You are on page 1of 10

ABSTRACT

TITLE OF THE RESEARCH

: LIVED EXPERIENCES OF TYPHOON


YOLANDA VICTIMS

AUTHORS

: CAPACIO, K. D.ET AL

INSTITUTION

UNIVERSITYOF

SAN

JOSE

RECOLETOS
DEGREE

: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING

DATE OF COMPLETITION

:OCTOBER 2014

ADVISER

: TONETTE M. VILLANUEVA, RN, MN

Having something taken away from you in the blink of an eye is hard
for anyone. When November 8, 2013 came around, bringing Typhoon Yolanda with
it, this day became one of the most disastrous events in Philippine history to date,
taking hundreds of thousands of lives. The research was greatly concerned about
the lived experiences of the Typhoon Yolanda victims, and to develop and
understanding and awareness about the experiences that they underwent during
that time.. This phenomenological study was conducted in various places in Cebu
and Leyte, interviewing the informants wherever possible and convenient, utilizing
purposive, no random probability sampling method focusing on seven informants.
The key informants were selected using a specific criteria and interviewed
individually utilizing a research-guide questionnaire and then transcribed using the

recordings taken during the interview. The data were interpreted and analyzed
utilizing Giorgis method.
After all the data gathered about the lived experience of bullied
students, the researchers were able to come up with three major themes. First
theme was Overwhelming Negativity which embodied the informants statements
that they experienced various negative feelings such as fear, worry, and stress
during the typhoon period. The typhoon caused various stresses on them. The
second theme was Fire of Survival. The informants were able to think on their feet
and work on what they needed to do in order to survive. Third theme was
Adaptation at its finest. This theme meant that the informants were able to adapt
perfectly to their surroundings, although it took time and much effort on their part.
We conclude that the informants were able to bounce back on their feet despite the
difficulties experienced.
THE PROBLEM
Statement

of

the

Problem

This study aims to find out the different lived experiences of the victims of
Typhoon

Yolanda.
Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following sub-problems:

1. How would the victims describe their lived experiences?


A. Psychological- Emotional
B. Physical

C. Social
D. Financial
E. Spiritual
2. What are the recurring themes can be deduced from their informants' dialogues?
3. Based on the findings of the study, what would be the needed programs to be
developed for future unexpected situations?
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Method
In this study, we decided to make use of interpretative phenomenology in
an attempt to describe the meaning of the key informants lived experiences during
and after the occurrence of Typhoon Yolanda. The developer of interpretative
phenomenology, or hermeneutics, Heidegger (1962), said that the question that
should be primarily answered is 'What is being?'. The term hermeneutics is the
philosophy and art of interpreting the meaning of an object, or example, giving
reactions to a certain work of art. In this kind of phenomenology, we the researchers
should not just describe their lived experiences, but also interpret and understand
these experiences. (Polit, 2012) We, the researchers, are tasked to continually
question the meaning of the narratives given to us by the informants. Through this
design, we rely primarily on in depth interviews, and making use of open ended,
probing questions. Interpretative phenomenology requires an open mind, as the
researchers must be open to hearing other ideas, and interpreting them into different

themes and ideas.

Research Environment
Tacloban and Palo are located in Northern Leyte, with map coordinates of
1115'N and 12458'E. These areas were affected by a landfall during the typhoon.
These places have a wide population that can help the researchers find their key
informants. Another reason why we decided to choose this province among all the
other provinces that were struck by this calamity is because of the high death toll in
the area, (an estimated 6,000 people) compared to Medellin (1 death) and Bantayan
Island. (at least 7 deaths)
The province of Leyte is divided into two provinces, North and South Leyte.
Tacloban and Palo are located in the North province of Leyte. Being on the Eastmost side of the Philippines, Samar and Leyte have each had their share of strong
typhoons. Facing the Pacific Ocean, Samar and Leyte are prone to many typhoons
and tropical storms. For example, there were many
Tacloban City is one of the 12 cities that were assessed by World Wide
Fund (WWF)-Philippines, and also some other experts from the year 2011 to 2013.
The result of the study was that Tacloban City's large population, the high level of
urbanization, location, and the weak coastal areas, were all factors that contributed
to Tacloban's vulnerability against typhoons and other natural disasters.
An article published on Rappler stated that during the entire duration of
Typhoon Yolanda, there were five (5) landfalls. The first landfall happened in Guiuan
town of Eastern Samar at 4:40 am Friday, the second in Tolosa town, Leyte, at 7 am,

the third landfall was in Daang Bantayan in Cebu at 10 am, the fourth landfall in
Bantayan Island at 10:40 am, and the fifth in Concepcion town in Iloilo at 12 noon.
(Fonbuena, 2013) Referring to the map below, we can see that Tolosan is actually
very close to Tacloban, Leyte. Much of the damage noted was in Tacloban and Palo,
and the deaths in these areas was feared to be almost 10,000, due to the mass
destruction

observed

during

the

typhoon.

Research Sampling and Sampling Technique


We purposely chose the key informants of this study and were composed of
7 selected residents of Palo, and Tacloban, who were directly affected by the
destruction caused by Typhoon Yolanda, which age ranges from 18-50 years old.
The sampling method used was the Purposive Sampling technique, more
specifically, the maximum variation sampling. We are utilizing this sampling
technique, since it would benefit the study greatly if the informants were purposely
chosen, based on a criteria that would most benefit the study. The key informants
were chosen according to the impact of destruction that Typhoon Yolanda caused
when it affected their families and if there was an occurrence of a landfall in their
area. The selected informants were also proved to have a clear state of mind, living
with his/her family at the time of the typhoon and with fatalities in the family as a
direct effect of the typhoon.

Research Informants

The key informants of this study are composed of 7 selected residents of


Tacloban and Palo, Leyte, who were (1) in the area where a landfall occurred during
the time of the Typhoon, (2) with their ages ranging from 18-50 years old, (3) were of
clear state of mind, (4) living with his/her family during the typhoon, (5) a resident of
either Tacloban or Palo, (7) must either be fluent in Tagalog and/or Cebuano, and (6)
was in the area during the actual landfall. A person with a clear state of mind will be
defined as someone who is able to state his/her name, age, address, date and time
during the interview. One of our members has an aunt who is a doctor, and we will
ask for help for proper referral with regards to the informants psychological
capabilities and mental health.

Research Instrument
We, the researchers, are the main instruments in this study. However,
we will be assisted with a pre-made guided questionnaire. We will also be making
use of field notes, and a hand held recorder. Our main media of interviewing will be
a face to face interview with each of the informants.

Research Procedure
We will send a letter to the different Municipal Health offices in the
selected areas. Once the letter has been approved, we will proceed with the study,
using the purposive sampling method as we selected the key informants. They will
be then interviewed individually for at least one hour, utilizing the language or dialect
that is most comfortable to the key informants.

During the interview, the key informants will answer the questions that
are addressed to them by us. According to the University of Columbia (n. d), there
are four principles that are to be observed during interviews. These principles are as
follows: (1) to prepare carefully, familiarizing yourself with as much background as
possible, (2) to establish a relationship with the source conducive to obtaining
information, (3) ask questions that are relent to the source and that induce the
source to talk, and (4) listen and watch attentively. We will follow these principles
carefully, in order to facilitate a meaningful interview which will yield results that will
benefit to our study. The questions themselves will be broad, open - ended and
probing in nature, in order to make sure that the informant will be given enough
leeway to answer the questions properly. We will then take field notes of the
informant's responses. Field notes are broader and more analytic that a simple
listing of occurrences. The field notes contain a narrative account of what is
happening in the field, and also serve as data for analysis. Our field notes should
provide a great wealth of detail, since the importance of these datas will surface
much later in the study.
Beck (2002) states four different kinds of field notes: (1) Observational,
which are objective descriptions of observed events and conversations, and of other
details such as the subject's actions and dialogue, (2) theoretical notes, which
document the researcher's thoughts and their understanding of the events that are
transpiring, (3) Methodologic notes, which are reflections about observational
strategies, and lastly, (4) personal notes, which are the researchers personal
comments or feelings about the phenomenon.

Importance should be given to the key informants non-verbal features,


to achieve a successful phenomenological qualitative study. There should be a
parallelism of the informant's verbal and non - verbal responses. A post interview will
also be conducted to validate the informants responses.
With regards to the language barrier, our group has decided on
choosing informants who were fluent in either or both Tagalog and Cebuano, to
avoid confusion with the local dialect in Leyte, which is Waray. The researchers
believe that this will foster a better interview, and aid with proper questioning and
communication.

Ethical Considerations
We must remember to integrate our research ethics into our research
study. According to Walton of Research Ethics Canada (2001), research ethics has
three objectives: (1) to protect human participants, (2) to conduct research so that
the interests of individuals, other groups, and society as a whole, and (3) to examine
specific research activities and projects for their ethical soundness. We will achieve
the aforementioned objectives, while taking care to follow the different principles of
health ethics, most specifically but not limited to the principles of honesty, integrity,
carefulness, confidentiality, benevolence and non-discrimination. Since we are
dealing with actual people and their experiences, we will take into consideration the
pain and suffering that they have undergone, and will treat them respect. We will
also remember to maintain confidentiality regarding their identities and other
personal details, and stick to a word-for-word narration of their experiences, taking

care not to leave out or add any untruthful statements. As of the time of writing, we,
the researchers, are still in the process of having this study screened by the proper
ethics screening board in the university, so that our research will prove to have a
good show of ethics.
Another important part of our research ethics is the provision of an
informed consent. An informed consent means that the participants have been given
and have adequate information about the research, understand it clearly, and have
the ability to consent or decline participation voluntarily (Polit, 2012). The informed
consent is a very important tool and part of the research process since it is a
necessity for the legal process of our research work. Our informants have rights, as
well, and this informed consent will protect their rights, and also inform them of their
rights. Some components that are stated in the informed consent are the nature of
the commitment, potential risks, potential benefits, compensation, confidentiality
pledge, voluntary consent, the right to withdraw and withhold information, and the
researchers' contact information. Rest assured, all of these components and more
will be included in the informed consent that we will let the chosen informants read.
The narratives that were collected were then analyzed using Giorgi's
method of data analysis of phenomenological studies and will be given thematic
interpretation. (1985) The findings and the conclusion will be brought back to the key
informants, for appropriate validation. These served as a basis in formulating a
proper future plan for evacuating and housing soon to be victims of a typhoon.
Giorgis method of phenomenological analytic methods are as follows:
(1) We will read the entire set of protocols to get a sense of the whole phenomena;

(2) We will then discriminate units from participants description of the phenomenon
that is being studied; (3) After such, we will articulate the psychological insight in
each of the meaning units that were discriminated from the previous step; and finally
(4) we will synthesize all of the transformed meaning units into a consistent
statement regarding participants experiences (referred to as the structure of the
experience); and it can be expressed on a specific or general level.