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252523433.xls.

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Kinematical Limit Analysis and Design of Soil-Nail Walls

Abdulrahman Alhabshi, EIT


Texas Tech University

This spreadsheet was developed based on the Method presented in Publication No. FHWA A-RD-89-193 by Elias and Juran (June 1991)
Please use this spreadsheet along with Charts provided in the above report

Prepared by:

Abdulrahman Alhabshi

Title

Example FHWA-RD-89-193

Units

EN

Soil Characteristics
Soil Type
Ultimate Bond Stress (pullout), Fl

Very dense silty sand and gravel


17.5 - 34.5
psi

Select Fl
g
fu

26
120
36

cu

180

psi
pcf

3744

lbs/ft2

for Dg = 5

in

psf

Wall Geometry
H
Face Batter, h
Back Slope, b
Broken Slope
Surcharge Load

40
0
0
No
No

ft
0
0

Nails Design Geometry


SV

SH

ft

Soil Nail Inclination, a


Drill Hole Diameter, Dg
Bar #

15
5
8

ft

in
Db [in]

Material Properties
Yield strength of steel nails, fy
Steel Modulus of Elasticity
Shotcrete compressive strength, fc'
Grout compressive strength, fc'

60,000
2.90E+07
4000

psi
psi
psi

3000

psi

Design Requirements
FOS for soil strength properties
FOS for pullout (Fp)

1.2
2.0

FOS for palstic bending, Fm

1.0

Allowable steel stress, 0.55 fya

33000

psi

1/4

1.00

A [in2]

0.79

252523433.xls.ms_office

Determine length of nails based on global stability


(a) determine factored soil strength:
Load Combination (AASHTO)
Ff = Fc

Group I
1.2

fD = tan-1(tanfu/Ff)

31.2

cD = cU/Fc

150.0

cD = cU/(Fc gH)

0.031

Fld = Fl / Fp

1872

(b) determine required nail length:

lbs/ft2
lbs/ft2

From charts on figures 32-35 (pp108-111) *

m = (Fl/Fp) Dg / (g SH Sv)
From charts L/H =
L = (L/H) x H

0.260
0.72
28.8

* Source FHWA-RD-89-193

f=

36

ft

Determine length of nails based on local stability


required nail length to satisfy pull-out failure criteria
I = p Db4/64
4.91E-02
EI

1.4E+06

in^4

Horizontal subgrade reaction, k h (Fig 16)

4500

k-ft2
(t/m3)

Transfer length, Lo = [4EI /(Kh Db)]1/4

13.61

in

Non-dimensional bending stiffness, N

0.256

cD (t/m2) =

0.734

kh =

286,650

pcf

N = Kh Db Lo2 / g H SvSH

From charts in appendix B interpolate, pp145

TN
TS
S/H
m = Fl Dg / g Sv SH
L/H S/H + Fp (TN/p m)
Local stability is satisfied , use L/H =

0.16
0.033
0.410
0.520
0.606
0.72

Thus, L req =
and L =

24.24
28.8

ft
ft

Design nail section


(a) determine required section with respect to breakage failure criterion
0.217
2
2 1/2
K eq = [TN + 4TS ]
0.173
K lim > Keq, Calculate As min
As min = Keq g H SvSH/ fya
0.629
in^2
The bar size is adequate
K lim = fya As / g H Sv SH

(b) check excessive bending criterion


Plastic Moment capacity, Mp

3416.56

(Mp/Lo) / (g H Sv SH)
Mmax from "p-y" analysis = 0.32 SFm TS

Mp = fy K p (Db/2)3 + 0.5 K p [(Dg/2)3-(Db/2)3]fc'

lb-ft

0.025
0.011

Mp > Mmax, minimum grout cover is satisfied

2/4

K = 0.4244

252523433.xls.ms_office

Facing Design
Tface = 0.75 TN g SH Sv H

14.4

kips

Design moment for each nail, Mnail

3.97

k-ft

Mnail = (0.9) 0.49 Tface L / 8;L = Sv

Mcenter = (0.9) 0.21 Tface L/8

1.70

k-ft

(between nails)

(a) shotcrete thickness, d


d = (1.49 Mmax )1/2 (ultimate strenght)

2.43

in + 2 in cover =

4.4

in

d = (Mmax / 0.253 )1/2 (working stress)

3.96

in + 2 in cover =

6.0

in

0.67

in^2 /ft

0.29

in^2/ft

(between nails)

0.45
0.19

in2/ft
in2/ft

(at nail)
(between nails)

(b) steel requirements


at nail
As req = 1.4 Mn / (0.9 fy (d - 0.735 As)
steel is adequate
As req = 1.4 Mn / (0.9 fy (d - 0.735 As)
Working stress
As = M / [0.8953 fy d]
As = M / [0.8953 fy d]

Q(X X
)

Bar #

L=X
X +X +XT x XT Q(X )

3/4

A [in2]

0.79

X1 =

b=

h=

H=

SV =

a=

X2 =

g=
f=
c=