT scores above 270
Fractions
Multiply a mixed number by a whole number, fraction, or mixed number



Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving includes a variety of
strategies such as guess and check, logical reasoning, using formulas,
and working backwards to solve simple and multi-step problems in all
mathematical areas.


Skills and Concepts


RIT scores between 151 and 160
Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (addition and
subtraction)

RIT scores between 161 and 170
Solve simple addition word problems
Understand the concept of addition using concrete objects
Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (any operation)

RIT scores between 171 and 180
Solve simple subtraction word problems
Use a problem solving process (as defined by text)

RIT scores between 181 and 190
Solve simple addition word problems
Write number sentences using addition
Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (addition and
subtraction)
Solve simple word problems using addition and subtraction
Solve one-step word problems involving addition or subtraction of four or fewer
digits
Solve one-step word problems involving division
Identify extra information or missing information that is necessary to solve word
problems
Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make
a model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, or Find a pattern

RIT scores between 191 and 200
Identify the correct information to solve addition and subtraction word problems
Solve one-step word problems involving multiplication and division, including
money
Estimate the answers to word problems
Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (all four operations)
Mathematical Reasoning and
Problem Solving 1 NWEA, 2003
Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make
a model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work
backwards, Solve a simpler problem, or Draw a diagram
Solve word problems involving any combination of basic operations on whole
numbers (one-step problems)
Write a number sentence to solve one-step word problems involving the
operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication of fractions and decimals
Use a number line to write number sentences using subtraction
Solve multi-step word problems involving any combination of basic operations
Solve one- and two-step word problems involving any combination of basic
operations on whole numbers, decimals, and fractions

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Translate verbal statements into equations (all four operations; several operations)
Estimate the answers to word problems
Solve written word problems involving the addition or subtraction of monetary
amounts
Solve word problems involving customary and metric measurement
Solve word problems involving distance, rate and time
Use logic to solve problems
Solve word problems using proportional reasoning
Solve geometry problems by making a drawing or diagram
Choose and use an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make a
model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work backwards,
Solve a simpler problem, Draw a diagram, Write an equation, or Logical
Deduction

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Solve practical word problems involving perimeter and area of a square, rectangle
or triangle
Solve practical problems involving the mean (average) of a set of numbers
Solve one- and two-step word problems involving any combination of basic
operations on whole numbers, decimals, and fractions
Determine the discount price and sale price
Choose and use an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make a
model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work backwards,
Solve a simpler problem, Draw a diagram, or Write an equation
Calculate the cost of one item or the unit cost using a proportion

RIT scores between 221 and 230
Choose and use an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make a
model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work backwards,
Solve a simpler problem, Draw a diagram, or Write an equation
Write and solve an equation using ratios, given a word problem
Write and solve an equation for a word problem
Mathematical Reasoning and
Problem Solving 2 NWEA, 2003
Mathematical Reasoning and
Problem Solving 3 NWEA, 2003
Solve simple interest problems (amount x rate x time)
Use estimation to determine if solutions to word problems are reasonable

RIT scores between 231 and 240
Use logic to predict outcomes
Work backwards to solve problems
Solve multi-step problems involving computation
Find correct mathematical expressions to represent word problems
Find simple interest earned
Find commission and total pay
Find missing numbers in a diagram by using patterns
Use map scales to solve problems
Solve if-then logic problems
Solve complex word problems involving ratio, percent, discount, sale price,
rounding and estimation, averaging, length, volume, rate, calendars, probability,
money, and time
Given the answer to a problem, determine the question
Formulate expressions and equations to model problem solving situation

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Solve complex word problems involving rate, ratio, percent, averages, and sale
price
Solve problems involving regression equations
Manipulate problems with time and a half and overtime wages
Use of symmetry to determine grouping properties
Use a matrix to identify given figure on a graph
Write the converse of a geometric statement

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Solve problems involving ratio of a side of a figure to its area, perimeter, or
volume
Determine proportional parts of a number
Use proportional relationships to determine lengths of sides of a figure that are
represented by algebraic relationships
Solve complex word problems with surface area, area, circumscribed figures,
Pythagorean Theorem, consecutive integers
Use clues given in word problems to decode correct answer
Determine correct formula needed to solve problem

RIT scores between 261 and 270
Solve complex geometry, algebra, and probability problems
Solve problems involving successive discounts and rate of interest

RIT scores between 271 and 280
Solve problems involving successive discounts and rate of interest
Concepts and Principles of Measurement includes customary and
metric units of measure around time, money, size, temperature, and
weight, and the use of them in both calculating and estimating
measurements.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160
Length, Weight, Volume
Compare objects by shape, size, height or length (larger, smaller, taller, shorter,
longer)
Measure length with metric measures using a graphic of a ruler(centimeters)
Time, Temperature
Choose the appropriate tool: clock to measure time, calendar to measure days and
months, thermometer to measure temperature, ruler to measure length
Measure temperature with customary measures

RIT scores between 161 and 170
Time, Temperature
Order periods of time (days of the week, months of the year, etc.)
Tell and write time to the hour and half hour using analog and digital clocks
Identify and interpret a calendar
Read a Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometer to the nearest degree

RIT scores between 171 and 180
Length, Weight, Volume
Determine more capacity or less capacity
Measure length with customary measures (inch)
Measure weight with customary measure (pounds)
Measure capacity to the nearest cup, pint, quart, and gallon and do appropriate
conversions between these units
Estimate and measure the length of an object to the nearest metric and customary
measure using a picture of a ruler
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Find the perimeter of a figure using units
Estimate and verify the area of a figure using square units (counting)
Time, Temperature
Tell time to the quarter hour using analog and digital clocks
Tell time to the nearest 5 minutes using analog and digital clocks
Compute simple conversions among units of time: seconds, minutes, hours, days,
weeks, months, years
Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003
1

RIT scores between 181 and 190
Length, Weight, Volume
Measure weight with metric measures with units provided (grams)
Measure length to the nearest inch, foot, and yard and do appropriate conversions
between these units
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Develop area readiness by counting squares and blocks
Estimate and verify the area of a figure using square units (counting)
Find the perimeter of a polygon with 5 or less sides (no formula)
Time, Temperature
Tell time to the nearest one minute on analog and digital clocks
Compute word problems with time and calendars
Determine elapsed clock time (no remaining with addition and subtraction)
Determine elapsed clock time (any operation with renaming)

RIT scores between 191 and 200
Length, Weight, Volume
Measure length to the nearest millimeter, centimeter, meter, and kilometer
Select the appropriate metric and customary unit to measure an object or distance
Perform conversions between linear units in the customary system; also as
necessary in addition or subtraction problems
Perform conversions between units of capacity in the customary system; also as
necessary in addition or subtraction problems
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Estimate and verify the area of a figure using square units (counting)
Find the area of irregular shapes; using square units
Find the perimeter of polygons
Time, Temperature
Identify time relationships: minutes in an hour, hours in a day, days in a week,
weeks in a year
Ratio
Understand the concept of ratio using concrete and pictorial models

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Length, Weight, Volume
Find the volume of a figure using cubic units
Perform conversions between units of mass in the metric system; also as
necessary in addition or subtraction problems
Select appropriate unit of measure for length and area
Find the volume of rectangular solids using the formula
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Find the perimeter of a square or rectangle using the formula
Solve practical word problems involving perimeter and area of a square, rectangle
or triangle
Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003
2
Calculate the area of a triangle
Time, Temperature
Compute basic operations with units of time (include basic concept of time zones)

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Length, Weight, Volume
Measure length to the nearest millimeter, centimeter, meter, and kilometer
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Calculate the area of irregular shapes
Understand the effects of changing dimensions on perimeter and area
Time
Compute word problems with time and calendars

RIT scores between 221 and 230
Length, Weight, Volume
Measure length with metric measures (centimeter)
Measure length with customary measures (inch)
Select the appropriate unit of measure for length, area, and volume

RIT scores between 231 and 240
Length, Weight, Volume
Find the volume of a pyramid
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Find the perimeter of a square or rectangle using the formula
Find the perimeter of polygons
Calculate the area of a parallelogram and rectangle
Calculate the area of a triangle
Time, Temperature
Convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit
Subtract Fahrenheit temperatures

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Calculate the area of a parallelogram and rectangle using algebra tiles
Understand the effects of changing dimensions on perimeter, area, and volume
Compare volume of different dimensional containers
Units
Select appropriate unit of measure
Precision
Actual versus precise measurements

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Length, Weight, Volume
Find volume of cones and rectangular prisms and cylinders
Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003
3
Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003
4
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Find area of inscribed figure by using midpoints and endpoints

RIT scores between 261 and 270
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Understand that area of a square equals side squared
Find the perimeter with use of variables

RIT scores between 271 and 280
Length, Weight, Volume
Find volume of cylinder using knowledge of radius versus diameter

RIT scores between 281 and 300
Area, Perimeter, Circumference
Solve problem using ratio of rectangular areas

Concepts and Language of Algebra, Functions and Mathematical
Models includes patterns, functions, solving equations, order of
operations, properties, simplifying expressions and continues up
through more difficult skills in Algebra specific content

Skills and Concepts

RIT score between 151 and 160
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Find and extend patterns
Recognize and extend a pattern: shape, color and size

RIT score between 161 and 170
Solving Equations, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Solve for missing numbers in an addition or subtraction sentence
Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (any operation)

RIT score between 171 and 180
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Recognize and extend a pattern: shape, color and size
Compare objects by shape, size, height, or length (larger, smaller, taller, shorter,
longer)
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Solve for missing factors in a multiplication or division sentence
Evaluate a numerical equation involving more than one operation
Use > or < symbols to compare two numbers
Properties
Identify the associative, commutative, identity and zero property of multiplication
Demonstrate the associative, commutative, and zero property of addition

RIT score between 181 and 190
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Find and extend patterns, both increasing and decreasing
Complete a number pattern
Complete a table according to a rule
Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Find a pattern
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Solve for missing addends in an addition or subtraction sentence
Use inverse operations to find missing equation
Identify missing elements in number sentences
Properties
Identify the associative, commutative, identity and zero property of multiplication

Concepts and Language of Algebra,
Functions and Mathematical Models 1 NWEA, 2003
RIT score between 191 and 200
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Count and write by 4s
Find and extend patterns
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Identify and understand the greater or lesser of two numerals (use the symbols <
and > through 999,999)
Use symbols of inequality, < and > to write and complete number sentences
Solve simple addition problems with n as an addend or sum
Solve simple multiplication problems with n as a multiple or product
Solve simple division problems with n as a quotient or divisor
Solve whole number equations with any operation

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Use of a function machine to determine input and output
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Evaluate an expression involving more than one operation (order of operations)
Use the basic properties of multiplication to write an algebraic expression that is
equivalent to a given algebraic expression
Solve equations involving more than one operation
Multiply and divide polynomials
Solve equations involving rational numbers (addition and subtraction)
Properties
Use strategies to develop computational fluency with multiplication: zero
property, property of one, arrays, doubles, nine patterns
Use the basic properties of addition to write an algebraic expression equivalent to
a given algebraic expression
Understand the properties of integers: commutative, associative, identity, zero
property of multiplication, distributive property of multiplication over addition,
and inverse property of addition

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Use logic to solve a problem involving a function table
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Solve decimal equations (one step, addition and subtraction)
Solve integer equations (one step, multiplication and division)
Evaluate expressions using the order of operations (may include parentheses or
exponents)
Solve quadratic equations
Properties
Understand the properties of integers: commutative, associative, identity, zero
property of multiplication, distributive property of multiplication over addition,
and inverse property of addition
Concepts and Language of Algebra,
Functions and Mathematical Models 2 NWEA, 2003
RIT scores between 221 and 230
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Complete a function table according to a rule
Recognize and continue a number pattern and/or geometric representation (e.g.
Fibonacci sequence, triangular numbers)
State a rule to explain a number pattern, including arithmetic progression
Investigate geometric patterns and relationships and describe them algebraically
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Solve for missing addends in an addition or subtraction sentence
Use boxes or other symbols to stand for any number in expressions or equations
Solve whole number equations with one variable (multiplication and division)
Solve integer equations (one step, all four operations)
Solve equations involving more than one operation
Solve one-step linear equations in one variable using addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division with integer solutions
Simplify numeric expressions by applying properties of rational numbers (e.g.
identity, inverse, distributive, associative, commutative)

RIT scores between 231 and 240
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Using whole numbers, complete a function table based on a given rule
Graph linear functions, noting that the vertical change (change in y-value) per unit
of horizontal change (change in x-value) is constant
Identify linear equation for a straight line
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Write an algebraic expression to model a situation
Evaluate an algebraic expression for given values
Explore equivalent ratios involving missing variables
Use the correct order of operations to evaluate numeric and algebraic expressions
Simplify and evaluate expressions that include positive and negative integral
components
Simplify polynomials by combining like terms
Use the rules of exponents to multiply and divide monomials
Solve simple linear equations and inequalities over the rational numbers
Create a table of (x, y) values for the given linear equation and graph the function

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Students analyze a given set of data for the existence of a pattern and represent
the pattern algebraically and graphically
Determine whether a relation is defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a
symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion
Use a function table to determine inverse variation
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values
Concepts and Language of Algebra,
Functions and Mathematical Models 3 NWEA, 2003
Solve a system of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and interpret
the answer graphically
Graph a linear function in two variables using the slope-intercept method and
identify intercepts
Solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and identify the solution
set
Understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those
slopes are related
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials
Apply basic factoring techniques to second- and simple third-degree polynomials,
including finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the
difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions
Find the difference of two squares

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Simplify embedded expressions before solving linear equations and inequalities in
one variable
Solve problems that use variables in expressions describing geometric quantities
by solving for one variable
Solve equations with variables as exponents
Use the rules of exponents to multiply polynomials by monomials
Derive linear equations by using the point-slope function
Find the slope given two points on the line of a given graph
Write the equation of a line when given the graph of the line, two points on the
line, or the slope of the line and a point on the line
Simplify monomials containing integer powers and roots
Find the solution set for inequalities that include absolute values
Identify the equation of a parabola
Simplify expressions containing cube roots
Solve expressions containing factorials
Find the number of possible solutions for a system of equations
Cube a binomial
Quadratic Formula and Equations
Solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square
Know the quadratic formula and demonstrates its proof by completing the square
Identify discriminant and roots
Use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a second-degree polynomial and
solve quadratic equations
Graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the x-intercepts

Concepts and Language of Algebra,
Functions and Mathematical Models 4 NWEA, 2003
Concepts and Language of Algebra,
Functions and Mathematical Models 5 NWEA, 2003
RIT scores between 261 and 270
Patterns, Sequences, Functions
Determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent
variables in a relation that is defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a
symbolic expression
Analyze properties and relationships of functions (e.g. linear, polynomial,
rational)
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Find the slope of a line parallel to a given line
Find the x-intercept of a given equation
Solve equations with fractions as exponents
Analyze a graph to identify the appropriate system of equations
Determine the vertex of a parabola
Determine which of several equations can be factored
Determine commonalities between three given equations of lines

RIT scores between 271 and 280
Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations
Identify the region defined by a linear inequality
New Vocabulary in this Range: none
New Signs and Symbols: none




Concepts and Principles of Geometry includes properties of two- and three-
dimensional objects, points, rays, lines, and angles including congruency,
similarities, and transformations, surface area, the coordinate plane,
trigonometry and the Pythagorean Theorem

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Identify and name the plane figures: circle, triangle, and square
Congruency and Similarity
Identify congruent figures (using same size and shape terminology)
Identify figures that are similar, have the same shape

RIT scores between 161 and 170
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Identify and name solid figures: can (cylinder) and cone
Relate and compare plane figures to solid figures
Identify sides and corners (vertices) on solid figures
Contrast open and closed figures
Identify cylinder (can) attributes
Congruency and Similarity
Identify congruent figures

RIT scores between 171 and 180
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Classify and sort solid figures
Congruency and Similarity
Identify congruent figures using terminology
Symmetry and Transformations
Recognize transformations of plane figures (slides, flips, and turns) by identifying the
figure that will fit in a certain space
Direction and Distance
Identify position concepts: over, under, inside, outside, in front, behind, top, middle,
bottom
Coordinate
Graph ordered pairs in the first quadrant

RIT scores between 181 and 190
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Identify and name the plane figures: circle, triangle, square, and rectangle
Recognize solid figures: cube (box)
Identify characteristics of plane figures (sides and corners)
Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003
1
Congruency and Similarity
Identify congruent figures, angles, and line segments
Identify similar figures (same shape, may or may not be same size)
Symmetry and Transformations
Identify figures with line symmetry
Recognize transformations of plane figures (slides, flips, and turns)
Identify types of transformations (slides, flips, and turns)
Line Properties and Terminology
Identify points on a line
Identify the correct label for a line
Coordinate
Graph ordered pairs in the first quadrant

RIT scores between 191 and 200
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Recognize solid figures: sphere (ball)
Identify and name solid figures: cube, cylinder, cone, rectangular prism, and sphere
Identify characteristics of plane figures (sides and corners)
Symmetry and Transformations
Identify figures with line symmetry and symmetrical parts
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify position concepts: (over, under, inside, outside, in front, behind, top, middle,
bottom)
Describe and measure right angles
Identify right angles
Identify intersecting, parallel lines
Identify the diagonal of a circle

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Identify faces, edges, and corners (vertices) on solid figures
Identify polygons: triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, and octagon
Identify quadrilaterals: square, rectangle, and parallelogram
Identify, name, and analyze solid figures: cube, cylinder, triangular pyramid and square
pyramid (faces, edges, and vertices)
Symmetry and Transformations
Identify mirror-images
Congruency and Similarity
Identify congruent figures, angles and line segments
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify points, lines, line segments, rays, planes, and angles
Identify the diameter of a circle
Identify intersecting, parallel, and perpendicular lines
Calculate the surface area of a rectangular prism
Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003
2
Identify angles according to their measure: right, obtuse, and acute

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Identify faces, edges, and corners (vertices) on solid figures
Contrast open and closed figures
Identify polygons: triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon
Identify quadrilaterals: square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, rhombus
Analyze solid figures: triangular pyramid and rectangular pyramid (faces, edges, and
vertices)
Congruency and Similarity
Identify similar figures (same shape, may or may not be the same size)
Identify congruent polygons and their corresponding sides and angles
Symmetry and Transformations
Identify types of transformations (rotation)
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles
Identify angles: right, obtuse, and acute
Identify when two intersecting lines are perpendicular
Identify properties of similar figures
Measure angles using a protractor

RIT scores between 221 and 230
Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional
Analyze solid figures: rectangular prism, triangular prism, triangular pyramid, square,
pyramid (faces, edges and vertices)
Classify polygons by sides and angles
Congruency and Similarity
Identify congruent triangles according to corresponding parts (SSS, SAS, ASA)
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify the center, radius and diameter of a circle
Measure angles using a protractor
Classify angles: supplementary and complementary
Classify angles: adjacent, vertical, corresponding, and supplementary
Find the missing angle measurement in a triangle when two angles are known
Analyze circles: center, chord, diameter, radius, arc, semicircle, and circumference
Coordinate
Graph ordered pairs in all four quadrants (coordinate geometry)

RIT scores between 231 and 240
Symmetry and Transformations
Understand meaning and representation of a dilation
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Classify triangles by sides (equilateral, isosceles, and scalene) and angles (acute, obtuse,
and right)
Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003
3
Classify polygons by sides and angles
Identify and discriminate between regular and irregular polygons
Find the missing angle measurement in a triangle when two angles are known
Solve word problems involving similar polygons
Identify the base angles of a triangle
Know the definition of the hypotenuse of a triangle
Calculate the circumference of a circle using the formula
Coordinate
Find location of coordinates on a number line
Locate the vertex on a coordinate grid

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Congruency and Similarity
Construct congruent segments and angles
Symmetry and Transformations
Identify symmetry of a sphere
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify properties of parallel lines
Construct angle bisectors
Use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the measure of one side of a right triangle when
the other two sides are known
Identify angle bisectors
Solve problems regarding relationships among chords of a circle
Calculate the surface area of a rectangular prism and cylinder
Coordinate
Determine endpoints and midpoint of a line on a coordinate graph

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Congruency and Similarity
Solve problems involving properties of similar triangles
Symmetry and Transformations
Solve problems involving rotations (turns) and reflections (flips)
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify properties and slope of lines
Identify plane
Identify midpoint and endpoint
Identify perpendicular bisector
Identify properties of polygons (rhombus, parallelogram)
Relationship of size of angles and corresponding sides of a triangle
Trigonometry
Find sin and cosine of a given angle
Coordinate
Derive and solve problems involving use of ordered pairs to determine area of a figure
Know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including
rotations, translations, and reflections
Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003
4
Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003
5
Determine the axis of symmetry of a linear graph

RIT scores between 261 and 270
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify the correct definition of a postulate
Solve problems using two chord power theorem
Identify and solve problems involving right triangles using the trigonometric functions
and the Pythagorean Theorem
Use of distance formula to determine type of triangle using coordinates
Solve problems regarding relationships among chords, secants, tangents, inscribed
angles, central angle, arc, and inscribed and circumscribed polygons of circles
Measure and compare angles in degrees
Solve problems involving the perimeter, circumference, area, volume, and surface area of
common geometric figures
Determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area, and volume of common
geometric figures and solids
Find and use measures of sides and interior and exterior angles to identify figures and
solve problems involving polygons
Know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including
rotations, translations, and reflections
Find the surface area of a polyhedron and cylinder
Find the diameters when given the area of a circle
Trigonometry
Use graph to identify trigonometric functions of angles
Find cosine, sine, and tangent of any given angle
Use law of cosines

RIT scores between 271 and 280
Congruency and Similarity
Prove that triangles and other polygons are congruent or similar using algebraic,
coordinate, and deductive proofs
Geometric Properties and Terminology
Identify number of diagonals of regular polygons
Informally prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of
complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles

RIT scores between 281 and 290
Symmetry and Transformations
Solve problems involving volume with rotational transformation

Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics Students determine the
mathematical probability of events, calculate measures of central
tendency, and work with combinations and permutations. Interpret and
predict information from charts, graphs, and tables.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160
Data Analysis
Use pictographs or bar graphs to compare quantities

RIT scores between 161 and 170
Probability and Prediction
Determine an outcome and make a prediction (single event)
Data Analysis
Represent and compare data (e.g. largest, smallest, most often, least often) by
using picture graphs, pictures, or simple bar graphs

RIT scores between 171 and 180
Probability and Prediction
Interpret a table and make predictions (chance)
Predict the likely number of times a condition will occur based on an analysis of
data
Data Analysis
Complete and interpret simple picture graphs, bar graphs, line graphs or tables
using the key to indicate the quantity represented by each symbol
Identify least and greatest values represented in bar graphs and pictographs
Complete and interpret simple picture graphs, bar graphs or tables

RIT scores between 181 and 190
Probability
Predict whether common events are certain, likely, unlikely, possible, impossible,
fair or unfair
Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner
Data Analysis
Solve simple word problems based on data from picture and bar graphs
Solve problems using information from a bar graph
Construct and interpret line graphs involving problem solving

RIT scores between 191 and 200
Probability and Prediction
Develop concept of chance and make predictions for events (ex. rolling a number
dice)
Combinations and Permutations
Solve problems involving combinations or permutations
Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics 1 NWEA, 2003
Statistics
Use tallies to record data
Compute averages with a given set of data
Data Analysis
Solve problems using information from a bar graph
Solve multi-step word problems with pictographs, bar graphs, or line graphs
Construct, and solve word problems involving line graphs
Construct and solve word problems involving circle graphs
Construct and solve word problems involving information from a table
Read and interpret dual bar graphs and dual broken-line graphs

RIT scores between 201 and 210
Probability and Prediction
Compute simple probability outcomes
Determine the probability of an outcome (multiple events)
Use the counting principle to determine probability
Statistics
Solve practical problems involving the mean (average) of a set of numbers
Data Analysis
Solve problems using information from a picture graph (symbol may represent
more than one)
Interpret data given in percent form on a circle graph and broken line graph

RIT scores between 211 and 220
Probability and Prediction
Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner
Combinations and Permutations
Solve problems involving arrangements
Data Analysis
Read and interpret information from a graph
Interpret Venn Diagrams
Make predictions from a graph

RIT scores between 221 and 230
Probability and Prediction
Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner
Predict outcomes using probability
Combinations and Permutations
Use a tree diagram to determine the number of possible outcomes of an event
Statistics
Know the concepts of mode, median, and mean; compute and compare them in
simple examples to demonstrate that these measures of central tendency may
differ for a given set of data
Data Analysis
Interpret data given in horizontal and vertical bar graphs to solve problems
Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics 2 NWEA, 2003
Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics 3 NWEA, 2003
RIT scores between 231 and 240
Probability and Prediction
Determine the number of possible outcomes of an event
Permutations and Combinations
Solve problems involving combinations and permutations
Statistics
Calculate range, mode, median, and mean
Data Analysis
Read and interpret information in a table
Read and interpret information from a graph

RIT scores between 241 and 250
Probability and Prediction
Predict outcomes using a six-sided cube
Combinations and Permutations
Find how many different ways a set can be ordered
Data Analysis
Use a graph to predict some future point in time

RIT scores between 251 and 260
Probability and Prediction
Calculate basic probability theoretically and use results to make predictions
Data Analysis
Analyze graphs

RIT scores between 261 and 300
Combinations and Permutations
Perform complex combinations in problem solving situations
Data Analysis
Read and interpret box and whisker plots

Word Analysis Students understand relationships between words and
can use component structures and clues from context to decipher word
meaning.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores below 150
Phonological Awareness
Recognize initial consonant h/p
Recognize short vowels a/o
Recognize plurals
Recognize basic sight words
New Vocabulary: ending sound, match, find

RIT Scores between 151 and 160
Phonological Awareness
Recognize the correct use of the plural s ending
Match upper and lower case letters
Decoding Strategies
Recognize beginning sounds ch/cl/c/s
Structural Analysis
Identify the correct prefix (un-, dis-, in-, con-) to use with simple base words
Know the two word meanings of simple contractions, such as its = it is
New Vocabulary: missing word, prefix, choose

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Phonological Awareness
Recognize short vowels a/i
Recognize ending sounds n/t
Identify simple rhyming words
Decoding Strategies
Recognize vowel digraphs ew, eu, oi, ey
Recognize beginning sounds cr, bl, kn
Combine simple word family endings with beginning sounds to form words
Structural Analysis
Use word endings -et, -er, -le, -e to find word meaning
Use picture clues to form simple compound words
Identify compound words
Recognize when to change y to i and add ending
Identify the correct usage of prefixes (non-, un-, dis-, re-) with the same base
word
Know the meaning of the prefix un
Identify the correct suffix or prefix to use with the same base word (-less, -ful,
-ing, -er)
Word Analysis/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
Know the meaning of the suffix -er
Know the two word meanings of simple contractions such as youre = you are
Put upper case letters in alphabetical order
Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes
Find the root word
New Vocabulary: compound word, poem, rhyme, root or base word, vowel, letter, story

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Phonological Awareness
Recognize medial vowel sounds ow/ short i, and the -ed ending
Recognize which letters are vowels
Match the words in phrases and simple sentences
Recognize one-syllable rhyming words
Decoding Strategies
Recognize beginning blends gr/ fr/ sc
Structural Analysis
Choose the compound word that is missing in a sentence
Know the meaning of simple compound words
Identify the correct usage of prefixes: un-, con-, dis-, in-, extra-, over-, re-, trans-,
pre-, de-
Know the meaning of prefixes: dis-, un-, re-
Identify the correct usage of suffixes: -er, -less, -ful, -ary, -able, -y
Know the meaning of suffixes: -er, -less, -ful, -ary, -able, -y
Know the correct usage of comparative suffixes: -er, -est
Put words in alphabetical order
Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes
Find the root word when used with simple prefixes and suffixes
New Vocabulary: underlined, suffix

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Structural Analysis
Find the word with the correct prefix in a complex sentence
Identify word using correct suffix to complete sentence
Identify the two words that make up a contraction
Divide words into syllables
Find the pairs of 2 and 3 syllable words that sound alike
Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes
Identify the root or base word in a multi-syllable word
New Vocabulary: contraction, directions, definition

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Phonological Awareness
Find the word that rhymes with a non-phonetic spelling
Identify same ending sound within a list of several words
Identify same ending sounds
Word Analysis/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Word Analysis/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Structural Analysis
Identify and/or form compound words
Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes
Given a root word definition find word that means ______
Given a prefix definition, identify the word meaning ______, with a variety of
prefixes from which to choose
Given the root meaning, identify word meaning______, with a variety of suffixes
from which to choose
New Vocabulary: alphabetical order, syllable

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Structural Analysis
Form multi-syllable compound words
Identify word that, with correct prefix, becomes its own antonym
Identify suffix which will give new meaning to specified word
Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes
Identify base or root word in multi-syllable words
New Vocabulary: antonym, multi-syllable

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

RIT Scores above 221
Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and
extended thinking.



Vocabulary Students gain a basic understanding of word meanings
and can use clues from context to decipher word meaning.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores below 150
Context Clues
Associate single words with pictures
New Vocabulary: picture, word

RIT Scores between 151 and 160
Context Clues
Match a picture with a sentence
Use context to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word using simple vocabulary
Use context to find a missing word in a simple sentence
Make inferences from context
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Recognize word pairs with similar meanings
Use context to determine which of 4 words means the same as underlined word in
sentence (synonym)
New Vocabulary: missing word, choose, sentence

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Context Clues
Use a picture to identify a word or sentence
Use context to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word in short sentences
Use context to find a missing word in simple and compound sentences
Use context to find multiple meanings when given a word list
Use word context to define evaluative meaning
Use context to find the opposite meaning of a word
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Find the opposite meaning of simple words
Identify simple homonyms
Recognize the correct usage of simple homonyms
Recognize word pairs with similar meanings in longer sentences
Multiple Meanings
Use multiple meanings to define simple words
New Vocabulary: compound word, opposite, root or base word, story

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Context Clues
Use a picture to identify a word
Use context to determine which of 4 words means the same as underlined word
from paragraph of 20-30 words
Vocabulary/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
Use context through complex sentences and phrases to find the meaning of an
unfamiliar word
Use context and inference to find a missing word
Use context to find the meaning of idiomatic phrases
Use context to find meaning of compound words
Use context to find the opposite meaning of a word
Demonstrate acquisition of more specific vocabulary
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Find the opposite meaning of a word
Recognize pairs of word opposites
Recognize word pairs with similar meanings in complex sentences and paragraphs
Multiple Meanings
Understand the correct meaning of a word that can have multiple meanings
Use context to understand multiple meanings within a passage
New Vocabulary: homonym, synonym, underlined, incomplete, paragraph, passage

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Context Clues
Demonstrate knowledge of increased vocabulary within the context of a sentence
or paragraph
Find a sentence which does not use a multiple meaning word correctly
Use context to determine the meaning of a word in a paragraph
Choose which of four sentences best expresses the meaning of idiomatic
expression
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Identify the word which is opposite of a given word
Identify words that are not antonyms (Term is defined in question. Identify the
antonym in context.)
Find the synonym for the word underlined in sentence
Identify which two words are synonyms as defined in a multiple sentence
question
New Vocabulary: nonsense, antonym, directions, definition

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Context Clues
Use context to determine meaning of specific word in paragraph of 30-60 words
Identify which of four words is the defined synonym for underlined word in
sentence
Know vocabulary with/ without context
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Given a sentence with a missing word, identify correct missing word from a list of
homonyms
Find pairs of words that are synonyms (defined in question)
Find groups of words with meaning that is similar to a given word
New Vocabulary: similar to
Vocabulary/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Vocabulary/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Context Clues
After reading a paragraph of 50-75 words, use context to determine meaning of a
specific word in paragraph
Given a complex sentence, determine which of four words is synonym (not
defined) for underlined word
Knowledge of vocabulary with or without context within a complex paragraph
Recognize and understand a variety of word referents
Recognize and understand sentences containing explanatory phrases, sometimes
set off by commas
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Identify sentence which means the opposite in a paragraph of 50-75 words
Choose word missing in the sentence when all choices are homonyms
Multiple Meanings
Use context of an advertising passage to figure out a word that has multiple
meanings
New Vocabulary: advertisement, magazine, article, recipe

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Context Clues
After reading a sentence with a paragraph of 75-100 words, use the context of the
sentence to find the meaning of specific word
After reading a story, find the word in the story which means about the same as
underlined word
Increased vocabulary within the story or passage
Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms
Find words with opposite meanings within the context of a story or passage
New Vocabulary: label, selections, introduction

RIT Scores above 221
Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and
extended thinking.

Literal Comprehension Students can recall, identify, classify, and
sequence details, facts, and stated main ideas from a variety of written
materials, and can interpret directions.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 151 and 160
Sequencing
Format: Read approximately 30-word passages





















Follow straightforward sequence of events
Use clue words supplied: first, next, last, before, after, later
Identify what happened after another event
Identify what happened last in a sequence of events
Reading for Detail
Format: Read short passages up to 40 words
Locate answers by finding exact words from question
New Vocabulary: last, after, story

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Locating Information
Use a sign: understand the meaning of information
Use a title: determine the content of a book
Use a simple index (one word descriptors, each on one page): page numbers
where information can be found
Use a table of contents: identify which story is found on a particular page
Reading Directions
Format: Read short simple sentences
Follow 3-6 steps, no more than 60 words
Find literal detail in simple directions
Determine the purpose of simple directions
Sequencing
Format: Read up to 70 word passages where clue words are rarely supplied
Identify what happened after another event
Identify what happened first or last
Recognize first or last in a subset of events from a passage
Reading for Detail
Format: Read short passages up to 50 words, which range from very short, simple
sentences to longer more complex sentences
Locate answers by finding exact words in passage
Recognize pronoun substitutions for nouns
Combine details from two simple sentences to arrive at answer
Understand the meaning of details to generalize an answer
Discriminate between similar sentences and details to find an answer
Isolate details necessary to answer question when given many details
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
New Vocabulary: after, book, first, directions, sentences, poem, index, table of contents,
sign, passage

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Locating Information
Use table of contents:





















Find page number for a particular story
Determine which part of a book information can be found
Reading Directions
Format: Read some complex sentences in passages that include up to 7 steps, 60
words
Determine what to do before or after specific steps
Understand directions in a simple label
Find detail in simple directions
Sequencing
Format: Read up to 150 word passages with clue words rarely given
Determine first or last event from list of events in scrambled order
Recognize simultaneous events (when this happens, something else happens)
Recognize first in order of events when written not in actual order of occurrence
Identify what happens first in a subset of events from a longer passage
Recognize what happens after another event when reading a schedule
Identify what happens next or second, clue words supplied
Paraphrase events, recognizing first or last in order
Discriminate small but important details in ordering events
Reading for Detail
Format: Read longer passages, some up to 100 words; at upper RIT ranges,
passages contain less familiar content and more difficult vocabulary
Isolate details necessary to answer a question when given many details
Find exact words in a passage to answer a question
Recognize pronoun substitution for noun
In a letter, understand I and the author are the same person
Recognize important details when in a sentence with complex phrasing (no longer
simple, straightforward sentences)
Combine details from several sentences or rephrase details to answer a question
Identify the speaker in a short one-speaker passage
Use important details to generalize an answer
In a longer passage with longer, more complex sentences and more difficult
vocabulary, locate important details necessary to answer a question
Understand the relationship between details
Discriminate between details that are and are not stated in a passage
Use reasoning, word clues, and recognition of pronoun meaning to identify
speaker in a short passage containing more than one person

New Vocabulary: before, second, paragraph, following, letter, label, note, article, list


Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Locating Information
Use an index:











More complex with main topics and subtopics
Information listed on multiple pages
Use a table of contents:
Understand that page number listed is the beginning page and that
information continues on subsequent pages
Use chapter title to determine content and page number to read
Use a title: Use word clues to determine content
Use a weather report: Paraphrase information
Use a sign or announcement: Understand the meaning of information
Use a bibliography:
How to read
Understand the meaning of (ed.) for editor
Reading Directions
Format: Read more complex sentences with up to 9 steps and 100 words
Find literal detail in how to directions
Understand literal detail in directions to a place using left or right or compass
directions
Determine what to do before or after certain steps
Understand directions on a typical label
Infer the purpose of written directions
Find the detail in a typical recipe
Determine the order of simple directions
Sequencing
Determine correct order of events when presented in scrambled order
Paraphrase order of events in a longer passage (up to 150 words)
Use clue words and reasoning skills to determine order of events when written out
of order of occurrence (understanding flashbacks)
Reading for Detail
Format: Read passages frequently around 100 words, containing a variety of
descriptive sentences and vocabulary, rich with detail
Isolate small but significant details necessary to answer a question
Understand sentences containing explanatory phrases set off by commas (my dog,
Spot my friends, Jane and Sally), recognizing that they are not items in a list
Understand relationships between details, combining details from several
sentences to form an answer





Recognize and understand pronouns substituted for nouns
Note he/she pronoun use to determine gender
Isolate significant detail, combine with prior knowledge to answer a question
Discriminate between details which are and are not stated in a passage
Determine who is the speaker in a passage
New Vocabulary: recipe, instructions, order of events, information, describe, ad,
bibliography, editor, character
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Locating Information
Use a table of contents:








Locate information on multiple pages
Use clue words from chapter title to determine contents
Use a list of facts: Use to find information
Use a schedule:
Understand the format, how days, events, and times are listed
Read to understand how long particular events last
Understand when events start
Use an index:
Meaning of see and see also
Organized in main topics and subtopics
How drawings, photos, and maps are listed
Difference between pages separated by commas or by hyphens (45, 48,
50-53)
Use an advertisement:
Determine what is being advertised
Locate and understand specific details in ad
Use reference materials: Determine best source of information (dictionary,
encyclopedia, television program guide, almanac, field guide, atlas)
Use a recipe:
Determine number served
Determine amounts of ingredients
Use a glossary: Understand relationship between dictionary and glossary
Use a title: Use clue words to determine content
Reading Directions
Format: Read some adult vocabulary, vocabulary difficulty increases as RIT
increases with up to 12 steps and 200 words
Understand specific detail in a typical recipe
Analyze detail in directions:
Determine important information in directions
Determine missing steps in a set of directions
Given directions and actions taken, determine which part of directions not
followed correctly
Understand directions on a label containing adult vocabulary
Determine purpose of directions
Understand directions in a recipe written in paragraph rather than list format
Understand directions on a test or worksheet
Sequencing
Format: Determine order of events in a passage containing more difficult
vocabulary, more complex phrasing, or less familiar content

Determine sequence of events in a passage containing a flashback
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
Paraphrase order of events in passage containing more complex vocabulary,
phrasing, or figurative language





















Use re-reading and cross checking to determine specific order of events
Determine which event comes before another
Determine which events occur simultaneously
Use reasoning and word clues to determine sequence of events in a passage
contain a flashback
Determine order of events when presented in a scrambled order (more complex
sentences, less direct language than previous RIT levels)
Determine which comes last from up to 9 events presented in scrambled order
Determine which occurs first AND last from events presented in scrambled order
Find first in a subset of events in the middle of a passage
Use re-reading and cross-checking to identify the order of events in a passage up
to 200 words
Reading for Detail
Format: Read passages containing rich detail, vocabulary, description, and
complex phrasing with extensive vocabulary necessary to understand meaning of
detail
Locate specific details in a passage to discriminate between similar answer
choices
Recognize significant details when paraphrased
Recognize and understand detail referenced by this, that, these, or those
Recognize and understand characters when referred to alternately by name and by
descriptive phrases
Understand and interpret significant details
New Vocabulary: literature, advertising, schedule, statement, announcement, biography,
entries, chapter, introduction, comparison, glossary

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Locating Information
Use a table of contents:
Use chapter summaries to determine contents
Use clue words from chapter title to determine contents
Determine the LAST page of a chapter (if chapter 2 begins on p. 20,
chapter 1 ends on p. 19)
Use an announcement: (lengthy and detailed, containing common abbreviations,
and adult level vocabulary)
Find and understand information
Use an advertisement:
Find and understand specific information
Determine what is being advertised
Understand abbreviations and shortened phrases in a classified ad
Use a food label: Determine the relative amounts of ingredients
Use reference materials:
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001
Determine the best source of information (encyclopedia, catalog,
advertisement, magazine article, picture book)
Understand information contained in a dictionary entry
Use a bibliography:














How it is organized
How to read information (author, title, publisher, etc.)
Recognizing simple listing of magazines
Use a list: Meaning of information
Reading Directions
Find detail in a typical adult language recipe
Understand complex directions involving multiple variables (if you want this, do
that, if you want something else, do something else)
Understand typical medicine or product labels
Understand vocabulary specific to typical recipes and product labels
Find detail in complex, multi-step directions containing adult language
Paraphrase complex directions
Understand complex directionsmust find one detail, then re-read to incorporate
previous information
Use skills that progress in difficulty:
Skim, scan to locate details
Re-read specific parts
Combine two or more sets of information to complete understanding
Paraphrase
Sequencing
Format: Read longer and more complex sentences where the content becomes less
familiar and the difficulty of the vocabulary increases (soon after this happened,
that happened)
Read passages where word clues are less direct: from first, later, and finally to
after the frost, in the spring, when they had eaten lunch
Use indirect word clues to determine sequence of sentences from scrambled order
Determine which event came second or next from sentences in scrambled order
Determine sequence of key events from complex paragraph
Determine events that occur after or simultaneously in longer, more complex
paragraph
Determine first event from a sequence of events written in the middle of a
paragraph
Use key words to paraphrase order of events
Use re-reading and cross checking to identify order of events
In a paragraph of unfamiliar content and vocabulary, determine what comes next,
after another event
Use direct word clues to determine what comes before
Determine what comes first in a paragraph containing a flashback
Reading for Detail
Format: Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, often unfamiliar
content, extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001
Isolate small but significant detail necessary to answer a question in long, detail-
filled passages
























New Vocabulary: indicated, series of events, chronological order, definition, dictionary,
sequence, description, catalog, journal, report

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Locating Information
Format: Read passages that are lengthy, detailed, and contain adult vocabulary.
They are typical examples one would find everyday, not specific to children
Use an announcement: Find and understand specific information
Use a handbook: Find and understand specific information
Use a shipping and handling chart: Recognize, know it by name
Use a phone book:
Yellow pages: how to read, find, and understand specific information
White pages: how to use guide letters
Use a catalogue:
Use summary information to determine which product to purchase
Find and understand specific information
Use an index:
Organization of topics
Using increased specificity of terms to locate information
Understand page list format, difference between use of commas and
hyphens (43, 57, 60-62)
Use a bibliography:
Find and understand information in an annotated bibliography
Use a glossary: How to use
Use a field guide: Find and understand specific information
Use a dictionary: How to use to find word meaning
Reading Directions
Synthesize/paraphrase directions
Follow multi-step directions containing adult vocabulary where the outcome is
not obvious
Follow detail in typical medicine or product label
Synthesize intention of directions
Understand small but significant detail in directions
Sequencing
Format: Read passages that contain unfamiliar content, adult vocabulary, few
word clues, longer sentences, and complex phrasing
Paraphrase sentence order from passage with phrases like just before this
happened, that happened and after this happens but before that happens
Determine last, first, and next, paraphrasing events from passage
Use indirect word clues to determine the order of scrambled sentences
Determine what comes after another event
Determine the sequence of events in a subset of events in the middle of a passage
Paraphrase the sequence of events in a complex passage
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 7 NWEA, 2001
Reading for Detail
Format: Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, often unfamiliar
content, extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing





Locate small but significant detail in a detail-filled passage
Understand and interpret significant detail
Understand and paraphrase significant detail
Discriminate between details which are and are not stated in a passage
Locate more than one detail in a detail-filled passage










New Vocabulary: guide, handbook, selections

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Locating Information
Read passages where details being located are more specific and less obvious,
requiring careful reading or re-reading
Use an announcement:
Find and combine specific pieces of information
Find and understand specific, detailed information
Compare specific pieces of information
Use a weather report: Find and understand small but significant details
Use sports scores: Understand commonly used abbreviations
Use a recipe: Find and understand small but significant details
Reading Directions
Understand intent of directions
Synthesize complex directions
Sequencing
Summarize events in correct order
Use reasoning to determine the correct order of scrambled sentences
Determine what comes after in passages with complex phrasing (just before he
did this, he did that)
Use word clues and reasoning to determine what comes first when sentences
contain flashbacks or are not written in exact time order



Reading for Detail
Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, generally unfamiliar content,
extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing
Isolate information not stated in a detail-filled passage
Paraphrase and interpret significant detail


Locate specific detail in a long, detail-filled passage
Locate and interpret several details in a detail-filled passage
New Vocabulary: publications, editorial

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 8 NWEA, 2001
Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 9 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores between 231 and 240
Reading Directions



Synthesize/paraphrase directions
Reading for Detail
Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, generally unfamiliar content,
extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing
Locate, paraphrase, and interpret multiple details in a detail-filled passage
New Vocabulary: none

Interpretive Reading Comprehension Students can make reasonable
predictions before, during, and after reading, can draw inferences
necessary for understanding, can recognize cause-effect relationships,
and can summarize and synthesize information from a variety of
written materials.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 151 and 160
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Use simple details to make simple inferences
Summarize and Synthesize
Determine the main idea of a simple factual section
Cause and Effect
Identify or determine simple cause and effect relationships
New Vocabulary: missing word, story, paragraph, sentence

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Infer the qualities or purposes of a list
Draw conclusions based on information in a story about events taking place
Prediction
Predict future events based on the simple details of a story
Summarize and Synthesize
Determine the main idea of a simple story
Cause and Effect
Identify, determine, or infer simple cause and effect relationships in simple
situations
New Vocabulary: questions, main idea, riddle, list, passage

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Make inferences by noting specific details in multi-paragraph selection
Infer the qualities or purposes of a list
Make inferences using details in an advertisement
Infer characteristics and qualities of main characters
Infer answers to riddles by noting details
Draw conclusions based on information in a story as to what will probably
happen next
Predictions and Generalizations
Predict future events based on a multi-paragraph passage
Summarize and Synthesize
Look at details to determine and refine the main idea of 30-50 word paragraph
Identify the topic sentence in a simple paragraph
Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
Create a topic sentence for a simple paragraph
Determine the main idea by selecting the best title for a story or passage
Refine and explain the main idea of a selection
Cause and Effect
Format: Read short passages with relatively simple sentences and basic
vocabulary where cause and effect are stated in same sentence with some clue
words supplied (because, so)




Determine cause and effect relationship in a passage containing extraneous
information
Identify causes and effects stated in different sentences
Identify causes and effects implied, not stated directly
New Vocabulary: title, cause, facts, effect, opinion, ad, describes, author

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Draw conclusion based on interpretation of information read
Infer conclusion from prior information
Predictions and Generalizations
Predict what will happen next in a multi-paragraph passage
Generalize from specific information within the passage
Summarize and Synthesize
Summarize a short passage of 100-150 words
Determine main idea in different genre
Identify the main idea of a poem
Make inferences about main idea of a personal note
Determine main idea from a variety of nonfiction
Identify topic sentence
Infer best title for a story or passage
Cause and Effect
Format: At lower RITs, read simpler passages, vocabulary, and content; at higher
RITs, read more complex content in passages
Identify basic cause and effect relationships, stated in same or adjoining sentences
Use clue word because supplied in answer choices to help focus thinking
Identify implied cause and effect relationships
New Vocabulary: predict, outcome, statement, poem, article, conclude, summary,
problem

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Draw a conclusion based on interpretation of information read
Predictions and Generalizations
Generalize a statement from specific information within the passage
Summarize and Synthesize
Summarize a longer passage by outlining
Infer main idea from a variety of genre
Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Infer main idea from textbook page
Infer main idea of article from newspaper or magazine
Cause and Effect
Format: Read passages with complexity of content and vocabulary






that include some clue words like since and so and because
Identify cause presented at beginning of passage relating to effect presented
at end of passage
Determine cause and effect of a variety of events
New Vocabulary: summarize, conclusion, cause and effect, central idea, compare,
selection, introduction

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Make inferences from announcements
Make inferences about directions on labels
Make inferences about a character type within a variety of literature
Make inferences from information found on book flap
Make inferences from textbook technical reading
Form a conclusion based on interpretation of information from a variety of
sources
Predictions and Generalizations
Predict future events based on prior conclusions drawn
Summarize and Synthesize
Identify main idea in magazine articles or stories from other sources
Cause and Effect
Read slightly longer passages, with more difficult content and vocabulary which
use clue words since and because of
Demonstrate combining several pieces of information to understand the cause and
effect relationship
Identify which is the cause and which is the effect when given a situation
New Vocabulary: infer, solution, prediction, announcement, biography, explanation,
chapter, legend, topics, characteristics, main characters, assume, library, speaker

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Draw Conclusions/Inferences
Make inferences from catalog selections
Make inferences from handbooks
Make inferences from a science fiction passage
Draw a conclusion from the passage by inferring the interpretation of the
information read
Identify conclusion to story
Predictions and Generalizations
Create prediction for recipe
Predict outcome from advertisement

Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
Summarize and Synthesize
Identify why author chose title
Identify main idea in newspaper and other articles
Restate lengthy passage through summarizing
List specific information in systematic order and give a general summary
Cause and Effect


Read longer passages, with more difficult content and vocabulary
Identify which is not the effect of a stated cause
New Vocabulary: implied, inferred, premise, impression, contrast

RIT Scores above 221
Cause and Effect
Read passages with more difficult, less familiar content and vocabulary

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and
extended thinking.


Evaluative Reading Comprehension Students understand fact,
opinion, bias, assumptions, and elements of persuasion, and can
evaluate the quality and validity of written material. Students can
compare works, evaluate conclusions, and apply what is learned to real
life experiences.

The main difference in items at higher RIT levels is in sentence and passage length,
complexity of detail and content, and difficulty of vocabulary

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores below 150
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Identify common words, generally nouns


Identify word that belongs in broad category based on type
Identify word not like the others, based on type
New Vocabulary: none

RIT Scores between 151 and 160
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Identify general category name for specific word based on type


Identify items belonging to a category based on use
Identify items that do not belong to a category based on use
New Vocabulary: thing

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Format: At beginning of range, distracters very different from correct answer
choices. As RIT increases, distracters become more similar, requiring the use of
more specific vocabulary









Identify which item is not like the others based on type or use
Identify which item is not a member of a broad category or group
Complete a simple analogy, matching a common tool to the user
Identify which item is a member of a category based on type or use
Identify category name for a specific item
Fact and Opinion
Read information presented in one or two very simple statements
Distinguish fact from that which is inferred
New Vocabulary: sentence, page, missing word, belongs

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
Format: Read simple text, generally less than 50 words, basic vocabulary, where
the speaker/writers opinions are stated directly and obviously
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
Determine speaker/writers opinion or way of thinking about a topic


Understand meaning of the word bias
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Identify which are not members of a group based on defined characteristics
Identify the group name or category in which it belongs when given a noun








Identify which noun is not like the others
Identify which word belongs in the same category when given a list of descriptive
words
Identify another member of the group when given a group name
Identify which sentence is not on a specific topic
Generalize how items or ideas are alike
Find relationships between words based on analogous relationships (things to eat
hunger)
Fact and Opinion
Format: Read information presented in short simple paragraph
New Vocabulary: story, paragraph, bias, passage, writer

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions
Determine why a simple story is fiction
Determine which statement is untrue based on information given in a short,
simple passage









Determine which person would be more likely to have more relevant information
when given an event described by different people
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
Read simple text, generally less than 75 words, basic vocabulary where the
speaker/writers opinions stated directly and obviously
Determine what the writer wants the reader to notice, care about, or feel
Determine which words persuade the reader or catch the readers attention
Determine the purpose of an advertisement
Determine to which senses certain words appeal
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Apply logic to analyze simple relationships
Identify which sentence does not relate to a story topic
Identify analogous relationships between words






Identify lists of words that all belong to the group when given a category name
Distinguish between factual and inferential observations when given a simple
situation
Determine probable common use of a list of items
Tell how items on a list are all alike
Identify items that belong in a named group
Identify which items do not belong to a group, based on secondary attributes
Identify how phrases are alike based on what they tell
Identify which word is not a member of a group or category based on specific
definitions
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Classify types of writing based on purpose


















Fact and Opinion
Format: Read information presented in short simple paragraph where the
paragraphs get longer with more detail and vocabulary as RIT increases
Given a short paragraph, distinguish a factual statement about the information
from statements of opinion
Compare and Contrast
Given factual paragraph, compare information (how are they alike?)
New Vocabulary: classified as, describe, idea, list, ad, make-believe, advertisement,
definition, label, facts

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions
Determine the most qualified source of information
Determine which facts best support a conclusion or an opinion
Determine the most valid conclusion when given a simple event or situation
Distinguish what is true or factual from what might be inferred when given a
simple passage
Determine the validity of opinions based on facts given in a short simple passage
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
Format: Read longer passages, up to 100 words, where situations are still fairly
straightforward, with basic vocabulary
Determine the purpose of an advertisement or other persuasive writing
Determine what the writer wants the reader to notice or care about
Recognize techniques used in ads or other persuasive writing to persuade readers
Distinguish facts from persuasive elements in an advertisement
Infer errors in a characters thinking that lead to stereotyping when given a basic
scenario
Infer who is speaking/writing based on his/her opinions or way of thinking
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Identify words belonging to the same category based on attributes of the words
themselves
Identify which item belongs to a group based on secondary attributes
Identify which sentence does not relate to a more specific topic when given
sentences all relating to a general topic
Identify which word is not a member of a group or category based on information
in a passage or specific definitions
Identify which items belong in a common group when given words that may have
multiple meanings






Determine simple logical relationships (if then)
Determine where information will most likely be found based on attributes
Determine category names for words in up to three different categories
Determine how sentences are all alike (main topic)
Determine which would not be attributes of another item when given words, some
with multiple meanings
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Determine analogous relationships






























Fact and Opinion
Format: As RIT increases, difficulty of vocabulary increases, longer sentences or
passages are used, and content becomes less familiar and more difficult
Distinguish what is fact from that which is inferred when given a short passage
Know the meaning of the words fact and opinion
Determine if statements are true, false, fact, or opinion
Identify factual statements made based on information found in a longer passage
Identify word clues that signal an opinion
Compare and Contrast
Compare and contrast animate and inanimate
New Vocabulary: opinion, conclusion, valid, appeal, descriptions, detail, accuracy,
attitude, phrase

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions
Infer/evaluate content based on small sample of writing
Infer/evaluate what is important to a character
Infer/evaluate characters feelings or interests
Determine which facts do or do not support a conclusion
Given a simple passage, distinguish what is true or factual
Determine the most qualified source of information
Evaluate and prioritize reasons
At upper range of RITs, determine which fact supports more than one conclusion
Determine which statement best supports a specific conclusion
Determine statements that cannot be concluded from information in a passage
Use logical reasoning to determine the validity of a statement
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
Format: Read longer passages, generally less than 150 words but some longer
where the difficulty of vocabulary increases as RIT increases
Recognize persuasive techniques or methods
Determine to whom an ad will appeal
Determine how an ad gets your attention
Determine the effectiveness of persuasive arguments
Determine the action the ad persuades the reader to take
Infer errors in reasoning that lead to stereotypical thinking
Infer beliefs, opinions, or way of thinking of speaker, writer, or character
Understand and apply meaning of bias
Recognize bias or assumptions as opinions
At upper range of RIT
Generalize type of people who would agree or disagree with specific opinions
Understand the meaning of assumption or underlying assumption
Understand why people have different opinions or ways of thinking
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Identify which word belongs in a group based on implications of words,
definitions provided, or interpreting multiple meanings or words
























Identify which sentence does not relate to a more specific topic when given
sentences all relating to a general topic
Put ideas in appropriate groups when given two category names
Match information in a passage with informal outline of information
Identify items not like others based on secondary attributes provided in written
definitions
Combine information written in a passage with information from experience to
determine how one thing is like or unlike another thing
Identify topics that could be added to an existing outline
Identify which word is not like the others based on secondary attributes
Find common attributes of a defined list of items
Fact and Opinion
Identify which specific words are opinions
In a longer passage, distinguish which statements are facts from those that are
opinions
Identify word clues that signal fact, not opinion
Determine that which is fact from that which is inferred
Analyze a passage to determine proportion of fact or opinion
Compare and Contrast
Contrast information (how are they different?) when given a factual paragraph
Locate appropriate information to compare or contrast in longer passages with
unfamiliar content
New Vocabulary: comments, persuasion, technique, editorial

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions
Format: Read passages that are generally longer, with much detail, extensive
vocabulary, and less familiar content
Evaluate relative importance of information
Determine which statement or detail best supports a specific conclusion
Determine most qualified source of information
Determine most valid conclusion based on information in a passage
Distinguish facts that can be concluded from that which is opinion or inferred
when given a longer, more detailed passage
Determine additional information needed to evaluate information in a passage
Use logical reasoning to determine the validity of a conclusion
Note the clue word probably meaning not conclusively
Determine which statement or detail does not support a conclusion
Identify faulty reasoning leading to a conclusion
Evaluate the quality of information used to support a conclusion
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
As RIT levels increase, differences between distracters and correct answer choice
become less obvious, require more thought






Read passages that vary in length, while difficulty of vocabulary tends to increase
Determine how assertions of persuasive writing are supported
Determine to whom and to what feelings ads appeal
Determine what the writer wants the reader to believe about their product or
service
Determine information not given in an ad
Understand meaning of the word discrimination
























Infer beliefs, opinions, ways of thinking, or assumptions of writer or characters
Generalize type of people who would agree or disagree with specific opinions
Compare and contrast opinions or assumptions of characters
Infer errors in reasoning that lead to stereotypical thinking
Infer assumptions reader can make from a passage
Generalize opinions or assumptions of writer
Discriminate between fact and bias
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills
Demonstrate using alphabetical order to the fourth letter
Find words that are like or different from the others based on secondary attributes
when given definitions of similar or related words
Identify words that belong to the same group based on implications, connotations,
multiple meanings, or secondary attributes when given more difficult vocabulary
words
Identify analogous relationships
Find commonalities in a set of distinct descriptions
Determine which would be logical explanations for events
Fact and Opinion
Analyze passage for opinion, inference, value judgment, or fact
Distinguish unsupported opinion from fact
Determine content of passageproportion of fact to opinion
Distinguish that which is fact from that which is inferred
Identify a sentence as being an editorial comment or part of a factual news story
Compare and Contrast
Locate multiple pieces of information to compare or contrast
Determine what information is being compared
New Vocabulary: evaluate, assumption, logical argument, factual, unbiased, propaganda

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions
Format: Read longer passages with more detail, more extensive vocabulary, and
less familiar content
Evaluate whether or not an argument is consistent
Determine which conclusion is supported by facts in a passage
Determine which fact or detail supports a conclusion
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001
Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 7 NWEA, 2001


Identify faulty reasoning leading to a conclusion
Identify a conclusion not supported by facts or details in a passage














Evaluate reasoning leading to a conclusion
Evaluate the quality of information sources
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
Read passages where topics are less familiar, with rich, varied vocabulary
Determine purpose of persuasive ad or argument
Determine persuasive techniques or methods
Determine tone or effect of persuasive writing
Analyze persuasive statements
Determine to whom or what feelings persuasive writing will appeal
Incorporate higher level thinking to understand topics and to differentiate between
answer choices
Infer assumptions of writer or character
Generalize opinions or assumptions of writer
Generalize people likely to agree or disagree with opinion or assumption
Recognize difference between discriminatory and non-discriminatory statements
Recognize statements or thinking not assumed by the writer
Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills












Identify words that belong to the same group based on implications, connotations,
multiple meanings, or secondary attributes given more difficult vocabulary words
Identify the sentence that does not related to the specific topic in a long, complex
passage
Find commonalities in a set of distinct descriptions
Fact and Opinion
Use word clues to distinguish opinions from fact
New Vocabulary: observation, contradict

RIT Scores between 231 and 240
Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions
Determine the most qualified source of information
Analyze the reasoning used to support a conclusion or opinion
Determine which conclusion is supported by facts or details in a passage
Use logical reasoning to arrive at a conclusion
Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes
Format: Read passages with complex topics, some quite difficult vocabulary, and
more complex distracters that require more thought to determine correct answer
choice
Understand the meaning of the word stereotype
Infer and generalize assumptions of writer
Imply purpose of persuasive writing
New Vocabulary: analyze, stereotype

Literary Analysis Students respond to stories based on well-know
characters, themes, plots, and settings

The main difference in items at higher RIT levels is in sentence and passage length,
complexity of detail and content, and difficulty of vocabulary

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 151 and 160
Story Elements
Infer the setting of a simple story by noting details that tell time or place
New Vocabulary: story

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Literary Devices
Determine the mood or tone of a simple passage
Infer actions, characteristics, emotions, or qualities of characters
Story Elements
Identify the problem in a story
Determine how a problem was solved
Authors Purpose/Technique
Determine the authors purpose for simple forms of writing
New Vocabulary: passage, sentence, problem, sign, list, poem, fairy tale

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Genre
Identify the basic form of writing/genre selection
Identify the format of poetry
Identify the rhyming characteristics of poetry
Literary Devices
Determine the mood or tone of a 50-75 word passage
Infer characteristics and qualities of main characters
Story Grammar
Compare and/or contrast people in a passage
Compare and/or contrast events and details of a story
Story Elements
Identify characters in a simple story
Infer the characters emotions
Infer the setting by noting specific details
Identify the problem in a story
Determine an appropriate resolution to a problem
Authors Purpose/Technique
Determine the authors purpose for writing in a 50-75 word selection
Determine how an authors words or techniques influence the readers feelings
Literary Response/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
New Vocabulary: describe, missing word, paragraph, authors purpose, ad, letter, fable,
report

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Genre
Recognize personal note writing
Distinguish between fantasy and realistic fiction
Identify realistic fiction
Read for details in folk tales
Distinguish between descriptive and realistic writing
Understand the characteristics of legends and myths
Understand poem structure
Literary Devices
Determine word choice that develops mood
Understand the meaning of a metaphor used in a story
Identify use of simile in a writing, not by name
Make inferences from a variety of personal narratives
Make inferences from a fable
Make inferences about characters in a variety of literature
Infer who is the narrator
Make inferences from poetry
Make inferences from riddles
Story Grammar
Compare and contrast characters, both major and minor characters
Story Elements
Determine point of view of main characters
Determine main characters and quality of each character
Organization of paragraph by location, main idea, and sequence of events
Identify problem and its resolution
Identify settingwhere, and when
Identify theme or moral in a multi-paragraph passage
Identify how to resolve problem
Authors Purpose/Technique
Determine authors point of view
Determine how author develops characters through word choice and story
sequence
New Vocabulary: theme, action, setting, predict, author, solve, purpose, make-believe,
mood, point of view, tone, moral, character, legend, fantasy, diary, note

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Genre
Recognize personal narrative
Distinguish between fiction and nonfiction writing
Analyze and gain understanding of legends
Literary Response/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Literary Devices
Use imagery, humor, rhymes to develop interest
Use of devices by author such as word choice to create mood
Determine word choice to develop mood and voice
Recognize elements of foreshadowing
Understand meaning of idiom used in the story
Identify an onomatopoeia element in the story
Make inferences from personal narratives within the context of the story
Make inferences about directionality
Make inferences about characters from a variety of literature
Infer who is narrator by the descriptors of the story
Make inferences from different types of poetry
Story Grammar
Determine point of view of various characters
Identify realistic elements vs. nonrealistic elements in a story
Story Elements
Identify the problem and the resolution within a long passage
Identify setting - where, when - from the descriptors within the passage
Identify major and minor themes of the passage
Authors Purpose/Technique
Use first person and word choice to hold readers attention
Determine authors strategy for creating the piece of writing
Draw complex conclusions about characters
Infer how author developed characters through word choice, story sequence
Identify humor and reason for its use
New Vocabulary: fiction, subject, event, conflict, appeal, narrator, main point, main
character, detail, solution, short story, folktale

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Genre
Recognize newspaper writing and personal note writing
Distinguish between fiction and nonfiction writing in lengthy passages
Identify historical fiction
Identify realistic fiction
Determine purpose of lengthy folk tales
Understand the content of poems with figurative language
Recognize elements of a fable
Literary Devices
Use devices such as humor, exaggeration, word choice to create mood
Use devices by the author such as word choice and complex descriptors
Infer the story structure as a literary device
Understand meaning of idioms used in the story
Understand the imagery in the writing
Understand and explain the meaning of metaphors used in the story
Literary Response/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Understand the meaning of symbolism in stories
Make inferences about a character type within a variety of literature
Story Grammar
Determine purpose of dialogue
Story Elements
Determine the complex point of view of the author or characters through character
descriptions
Identify the problem and articulate the resolution
Identify main conflict
Identify exaggeration
Identify a complex problem and list possible resolutions
Authors Purpose/Technique
Infer how author develops characters through story sequence
Recognize the use of suspense to get the readers interest
New Vocabulary: application, opinion, plot, exaggeration, speaker, science fiction,
personal narrative, autobiography, historical fiction, non-fiction, mythology

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Genre
Identify vivid and descriptive writing
Recognize autobiographical writing
Use writing as a rule for giving directions
Understand form and general characteristics of folk tales
Understand the structure of poetry by its rhyme and length of lines
Recognize science fiction
Recognize a book review
Literary Devices
Use the story structure as a literary device
Determine how author develops character traits through inference
Use descriptive dialogue to develop tone
Recognize foreshadowing as a literary device in writing
Find a figure of speech and explain
Understand the authors purpose in use of similes
Understand the meaning of symbolism in stories
Identify exaggeration and understand its impact on story line
Story Grammar
Use figurative language, sequence of events, word choice, suspense, imagery that
creates complex interest
Recognize dialogue that provides a variety of purposes and information
Story Elements
Describe complex character descriptions
Understand complex problems and develop one or more solutions
New Vocabulary: intent, irony, suspense, simile, figure of speech, dialogue, metaphor

Literary Response/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
Literary Response/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores above 221
Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and
extended thinking.

New Vocabulary: personification, alliteration, method of characterization, flashback,
literary device, narration, exposition, memoir

Writing Composition and the Writing Process Students use skills
needed to begin writing, drafting, and revising and using editing and
proofreading skills.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Prewriting Skills
Use short complete sentences
Identify a brainstormed single word list about a given topic
Use Drafting and Revising Skills
Identify correct word order in 4-6 word sentences
Choose correct word to complete a sentence
Form question order of simple sentences
Choose a simple 2-4 word main topic
Add simple details to topic
Describe a given picture in a simple sentence
Identify gerund phrases
Add details as appropriate to a given topic
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Use imperatives
Use capitals at the beginning of the sentence
Use present participles
Use verb phrases
Categorize words
Write letters to a specific audience
Use capitals for title of names
Use periods
Use superlatives correctly
Use exclamations for emphasis
Use third person pronouns
Spell irregular verbs correctly
Align subjects and direct objects
Align subject-verb agreement
Use nominative case
Use capitals for holidays
Use rhyming words in poetry
Use apostrophes for contractions
Use future tense
New Vocabulary: sentence, letter, picture, period, capital letter, misspelled, proofread,
missing word, choose, list, question, correct order

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Prewriting Skills
Choose main topic
Select purpose of writing
Recognize genre
Determine audience
Drafting and Revising Skills
Create 5-8 word sentences with correct syntax
Revise to stay on topic
Use vivid descriptors that denote tone and mood
Draft mood and tone in the detail selection
Categorize main ideas and supporting details
Use vivid adjectives and adverbs
Combine simple sentences to create compound sentences
Add adverbs to describe action
Use imaginative language to support topic
Choose language appropriate for audience
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Capitalize names of countries
Spell 3-4 syllable words
Edit out off-topic sentences
Punctuate correctly
Use comparative words
Capitalize professional titles
Use interrogatives
Create strong sentence beginnings
Use verbs correctly (present perfect, future)
Edit for subjectverb agreement
Use strong conclusions
Write directions
Use dashes correctly
Edit for pronoun-antecedent agreement
Proofread for tense agreement
Use commas in a series
Use apostrophes for possessives
Use quotation marks
Write personal letters
Use prepositional phrases
Use capitals with initials
Use capitals with titles
Use paragraphing strategies
Use independent clauses correctly
Avoid double negatives
Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
New Vocabulary: underlined, phrase, describe, story, question mark, incomplete
sentence, topics, main topic, outline, complete sentence

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Prewriting Skills
Create a simple outline
Write in a selected genre (i.e. a simple fairy tale)
Create starter sentences
Categorize around a main topic
Select appropriate sentences for topic
List sentence details
Pre-write sentences that convey purpose of topic
Drafting and Revising Skills
Use compound and complex sentences
Use a variety of modifiers
Use infinitive phrases for emphasis
Use figurative language (simile, metaphor)
Use vivid descriptor phrases
Combine simple sentences to form complex sentences
Vary sentence order
Vary word order
Use sentences of 8-10 words to vary language
Use details for effective sentences
Vary sentences to show same meaning related to topic
Use correct word order in interrogative sentences
Use precise nouns and verbs
Create word list of strong nouns and verbs
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Capitalize first word of sentence
Use periods with abbreviations
Capitalize greetings and personal titles
Capitalize inside quotations
Use comparative phrases
Use commas for introductory words (i.e. well, no)
Use commas between two main clauses
Use descriptive writing mode
Write business letters
Use commas in adverbial clauses
Identify subject from predicate
Use past participial phrases
Use correct compass points
Use compound personal pronouns
Use correct indentation
Use auxiliary verbs correctly
Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Capitalize literary titles
New Vocabulary: comma, initials, compound sentence, main headings, punctuation mark,
exclamation point, poem, book report, fairy tale, directions, advertisement, mood, catalog

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Prewriting Skills
Select point of view (i.e. I, He, You)
Choose a mode of writing
Use clear descriptors
List details in outline form
Determine tone and mood
Choose tone by determined audience
Outline main topic with descriptors
Organize sentences for paragraphs
Create a list of possible word choices
Select main headings for outline
Choose subject and brainstorm (i.e. word lists, webbing, free writing)
Drafting and Revising Skills
Revise and replace misplaced modifiers
Use figurative language to describe
Use creative figures of speech
Write to stay on purpose
Use symbolic language
Create a variety of sentences, simple, compound, and complex
Use phrases and multi-word modifiers to enhance details
Use adjective and infinitive phrases
Begin topic with strong sentence starters
Use a variety of genres
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Capitalize royal titles, professional titles, and personal titles
Use similes for comparison
Identify suffixes
Use slang words for a direct purpose
Proof for spelling errors
Use commas between city and state
Edit sentence fragments
Use correct return address format
Capitalize government bodies
Use parallelism between subject and direct object
Use appositives
New Vocabulary: comparison, point of view, persuasive argument, narrative, description,
quotation marks, syntax, title, revising, first draft, editing

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
Prewriting Skills
Choose formal or informal language
Select purpose of paragraph
Choose syntax that illustrates point of view
Outline expository mode
Drafting and Revising Skills
Use participial phrases in correct word order
Use of figurative speech in context
Select the best title for a piece of work
Use precise language
Correct use of transitional expressions
Use vivid descriptors
Use adverbial clauses in complex sentences
Avoid run-on sentences
Use sentence variety
Use correct word order when using adjective phrases
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Use capitals in magazine, newspaper, essay and titles
Use commas in letter closure
Punctuate introductory dependant clauses
Capitalize inside addresses
Punctuate non-essential parenthetical phrases with commas
New Vocabulary: run-on sentence, formal and informal language, composition, simile,
subheading, detail, subdetail, style, figure of speech, suffix, capitalization, caret (editing
mark), research report, apostrophe

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Prewriting Skills
Create comprehensive outlines
Use compound sentence selection
Outline verbiage for imaginative stories
Categorize using main topic as guideline
Drafting and Revising Skills
Revise syntax for correct order
Use subject-verb agreement
Use a variety of sentences from simple to complex
Use infinitive phrases to denote emphasis
Use subordinating clauses
Edit for misplaced modifiers
Combine sentences to make compound and complex
Use parts of a news story for complete description of an event
Write strong conclusions
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Use commas in a series of participial phrases
Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001
Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001
Use strong topic sentences with strong verbs
Use capitals in a letter closure
Use abbreviations in appropriate places
New Vocabulary: tone, summary, synonym, personification, metaphor, fantasy, complex
sentence, rough draft, personal narrative

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Prewriting Skills
Select words based on main topic
Outline a complex topic selection
Choose appropriate words for a selection
Evaluate possible point of views (i.e. personification)
Choose vivid descriptors
Select method for brainstorming
Drafting and Revising Skills
Use exaggeration to make statement
Use adverbial clauses
Ask leading questions
Use gerund phrases
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Use complex sentence order in paragraph
Use verb phrases
Use exaggerated figures of speech for emphasis
New Vocabulary: nonparallel construction, sentence fragment, faulty tense change, irony,
exaggeration, fragment

RIT Scores between 231 and 240
Drafting and Revising Skills
Use metaphors as a figure of speech
Use Editing and Proofreading Processes
Identify strong adverbs
Identify indefinite pronouns
Use metaphors for emphasis
Conjugate irregular verbs correctly
New Vocabulary: none

Writing Composition and Structure Students work with sentences and
paragraphs, use the correct form for their writing, and understand
composition forms.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Variety of Formats
Identify sentence types: statement, command, question, and exclamation. The
vocabulary and sentence length increase in difficulty throughout the increased
RIT range.
Determine genre (i.e. poem, letter, story, ad, etc.)
Choose audience when writing a friendly letter
Use rhyme in some poetry
Use correct structure in letter writing
Appropriate Style and Vocabulary
Identify off-topic sentences
Choose specific phrases to finish sentence
New Vocabulary: poem, letter, story, ad, statement, command, question, exclamation,
style, sentence, rhyme, book, paragraph

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Variety of Formats
Use all four sentence types
Focus on sentence question structure
Write in the imaginative mode
Write clear directions
Write concise telephone messages
Define the parts of narrative writing
Appropriate Style and Vocabulary
Identify topic sentence
Identify correct paragraph
Given four sentences choose the one that does not belong
Choose a sentence to add to the paragraph that is on-topic
Use strong concluding sentences
When given four simple sentences choose the best sentence order
Choose the first sentence for the paragraph
Use strong topic sentences
Use correct greetings in a friendly letter
Use correct format for business letters
Use correct capitalization in greetings and closures
New Vocabulary: missing word, first, ending, last, greeting, describe


Composition Structure/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Variety of Formats
Write a job application paragraph
Select appropriate titles for reports
Appropriate Style and Vocabulary
When given a 4-6 sentence paragraph, choose the off-topic sentence
When given a series of short sentences, choose the group that iterates one idea
Appropriate Format
Use indentation for new paragraph
Focus on declarative sentence structure
When given four simple and compound sentences, choose the chronological order
Choose sentence order when writing directions
New Vocabulary: topic sentence, best order, correct order, chronological order, parts of a
letter, passage, complete sentence, main idea

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Appropriate Style and Vocabulary
Use strong topic sentences
Plan for strong conclusions
When given a 5-8 sentence paragraph, edit for off-topic sentences
When reading a short story choose the best ending
Choose the correct paragraph that best explains an action
Focus on imperative sentence structure
Answer standard questions when writing a news story
Appropriate Format
Use correct letter format
Develop paragraph with specific details
Edit paragraph format for fragment and run-on sentences
Variety of Elements
Use imagery in poetry
New Vocabulary: title, information, review, authors purpose, narration, persuasion,
sequence, composition

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Appropriate Style and Vocabulary
Focus on exclamatory sentence structure
Choose the best definition for the term topic sentence
Appropriate Format
Combine sentences into paragraph structure
Look for patterns of organization in a paragraph
Order sentences into a concise paragraph
Give directions in a systematic order
Use correct business letter structure
Define parts of a research paper
Define purposes of poetry (i.e. feelings, moods, expressions)
Composition Structure/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Composition Structure/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Define paragraph by genre
Identify parts of the newspaper
New Vocabulary: exclamatory sentence, encyclopedia, supporting detail

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Appropriate Style and Vocabulary
Choose best opening paragraph in a narrative piece of writing
Use of vocabulary of declarative, imperative, interrogative and exclamatory terms
Appropriate Format
Use standard forms of indentation
Review several paragraphs and choose the best organization
Determine the pattern of organization in a lengthy passage
Details
Select clear details for paragraph
Composition Forms
Write limericks
Define composition forms in lengthy passages
Variety of Components
Edit sentences into multi-paragraphs
Determine method of organization (i.e. order of events, from examples to main
idea, go from main idea to examples)
New Vocabulary: limerick, formal essay, drama, declarative sentence, imperative
sentence, interrogative sentence, tone, mood, pattern of organization

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Variety of Formats
Write in the persuasive mode
Variety of Elements
Determine mode by reading a lengthy passage
Composition Forms
Select sentences that support topic sentences
Select sentences that support conclusion
Identify all four sentence forms within a lengthy paragraph
Variety of Components
Identify topic sentence when it is not the first sentence of the paragraph
New Vocabulary: descriptive writing, incomplete sentence

RIT Scores between 231 and 240
Composition Forms
Find the four sentence types within a given paragraph
Variety of Components
Edit sentences to create complete paragraphs
New Vocabulary: none
Basic Grammar and Usage Students show understanding of basic
sentence patterns, phrases and clauses, word forms, verb tenses,
subject-verb agreement, and pronoun-antecedent agreement.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Variety of Sentences





















Format: Short sentences, 4-6 words, using very basic vocabulary
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Format: Statements, questions, and commands
Recognize a complete sentence
Arrange words in order to form a complete sentences
Subject-Verb Agreement
Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
Third person singular or plural subject - present participle
Second person singular subject - present participle to use as first word in a
question
Subject-verb agreement in a short simple sentence
Noun Forms
Recognize the regular plural form of a noun (add s)
Recognize simple irregular plural nouns
Recognize that a noun is to be used as a direct object
Noun-Pronoun Usage Agreement
Use objective pronouns correctly: me, us, them
Use nominative pronouns correctly: he, she, or they
Use possessive pronouns correctly: her
Noun-Pronoun Antecedent
Understand that pronouns take the place of nouns
Identify the pronoun used to take the place of a singular thing
Verb Tenses
Recognize the correct use of past tense verbs (add ed)
Recognize the correct use of past progressive (was __ing)
Recognize the correct use of common irregular past tense verbs
Irregular Verb Forms
Determine the correct common irregular verb form to use in a short, simple
sentence
Adjective Forms
Recognize the correct use of comparative adjectives -er and -est
New Vocabulary: underlined, missing word, more than one, complete sentence, Standard
English, pronoun, correct



Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Variety of Sentences
Format: Short sentences, 210 words, basic vocabulary




Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Format: Statements, questions, and commands
Select words to form a complete sentence
Recognize a complete sentence
Recognize words that do not form a complete sentence



























Recognize a complete question
Recognize word order that makes sense (syntax)
Subject-Verb Agreement
Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
Third person subject - linking verb
Singular subject - verb phrase
Third person plural and second person singular - correct present participle to
use as the first word in a question
Noun Forms
Recognize the regular plural form of a noun
Recognize simple irregular plural nouns
Recognize regular plural nouns needing es ending
Recognize the correct use of a singular possessive noun
Identify a noun
Pronoun Forms
Understand the meaning of possessive pronouns used in a sentence
Noun-Pronoun Usage Agreement
Use objective pronouns correctly: us, him, her, them
Identify the pronoun used to take the place of a compound or singular subject
Recognize correct and incorrect use of demonstrative pronouns them and
those
Use nominative pronouns correctly: he, she, we
Use indefinite pronouns correctly: all, some, none
Use the pronoun I correctly in a compound subject
Use objective pronouns correctly in compound direct objects: ___ and us
Use possessive pronouns correctly: hers, his
Noun-Pronoun Antecedent
Recognize that ___ and I = we
Use the correct pronoun to match the number and gender of the subject: he, they,
him
Identify the noun in one sentence replaced by a pronoun in another
Verb Tenses
Recognize the correct use of present tense verbs (will ____)
Recognize the correct use of common irregular past tense verbs
Recognize past tense verbs used correctly in sentences
Recognize the correct use of present progressive verbs (is __ing)
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence






Distinguish which sentence tells past tense
Recognize the correct use of a past tense helping or auxiliary verb
Identify the correct irregular past tense form of a verb
Irregular Verb Forms
Format: Single word verbs only in this RIT range
Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence (range of difficulty from
come/came to catch/caught)
Determine the correct verb forms to use in a compound or complex sentence
Adjective Forms
In a short, simple sentence, use an adjective that tells what kind















Use comparatives good, better, best correctly
Use comparative er correctly
Use superlative est correctly
Adverb Forms
Use adverbs telling how
Recognize phrases that tell where or when
Use comparative adverbs telling how correctly
Recognize the correct use and meaning of a prepositional phrase containing
under
Understand the meaning of a phrase telling when
Phrases
Format: Short, simple sentences with basic vocabulary
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct use of negative phrase doesnt have
New Vocabulary: noun, past tense, wrong, word order

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Variety of Sentences
Format: Sentences become more complex, with more difficult vocabulary; simple
paragraph
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Format: Statements, questions, and commands
Recognize word order specific to a question
Identify/recognize complete sentences with adverb phrases or nouns of direct
address at beginning (comma in sentence)
Select words in two places to form a complete sentence
Identify a group of words as an incomplete sentence


Identify sentences containing more than one idea
Identify a group of words that do not form a complete sentence requiring very
careful reading
Subject-Verb Agreement
Identify the subject and predicate of a sentence


Recognize word order necessary to form a complete sentence
Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Singular or plural subject - verb phrase

































Compound subject or third person plural subject - linking verb or present
participle
Third person singular subject - auxiliary verb
Third person singular or plural subject main verb
First person plural subject main verb
Noun Forms
Recognize a regular plural noun used in a sentence
Recognize an irregular plural noun used in a sentence
Recognize the irregular plural form of a noun
Recognize the correct plural spelling of a noun ending in y
Noun-Pronoun Usage/Agreement
Identify the pronoun used to take the place of ___ and me
Use possessive pronouns correctly: their
Use reflexive pronouns correctly: myself, themselves
Identity pronouns used to replace singular or plural things: it, them
Use objective pronouns correctly: her, him
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of I in a compound subject (___ and
I)
Use nominative pronouns correctly by matching gender
Use indefinite pronouns correctly: everyone
Identify pronouns used to replace singular or plural nouns: her, they
Noun-Pronoun Antecedent
Use the correct pronoun in a sentence to match number, gender, thing in a
previous sentence: it, her, they, he, his, himself
Identify the noun in one sentence referred to by a nominative or possessive noun
in another
Verb Tenses
Recognize a sentence that tells past action or events
Identify the correct past tense form of common irregular verbs
Recognize or determine the correct use of common irregular past tense verbs
Recognize or determine the correct use of past tense helping or auxiliary verbs
Determine the correct use of a verb phrase
Recognize the correct use of gerunds
Recognize the correct use of regular past tense verbs
Determine the correct verb tense to use in a sentence
Recognize or determine the correct use of future tense verbs and verb phrases
Identify which word is a verb
Irregular Verb Forms
Determine which verb to use in a sentence
Determine which verb phrase to use in a sentence
Determine which verb to use in a sentence that has an auxiliary verb
Identify the past tense of an irregular verb
Adjective Forms
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
































Use comparative adjectives (-er, -est) correctly
Use comparatives good, better, best correctly
Identify a word describing a noun in a sentence
Recognize the correct use of comparative adjectives
Use superlative adjectives correctly
Adverb Forms
Understand that adverbs can tell where, when, or how;
Identify adverbs that tell where
Use ly adverbs correctly
Understand the meaning of a phrase telling where
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: cant anybody;
doesnt any; have never had any
New Vocabulary: subject, predicate, incomplete sentence, run-on sentence, phrase, verb,
plural, question, paragraph, singular, action word, verb phrase, clause

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Variety of Sentences
Format: Sentences in this RIT range often begin with prepositional or adverb
phrases
Recognize that sentences can tell past, present or future actions
Identify a sentence that tells past action
Identify a sentence that tells future action
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Recognize sentences that are complete and not complete
Complete sentences with the correct phrase
Recognize complete sentences containing only a noun and a verb
Identify a simple sentence
Identify the correct word order to form a sentence
Identify a group of words as an incomplete sentence
Identify two sentences with different word order but the same meaning
Turn a clause into a complete sentence
Subject-Verb Agreement
Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
Compound subject linking verb
Compound subject verb phrase
Third person singular subject main verb
Plural subject auxiliary verb or verb phrase
Noun Forms
Identify a word as a noun
Identify which is the noun in a sentence
Recognize the correct plural form of a noun used in a sentence
Recognize plural nouns needing the es ending
Recognize a noun that is not plural
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001
Recognize the irregular plural form of a noun
Identify which is not a correct irregular plural noun
Recognize the correct use of a singular possessive noun






Noun-Pronoun Usage/Agreement
Use possessive pronouns correctly: their, theirs, his, hers, its
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of she/her as subject or object
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of I in a compound subject or in a list
Identify the pronoun used to take the place of names in the objective case: them
Use reflexive pronouns correctly: themselves
Recognize the correct use of whom (With whom are you?)
Verb Tenses
Identify the past tense of a verb





















Determine which verb to use in a question that has an auxiliary verb at the
beginning of the sentence
Recognize or determine the correct use of regular past tense verbs
Determine the correct verb to use in a sentence with auxiliary verbs
Tell the meaning of past tense of a verb
Determine the correct verb to use to tell future actions
Irregular Verb Forms
Identify common irregular past tense forms of verbs
Recognize more difficult irregular verb forms
Recognize or determine the correct use of irregular past tense verbs
Adjective Forms
Use comparatives bad, worse, worst correctly
Use comparatives more, most correctly
Use comparative adjectives (-er, -est) correctly
Recognize correctly and incorrectly used comparative forms
Use adjectives telling what kind
Adverb Forms
Use adverbs telling when correctly
Use comparative adverbs telling when
Phrases
Understand the meaning of a phrase telling why
Recognize phrases telling how or where
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: isnt any; has no;
doesnt have; havent any
Subject and Predicate
Identify the subject of a sentence
Identify a complete sentence where the predicate is written first
Recognize where to divide a sentence between the subject and the predicate
New Vocabulary: simple sentence, comparative forms, suffix

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001
Variety of Sentences
















Sentences have more complex syntax and phrasing, more difficult vocabulary
Identify sentences that tell past, present, or future
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Identify compound sentences
Identify sentence patterns (some articles and possessive pronouns used in short,
simple sentences): nounverb, noun-verb-noun
Change the word order and keep the same meaning
Add a phrase to form a complete sentence
Verbalize what sentence part is needed to form a complete sentence: subject,
object, adjective, or subordinate clause
Subject-Verb Agreement
Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
Singular subject linking verb
Singular subject main verb
Plural subject linking verb
Plural subject auxiliary verb
Noun Forms
Recognize the correct plural form of a noun
Understand the meaning of a singular possessive noun
Recognize the correct irregular plural form of a noun
Identify which word is not a plural noun
Recognize the correct use of a plural noun in a sentence







Distinguish possessive nouns from contractions
Recognize a collective noun as being singular, distinguishing it from plural nouns
Pronoun Forms
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of nominative, objective, possessive, and
demonstrative pronouns
Use objective pronouns correctly in a complex sentence: Everyone except ___
Recognize correct and incorrect use of their, theyre, and there
Use reflexive pronouns correctly: themselves
Noun-Pronoun Antecedent
Identify the noun replaced by a pronoun
Replace more than one noun with the correct pronouns, matching gender and type
of pronoun: nominative, objective, and possessive







Use the correct pronoun in one sentence to match the number and gender in
another: them
Verb Tenses
Understand the tense and meaning of verbs, replace with similar verbs of the same
tense and meaning
Determine the correct verb tense to use in a sentence
Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence: irregular verbs, verbs used
with auxiliary verbs
Identify present tense verbs
Determine the correct verb phrase to use in a sentence
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 7 NWEA, 2001
Irregular Verb Forms
Format: Difficulty of vocabulary increases in this RIT range


















Determine which verb to use in sentences with or without auxiliary verbs
Adjective Forms
Use comparatives less, least correctly
Understand the meaning of comparative adjectives
Identify adjectives used in a sentence
Recognize correctly and incorrectly used comparative forms
Adverb Forms
Understand that adverbs can tell where, when, or how;
Identify adverbs that tell when
Use comparative adverbs correctly
Understand the meaning of comparative adverbs
Phrases
Vocabulary: prepositional phrase
Identify a prepositional phrase
Recognize a phrase telling which
Clauses
Understand the intended meaning of a particular clause
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: no more than; hasnt
any
Recognize that two negatives in a sentence is not Standard English
Use nt contractions correctly
Subject and Predicate
Name the two main parts of a sentence
Run-On Sentences/Fragments
Recognize complete and incomplete sentences (first time this term appears)
Recognize a group of words as an incomplete sentence or a question








New Vocabulary: fragment, compound sentence, prepositional phrase, present tense,
adjective, nonstandard English, linking verb, adverb, possessive, dependent clause

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Variety of Sentences
Understand that sentences tell past, present, or future
Identify which sentence tells past
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Identify sentence patterns (sentences with articles, simple adjectives): noun-verb,
noun-verb-noun, noun-verb-verb
Identify a sentence as simple or compound
Complete sentences correctly with words or phrases
Recognize sentences with clear meaning and correct form
Name the part of the sentence needed to complete a sentence: adjective to
complete the linking verb
Recognize complete complex sentences
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 8 NWEA, 2001
Subject-Verb Agreement




Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
First person singular subject main verb
Identify a singular subject by recognizing form of the verb in the predicate
Noun Forms
Recognize which is not a correct irregular plural noun
Identify a plural possessive noun












Distinguish plural nouns from singular collective nouns, nouns that end in s, and
possessive nouns
Identify a noun that is an idea or a feeling, not just a person, place, or thing
Pronoun Forms
Identify which word in a sentence is the pronoun
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of reflexive, nominative, possessive, and
objective pronouns
Understand the meaning of a pronoun: all of us = we
Use nominative case pronouns correctly
Use nominative pronouns correctly in compound subjects
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of I in a compound subject or in a list
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of reflexive pronouns: themselves, itself,
herself, ourselves
Use indefinite pronouns in a phrase correctly: ___ of the people were (few,
each, one, either)
Verb Tenses
Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence
Identify the verb form not used correctly in a sentence
Recognize verbs that have the same form for both present and past tense












Understand that there are names for various parts of speech; identify which word
in a sentence is the verb
Determine which verb to use in a sentence in which the auxiliary verb is separated
from the main verb
Understand the meaning of a complex verb phrase
Determine which verb form is correctly used in a complex sentence
Irregular Verb Forms
Identify troublesome irregular verbs (lie/lay, sit/set, etc.)
Adjective Forms
Recognize that adjectives are words that describe things
Use comparatives -y, -ier, -iest correctly
Understand that there are names for various parts of speech; identify which word
in a sentence is the adjective
Understand the use of the adjective-forming suffix -al when added to nouns
ending in tion (inspiration, inspirational)
Understand that comparative er means to compare two things
Understand the correct use of good as an adjective, not an adverb
Adverb Forms
Format: Longer sentences, more difficult vocabulary
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 9 NWEA, 2001
























Recognize correct and incorrect use of adverbs, including comparative adverb
forms
Recognize correct and incorrect comparative adverb forms for words ending in
ly
Phrases
Recognize what part of the sentence a prepositional phrase modifies
Recognize a prepositional phrase used as an adjective
Recognize the meaning of a verb phrase
Clauses
Identify the main clause in a sentence
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct use of negatives hardly and scarcely
Subject and Predicate
Identify the subject of a sentence
Run-On Sentences/Fragments
Identify sentence fragments
New Vocabulary: modifies, main clause, plural possessive, irregular verb, simple
sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, compound-complex sentence

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Identify sentence patterns (sentences containing adjectives and helping verbs):
noun-verb, noun-verb-noun, noun-linking verb-noun
Determine the correct verb forms or verb phrases to use in compound or complex
sentences
Subject-Verb Agreement
Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:
Complex subject (one of the __s, all of the __s) linking verb
There linking verb plural noun
Indefinite pronoun linking verb
Noun Forms
Understand the meaning of a plural possessive noun
Recognize the correct possessive form of a word
Distinguish a possessive noun from a plural noun or a noun used as a contraction
with s for is
Recognize the correct irregular plural form of nouns not commonly used (Latin
roots like data-datum; open compounds like lady in waiting)
Distinguish irregular plurals from words that are not plural
Pronoun Forms
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of nominative and objective case
pronouns in complex sentences
Use nominative pronouns followed by a noun correctly: We boys will
Use nominative pronouns correctly as the first word in a compound subject
Use indefinite pronouns correctly: ___ of the girls is (many, some, either,
several)
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 10 NWEA, 2001
Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 11 NWEA, 2001






















Distinguish that used as a pronoun from that used as an adjective
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of who, whos, and whose
Verb Tenses
Recognize sentences in which the subject of the sentence is the doer of the
action
Irregular Verb Forms
Determine which verb to use in a sentence with or without an auxiliary verb
Identify correct form of less commonly used irregular verbs
Adjective Forms
Recognize correctly and incorrectly used comparative forms, use tricky context
clues to determine correct use
Phrases
Recognize a simple noun phrase
Recognize and identify a prepositional phrase containing in, toward, with,
around, into
Clauses
Identify a dependent clause
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of negatives hardly and scarcely
Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: havent anything
Subject and Predicate
Identify the predicate of a sentence
Identify the part needed to complete a sentence: subject, object, or adjective to
complete the linking verb
Verbalize that a predicate contains a verb
New Vocabulary: noun phrase, dependent clause, possessive noun, conjunction

RIT Scores between 231 and 240
Sentence Structure/Type/Kind
Identify a complex sentence
Noun Forms
Recognize the correct plural spelling of a noun ending in y when just an s is
added
Recognize the correct plural forms of irregular and not frequently used plurals
Noun-Pronoun Antecedent
Recognize clear or unclear pronouns-antecedents
Phrases
Recognize and identify a prepositional phrase containing within
Recognize adverb and adjective phrases
Negative Forms
Recognize the correct and incorrect use of negatives hardly and barely
Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence with complex
phrasing: has nothing; arent any; hasnt he ever; isnt any; scarcely had we
New Vocabulary: adverb phrase, adjective phrase, pronouns antecedent

Punctuation Students understand end punctuation, comma usage,
apostrophes, enclosing punctuation, and underlining for titles

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Use Commas Appropriately
Correctly place commas in the date
Use Appropriate End Punctuation
Use question marks on 3-4 word interrogative sentences
Use periods on imperative sentences
Use periods on declarative sentences
Use exclamation marks on exclamatory sentences
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes in contractions with verb and not
New Vocabulary: comma, contraction, punctuate, right mark, sentence

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Use Commas Appropriately
Use commas in a series
Use Appropriate End Punctuation
Identify punctuation never used at the end of the sentence
Use question, period, or exclamation mark at the end of 5-8 word sentences
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes in singular possessives
New Vocabulary: punctuation mark, exclamation point, question mark, apostrophe,
period

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Use Commas Appropriately
Use commas in personal greetings
Use commas in introductory words, (i.e. well, no, sorry)
Use commas between two main clauses
Use commas after introductory clauses
Use commas after introductory adverbial clauses
Use commas in a letter closing
Use commas after direct address
Use commas between city and state
Use Appropriate End Punctuation
Use correct end punctuation on a collection of sentences
Use question marks correctly when writing a friendly letter
Appropriate Marks in Dialogue
Use quotation marks for direct conversation

Punctuation/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes in irregular contractions
New Vocabulary: letter, ownership

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Use Commas Appropriately
Use commas around parenthetical phrases
Use Appropriate End Punctuation
Use correct end punctuation in 8-10 word sentences
Mark each end punctuation correctly when writing a multi-paragraph friendly
letter
Appropriate Marks in Dialogue
Use quotation on both sides of split direct conversation
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes in pronoun contractions
Use Underlining for Titles
Underline book titles
Dependent and Independent Clauses/Comma Usage
Use commas in dependant clauses
Use commas between two main clauses
Use commas in a compound sentence
Prepositional, Participle and Appositive Phrases/Comma Usage
Use commas after participial phrases
Use commas after an introductory adjective phrase
Use commas around appositives
New Vocabulary: quotation marks, possession, address, phrase, salutation, colon,
semicolon

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Use Commas Appropriately
Use commas after a direct address in an imperative sentence
Use commas after participial phrases in a lengthy paragraph
Use commas in non-essential parenthetical phrases
Use commas around interrupting phrases contained within the sentence
Use Appropriate End Punctuation
Identify different meanings of the same sentence when end punctuation is
changed
Identify incorrect end punctuation
Identify periods when given a paragraph
Appropriate Marks in Dialogue
Use quotations in titles
Use parentheses around non-essential phrases
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes in possessive plurals
Use apostrophes with helping verb and not
Punctuation/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Punctuation/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Dependent and Independent Clauses/Comma Usage
Use commas between two main clauses in a complex sentence
Prepositional, Participle and Appositive Phrases/Comma Usage
Use commas after participial phrases in a lengthy paragraph
New Vocabulary: parentheses, hyphen, rough draft

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Use Commas Appropriately
Use commas in a direct quotation
Use commas around non-essential phrases
Use Appropriate End Punctuation
Identify correct punctuation in a 16-20 word compound sentence
Use correct punctuation when sentence ends with an abbreviation
Identify correct punctuation in a 5-7 sentence paragraph
Appropriate Marks in Dialogue
Use quotations in quoted material
Use single quotation inside quotation marks
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes for subject and helping verb contractions
Use Underlining for Titles
Underline movie titles
Underline magazine titles
Dependent and Independent Clauses/Comma Usage
Use commas between two main clauses in a compound complex sentence
New Vocabulary: possessive noun

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Use Commas Appropriately
Use commas to separate adverbial introductory clauses in a complex sentence
Use Apostrophes
Use apostrophes for plural possessives in a compound sentence
Use Underlining for Titles
Underline play titles
New Vocabulary: plural possessive

RIT Scores between 231 and 240
Prepositional, Participle and Appositive Phrases/Comma Usage
Use commas around dependant clauses in compound, complex sentences
New Vocabulary: none

Capitalization Students can use beginning capitalization, and can
properly capitalize proper nouns, adjectives, and the pronoun I.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Proper Nouns
Particular place names: cities, vacation spots, rivers, states
Days and months
Family, personal, or professional titles: Dr., Uncle __, Rev., Miss, Mrs.
Names of people
Holidays
Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization
Format: Short sentences, simple vocabulary
Capitalize the first word in the sentence
Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I
Vocabulary capitalized
Lack of capital for I the only error to identify
New Vocabulary: capital letter, capitalized, underlined, sentence, missing words

RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Proper Nouns
Particular place names: states, city and state (both)
Names of people: first, middle, and last
Nationalities
Street names
Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization
Capitalize the first word in the sentence
Capitalize Dear in a letter greeting
Capitalize Love in a letter closing
Capitalize only the first word in a sentence of common nouns
Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I
Generalize the rule: always capitalize I
Identify or correct several errors including I in one sentence
Fundamental Rules/Nouns
Differentiate between common and proper nouns
Correctly capitalize up to four words in the same sentence
Identify nouns correctly or incorrectly capitalized
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
Abbreviated professional and personal titles: Mr., Mrs., Dr.
Initials
Book titles
Professional titles (Mayor ___, Congressman ___)
New Vocabulary: pronoun, name
Capitalization/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Proper Nouns
Names of people: full name, including initials and titles
Places: countries, cities, states, vacation spots
Pets names
Historical events
Course names
Names of organizations
Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization
Capitalize the first word in the sentence
Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter
Capitalize the beginning of each sentence in a short group of sentences
Recognize a group of words as a sentence and capitalize the first word
Capitalize first word and names
Identify a sentence in which the first word is not correctly capitalized
Capitalize only the first word in a sentence without proper nouns
Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I
Identify or correct several errors including I in one sentence
Identify I errors twice in the same sentence
Fundamental Rules/Nouns
Format: Towards the end of this range, some of the items require reading multiple
sentences in one passage
Identify nouns correctly or incorrectly capitalized
Correctly capitalize up to four words in the same sentence
Distinguish between common and proper nouns
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
Capitalize first word of a quotation
Book or movie titles
Professional titles
New Vocabulary: greeting, letter, title, note, list

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Proper Nouns
Places: rivers, mountains, countries, states, cities, monuments, buildings, points of
interest
Organizations and government bodies
Peoples full names, including initials and titles
Identify a proper noun
Company and product names
Nationalities and languages
Team names
Fundamental Rules
Format: Most of the items in this range require correct identification of more than
one capitalization error, either missing capitals or incorrect capitals
Distinguish between common and proper nouns
Capitalization/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Generalize rules of capitalization
Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization
Capitalize the first word in the sentence
Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter
Capitalize only the first word in a sentence without proper nouns
Capitalize the beginning of each sentence in a group of sentences
Capitalize first word and proper nouns
Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I
Identify the sentence not capitalized correctly (I the error)
Identify I errors twice in the same sentence
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
Capitalize the first word in the sentence and the first word of a quotation
Verbalize the rule telling which word in a quotation is always capitalized
Book, movie, TV show, magazine titles: know which words to and not to
capitalize
New Vocabulary: direct quotation, proper noun, place, phrase, address, magazine

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Proper Nouns
Full names, including titles and initials
Particular places, points of interest, buildings, monuments
Teams, organization, government bodies
Countries and continents
Historical events and eras
Companies, stores, products
Classes, schools
Ships
Identify proper nouns
Fundamental Rules
Format: Most of the items in this range require correct identification of more that
one capitalization error, either missing capitals or incorrect capitals
Format: Longer passages in many of the items
Generalize rules of when to capitalize the first word: sentences, poems, letter
greetings
Differentiate between similar common and proper nouns
Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization
Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter
Capitalize the first word in the sentence
Capitalize only the first word in a multi-word greeting or closing
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
Capitalize first word of a quotation
Distinguish sentences using quotations that are not capitalized correctly
Capitalize the first word in the sentence and the first word of a quotation
Capitalize the first word in the sentence, the first word of a quotation, and proper
nouns
Capitalization/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001
Capitalize the beginning of each sentence in a group of sentences, including
quotations within sentences
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
Radio and TV station initials
All titles: which words should and should not be capitalized
Compass directions: when they are correctly and incorrectly capitalized
New Vocabulary: closing, book title, paragraph

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Proper Nouns
Countries, nationalities, languages
Holidays, special events
Places, rivers, parks, bridges, monuments
Artistic groups
Buildings, businesses, stores
Fundamental Rules
Format: Most items also call on finer distinctions between common and proper
nouns, depending on how they are used in the sentence (Mother, my mother)
Format: Sentences contain various combinations of correctly and incorrectly used
capital letters, generally relating to use in quotations, but also first words in
sentences, proper/common nouns, capitalizing multiple sentences in a paragraph
All titles: what to capitalize and what not to capitalize
Generalize capitalization rules
Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization
Capitalize only the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter with no proper
nouns
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
In a quotation, capitalize only the first word if the sentence continues past the part
identifying the speaker
Compass directions when to and not to capitalize them
Full names, including titles
New Vocabulary: none

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Proper Nouns
Full names, professional and family titles
Holidays and special events
Nationalities, languages, countries, continents
Towns, cities, particular geographic locations (___ Valley, Mt. ___)
Organizations, clubs, teams, groups
Classes, courses
Religions



Capitalization/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001
Capitalization/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001
Fundamental Rules
Format: Sentences contain various combinations of correctly and incorrectly used
capital letters, generally relating to use in quotations, but also first words in
sentences, and proper/common nouns
Distinctions between common and proper nouns, depending on how they are used
in the sentence (Mother, my mother)
Generalization of capitalization rules classifying types of nouns that should be
capitalized
When to capitalize family relationships
Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings
In a quotation, capitalize only the first word if the sentence continues past the part
identifying the speaker
All titles
New Vocabulary: none

Spelling Students show understanding of forming words from letters
according to accepted standard usage.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170
Accuracy and High-Frequency Words
Recognize common words that have been misspelled, either by sight or by
applying basic rules of phonics



















RIT Scores between 171 and 180
Conventional Rules
Recognize words misspelled when endings added: double final consonant, add -
ed; drop e, add ing
Accuracy and High-Frequency Words
Format: Short, one- or two- syllable words, frequently used words
Recognize common words that have been misspelled, either by sight or by
applying basic rules of phonics

RIT Scores between 181 and 190
Conventional Rules
Recognize misspelled common compound words
Distinguish the correct spelling of a word from incorrect versions
Identify two words misspelled in one sentence
Recognize the correct spelling of a plural noun: change y to i and add -es
Recognize a sentence in which all words are correctly spelled (up to 8 words)
Recognize an incorrectly used homograph in a sentence
Accuracy and High-Frequency Words
Format: One- or two-syllable words, with some of three-syllables at upper RIT
range
Recognize words misspelled when endings added: double final consonant, add -
ing; drop e, add ing
Application of Rules (prefixes/suffixes)
Recognize the correct spelling of root words with suffixes added: -ous, -y, -less, -
ing, -ed

RIT Scores between 191 and 200
Conventional Rules
Format: Many longer words: three and four syllables
Format: Less frequently used words
Distinguish the correct spelling of a word from incorrect versions
Recognize the correct spelling of ui words
Recognize the correct spelling of ie or ei words


Spelling/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001
Spelling/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001
Application of Rules (prefixes/suffixes)






Recognize correct application of basic spelling rules:
Change y to i and add ending
Change f to v and add es
Drop final e and add ing, -ed, or ous
Recognize correct and incorrect spellings of root words with affixes: un-, -ly, a-,
dis-, -able, im-, mis-, -ful, -ness
Recognize the correct spelling/pronunciation of words ending in th or the
High-Frequency Spelling Words
Recognize common words that have been misspelled, either by sight or by
applying basic rules of phonics
Recognize the correct spelling and use of homographs
Recognize the correct spelling and use of the contraction its

RIT Scores between 201 and 210
Conventional Rules
Distinguish the correct spelling of a word from incorrect versions
Identify which word is or is not spelled correctly
Application of Rules (prefixes/suffixes)
Recognize correctly and incorrectly applied basic spelling rules when adding
endings or affixes
Recognize when to double final consonant before adding ending
High-Frequency Spelling Words
Format: Generally more difficult, commonly misspelled words

RIT Scores between 211 and 220
Conventional Rules
Troublesome spelling patterns:
-ance/-ence
ei/ie
-ary/-ery
plural form of words ending in o

RIT Scores between 221 and 230
Conventional Rules
Tricky, troublesome words
Distinguish which homograph is not correctly used