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MEMB113

05 Introduction to AutoCAD
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Contents
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Overview & background


• Starting, interface & file system
• Basic drawing commands
• Basic editing commands
• View command
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Introduction
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• What is CAD?
• Computer Aided Design and Draughting
(sometimes known as CADD)
• Generally, it is the use of computers in design
and drawing processes
• Traditionally, technical drawing are made using
manual drafting. It is often require a lot of effort
and time consuming particularly for large complex
drawing.
• CAD is being used widely in modern practice. The
ability of computer that enable engineers to
produce, revise, store and transmit original drawings
has made it very important.
• Example of CAD software:
– AutoCAD, PRO/Engineer, IDEAS, UNIGRAPHICS,
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CATIA,SolidWorks, etc.

History of CAD
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Charles Barbage (1883) - developed idea for


computer.
• IC Chip Revolution => Micro-Computers and CAD.
• 1st CAD demon by Ivan Sutherland (1963) -
SKETCHPAD.
• A year later IBM produced the first commercial
CAD system.
• Many changes has taken place since then, with
the advancement of powerful computers.
• With these developments, it is now possible to do
all the designs using CAD including two-
dimensional drawings, solid modeling, complex
engineering analysis, production and
manufacturing.
• New technologies are constantly invented which
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make this process quicker, more versatile and


more powerful.

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Advantages of CAD
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Easier Creation and Corrections - Working/detail


drawings may be created more quickly and
makings changes is more efficient than correcting
drawings made by hand.
• Better Visualisation of drawings - Many systems
allow different views of the same object and 3D
pictorial view.
• Database of Drawing Aids - Designs and symbols
can be stored for easy recall and reuse.
• Increased Accuracy - Using the computer, the
drawing can be produced with more accuracy.
• Improved Filing - Drawings can be more
conveniently filed, retrieved and transmitted on
disks and tape.
• Quick Design Analysis
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• Simulation and Testing

Computer System & Component


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• A computer system consists of hardware and


software.
• Hardware is various pieces of physical
equipment that comprise a computer system.
• Software is the programs and instructions that
permit the computer to operate. Software can
be divided into two; application programs and
operating system.
• The hardware for a CAD system consists of the
physical devices used to support CAD software.
The hardware system consist of:
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Computer Operating System
• Display Devices
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• Input Devices
• Output Devices

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AutoCAD
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Why use AutoCAD?


• Wide of Use - 20,000 Installation World-wide
• 5 million user world wide
• 2 million student user world wide
• Excellent Intro. To CAD - Cost Effectiveness -
Sufficiently Complex
• Linked to Other Softwares - e.g. ANSYS, 3D-
Studio Max, etc.
• Customized Application using high level
programming language Auto-LISP
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AutoCAD
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• How AutoCAD is used?


• Electronic Paper with Drawings and Editing Tools -
Analogous to Manual Drafting
• Valuable and More Efficient in Modifying Drawings.
Object can be moved, copied, rotated, erased,
redrawn, etc. Editing in AutoCAD is faster than in
manual drawing.
• Drawing Layers to Enhance Drawing and Visibility.
AutoCAD provides a set of drawing layer which is
equivalent to the engineering layers on working
drawings.
• Storage/database of Commonly used Object.
Complex objects that are frequently used can be
stored as symbol in the library. This would
increase the productivity in the drafting work.
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Starting, Interface & File system
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Starting with AutoCAD 2002


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• How to start
– Click icon [AutoCAD 2002], or select from START menu
[Start]>Program>MDT 6>AutoCAD2002
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Starting screens
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• When AutoCAD is started, two windows will be opened


– AutoCAD 2002 and AutoCAD Today
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Starting screens
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• AutoCAD Today window – used to open or create new


drawings
Open drawing tab Create new drawing tab Option to Start from Scratch or
from Template or Wizards

Unit
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AutoCAD main window
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Pull down menu

Icons/Toolbar

UCS Drawing area


(User coordinate
system)
Cursor

Model & layout tab


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Command prompt
area

Coordinate status

Creating new drawing


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• To create new drawing:


– Template, Starting from scratch or Wizards
• Usually start from scratch
– In AutoCAD today window: Click on Create
Drawings Tab
– In ‘Select how to begin:’ box, select Start from
Scratch
– Click on Metric
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Initialising (New Drawing)
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Setting up drawing limit


– To define the drawing area and limit the grid
display
– [menu] > Format > Drawing Limits…
– In command box:

• Setting up drawing unit


– [menu] > Format > Units…
– Drawing Unit Window
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Initialising (New Drawing)


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Setting up grid and snap


– Very useful tool, as a guide in drawing Without Grid
• To activate:
– Click on button GRID or SNAP

• To modify the settings


– Right click on button GRID
– Select Settings…
Showing Grid
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Changing Grid
and Snap setting

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Opening and saving
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• To open existing file


– [menu] >File>Open or press
CTRL+O
– Or click Open Icon
• To save drawing
– [menu] >File >Save or press
CTRL+S
– Or click Save Icon
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Open Drawing Window Save Drawing Window

Printing
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Can be done from model view or from layout view (paper


space)
• From model view (Make sure in Model Tab)
– [Menu] > File > Plot or CTRL +P or click Plot Icon

Paper size Drawing


Orientation

Scale of
printout/plot
Plot area
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Preview

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Basic editing & drawing commands
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Using this guide


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Choosing an item from pull down menu


– [pd menu]
– Example:
• To draw straight line,
• [pd menu] >Design > Line
• Icon & button
– [icon item] or [button item]
– Example:
• To draw straight line click on [icon line]
• Type in command prompt
– command: command type here {enter}
– Example:
• To draw a straight line type in
• Command: line {enter}
• You just have to type in the word line and
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press the key Enter (on the keyboard)


• The command is not case sensitive

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Basic stuff
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Definitions :
– Click
• Press once and release
• Also commonly used to refer to left-click
– Left-click
• Press left-mouse button (LMB) once and release
• Commonly used to pick or choose an item
– Right-click
• Press right-mouse button (RMB) once and release
• Commonly used to access pop-up menu
– Double-click
• Commonly referred to clicking left mouse button twice
– Click-and-drag
• Commonly referred to pressing left mouse button (and not
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releasing it) and move the mouse as required


• The left mouse button is released to finish the command

Basic stuff
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• How to draw:
– using mouse, point and click in drawing area
– Type in coordinates in command prompt window
• When using the mouse
– Recommended to use snap and grid as guide
– Set snap and grid spacing accordingly

Mouse Pointer Command ‘line’


Points typed

Line drawn

Type the points here


Grid
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Drawing straight line
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• 3 methods to execute the command


– By choosing [pd menu] > Draw > Line
– By clicking [icon Line]
– By typing in at command prompt Line command
command: line {enter} or command: L
{enter}
• To draw a straight line
– Using mouse
– Using (typing) coordinate points

Line icon
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Drawing straight line


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Using a mouse
– Move the pointer to the desired location as start
point
– Click
– Move the pointer to the second point, Click
– To end the line press Enter
– To continue, move the pointer to 3rd point, Click
– Continue as required
– Use snap and grid as guides 2nd point 3rd point

4th point
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Start point End point

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Drawing straight line …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Using coordinate points, 3 methods:


– Absolute coordinate
– Relative coordinate
– Polar
3rd point (4,4)
Absolute coordinate 2nd point (1,4)
4th point (2,2)

1st point (1,1)


Origin (0,0)
5th point (4,1)
Relative coordinate
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Drawing straight line …cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Polar relative coordinate


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Drawing circle
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

– Use mouse or type in command prompt to specify


point or value – similar to drawing straight line
• To execute circle command
– [pd menu] > Draw > Circle >
– [icon circle]
– At command prompt command: circle
{enter} or command: c {enter}

Pull-down menu Shortcut Icon

Circle command

Command prompt
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3.2 Drawing circle …cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Methods to draw circles


– Center and radius
– Center and diameter
– Two points circle
– Three points circle
– Tan, tan, radius
– Tan, tan, tan

Center and radius 1. Center point (2,4)


[pd menu]

2. Radius, 1.5
Command prompt:
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Note: mouse can be used to place the center point and the radius of the circle

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Drawing circle …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Center and diameter


[pd menu] 1. Center point (2,4)

Command prompt: 2. Diameter, 3

2. 2nd point (3.5,4)


Two points
[pd menu]

1. 1st point (0.5,4)


Command prompt:
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Drawing circle …cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

3 points 1. 1st point (2,5.5)


[pd menu]
2. 2nd point (2,2.5)

Command prompt:

3. 3rd point (3.5,4)

3. Radius (1.5)
Tan tan radius 1. 1st object (line)
[pd menu]
2. 2nd object (line)
Command prompt:
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Drawing circle …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Tan tan tan 1. Select 1st line using mouse


[pd menu] 2. Select 2nd line using mouse

3. Select 3rd line using mouse


Command prompt:

Note: these 3 lines must exist on the drawing area before the circle can be drawn
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Drawing arc
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

– Use mouse or type in command prompt to specify


point or value – similar to drawing circle
• To execute arc command
– [pd menu] > Draw > Arc >
– [icon arc]
– At command prompt command: arc
{enter} or command: a {enter}

Pull-down menu Shortcut Icon

Arc shortcut icon

Command prompt
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Drawing arc …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Methods – many ways, most used


– 3 points
– Start, center, end
– Start, center, angle
– Start, end, radius

3 points
[pd menu]

3. 3rd point (2,5)


Command prompt:
2. 2nd point (1,3.5)

1. 1st point (2,2)


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Drawing arc …cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Start, center, end


[pd menu]
3. End point (2,5)
2. Center point (2,3.5)
Command prompt: 1. Start point (2,2)

Start, center, angle


[pd menu] 3. Angle (90degree)

2. Center point (2,3.5)


1. Start point (2,2)
Command prompt:
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Drawing arc …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Start, end, radius


[pd menu] 3. Radius (1.5)

2. End point (3.5,3.5)

1. Start point (2,2)

Command prompt:
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Erasing/deleting & copy entity


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Erasing or deleting entity


– using mouse
• (2) click the entity to be erased - the entity will
become dotted with several blue square
• (3) press Delete key
– to delete multiple entities, click all that need to be
deleted and press Delete key
– can also use the command prompt to delete
• command: erase {enter}
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(1) (2) (3)

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...copy entity
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• To copy entity
– can execute command from [pd menu] > Modify > Copy
– type in command prompt command: copy {enter}
• select on entity/entities to be copied
• press Enter key after selecting entity/entities
• select base point
• select position of the entity to be placed
– selecting can be done by mouse or typing the coordinate
of the entity (touching)

(1) (2) (3) (4)


Command prompt:
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Moving entity
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Moving entity/entities
– using [pd menu] > Modify > Move
– similar to copy entity

Command prompt:

– using mouse
• select entity - it will become dotted with blue
squares
• click on the blue square in the middle
• move your mouse to the desired location
• click to place the entity on the new location
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(1) (2) (3) (4)

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Scale / Resize
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• To scale or resize entity – increase or reduce


– [pd menu] > Modify > Scale
– Or command: scale {enter}
– (2) Select entities to be scaled, press Enter
– (3) Select (click) base point, mouse can be
used to scale the entities or type in scale
factor at command prompt
Command prompt:
(1)

(2)
(3)
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(4)

Line types and line thickness


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• The line type need to be loaded before it can be used


– [pd menu] > Format > Linetype…
Line Types

– Linetype Manager
dialog box will be
opened
– initially we only have
one line type which
is continuous
– click on [button
Load]
– another dialog box is
opened Load or
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Reload Linetypes

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Line types...
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

– Choose the types of


lines to be loaded by
clicking it from the
list
– click [button OK]
– the selected line will
be displayed in
Linetype Manager
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Line types...
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Line types and line thickness drop down list box

Before loading line types


After loading line types (DASHED)

Line thickness

– Select the
required line
type and line
thickness
– Draw the
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line, arc, etc

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Magnification (Zoom)
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Change the size of view, not size of


object
• Useful to draw small feature, to
view overall size, etc.
• Several options.. Commonly used
Zoom window
– Zoom window
Zoom dynamic
– Zoom all
• Can be accessed from Zoom scale
– [pd menu] > View > Zoom Zoom center
– [icon zoom] Zoom in
– Command: zoom {enter} Zoom out
Zoom realtime Zoom all
Zoom extents

- [pd menu] > View > Zoom > Realtime


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- Or click [icon Zoom Realtime]

Magnification (Zoom)…cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Zoom window
– [pd menu] > View > Zoom >Window
– [icon Zoom Window]
– Command: z {enter}
• Use mouse to specify the window (click on one
corner, drag a rectangular window around the
area to be zoom, click on the opposite corner)
After

Before 1stclick and drag


the window
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2nd click

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Magnification (Zoom)…cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Zoom all

– [pd menu] > View > Zoom > All


– [icon Zoom All]
– Command: z {enter}
• Command: a {enter}
Before After
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Magnification (Zoom)…cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Zoom realtime

- [pd menu] > View > Zoom > Realtime


Pan realtime
- Or click [icon Zoom Realtime] Zoom realtime
- Cursor icon will change to magnifying
glass Zoom window
- Press LMB, move mouse up to zoom Zoom previous
in,
- Press LMB, move mouse down to
zoom out
- Release LMB for the new view
Pan realtime
- Click [icon Pan Realtime]
- Cursor icon change to ‘hand’
- Press LMB, move mouse to move view of
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screen
- Release mouse for the new view

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Pan … cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• To move the view of the drawing


around the screen - left, right, etc..
• To access command
– [pd menu] > View > Pan >
– [icon pan]
– command: pan {enter} or
– command: p {enter}
• several options:
– most used - realtime
– others - left, right, up, down
• effect of pan similar to moving the scroll
bar (horizontal & vertical)

• REDRAW – refresh display, removing


element such as markers left from
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editing commands
• REGEN – refresh display, recalculate
all coordinates

Drawing text
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• 2 types
– Multiline text From pull down menu
– Single line text
Shortcut icon

Text icon
Single line text

• Several ways
– Type in at command prompt
• Command: text {enter}
– [pd menu] > Draw > Text > Single Line Text
– After executing the command
– Click in drawing area or type in coordinates
for start point of the text
– Type in the height of the text
– Type in the rotation, if required
– Type in the text
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– Pressing enter to go to the next line


– To end the command, press enter twice

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Drawing text …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Multiline text
• Several ways
– Type in at command prompt 1st corner
• Command: mtext {enter}
– [pd menu] > Draw > Text > Multiline Text
– [Icon Multiline Text]
• To produce multiline text
– Activate the command Opposite corner
– Click on drawing area to specify the first corner, and click again
to define the area where the text is to be drawn
– Multiline Text Editor window is displayed
– Type in the text in writing area, change its properties if required
– Click OK button to finish
Writing area Font Size Bold Italic Underline Colour Insert symbol
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Drawing text …cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

Properties tab Justify Width (box) Rotation

Line spacing tab


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Change line spacing

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Drawing aid: Object snap
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Object snap or OSNAP


– Are functions to aid the drawing process, a very useful tool
– To snap on a geometric point on an object
– Can be turned off or on by clicking OSNAP button on status bar
or press CTRL+F or F3 key
– When turned on, the cursor will jump or snap to the certain
point on an object e.g. mid-point of a line or tangent of a circle
– Includes visual aid – AutoSnap
– Several OSNAP modes available, can activate any number at a
time

Nearest
Endpoint Tangent
Quadrant Node
Midpoint Insert
Center
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Intersection Parallel
Extension
Apparent Intersection Perpendicular

Object snap …cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• OSNAP setting
– Right-click OSNAP
button
– ‘Drafting Setting’ dialog
box turns up
– Can be used to turn on
or off object snap
modes
– Symbols indicated by
each mode are shown
in drawing with yellow
marker
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Object snap …cont
MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• How to use:
– You need to have an object on drawing area
– Then you need to be in a drawing command, e.g.
CIRCLE, LINE, ARC, etc.
– Hover the mouse over the existing object,
• Yellow marker shows up with tool tip
• Indicating what type of geometric point snap can be
done
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Endpoint Midpoint Intersection Example of OTRACK

Object snap modes…cont


MEMB113 | Dept. of Mechanical Engineering | UNITEN | 2005
05 INTRO TO AUTOCAD

• Endpoint
– Snap to endpoint of the nearest entity, e.g. end of a line
• Midpoint
– Snap to the midpoint of an entity, e.g. midpoint of a straight line, or arc
• Center
– Snap to the center of entity such as circle, arc or ellipse
• Node
– Snap to the nearest point (entity)
• Quadrant
– Snap to the quarter position on the circumference of an arc, circle or ellipse
• Intersection
– Snap to the intersection of two entities
• Tangent
– Snap to the tangent of entities such as circle, arc or ellipse
• Nearest
– Snap to the nearest point on an entities
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• Perpendicular
– Snap to the point perpendicular to an entity such as straight line

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End of chapter [05]

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