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OSTEOARTHRITIS AND YOU

I.M. Doctor, M.D.


My Office
My City, State

The information in this presentation was provided to


the presenter by the American Academy of
Orthopaedic Surgeons and may be modified.
Endorsement of this presentation by the AAOS is not
implied or inferred.

Osteoarthritis and You

Orthopaedics and the Bone and Joint Decade


Osteoarthritis

What is an orthopaedic surgeon?

MD who specializes in treatment and


health maintenance of
musculoskeletal system (bones,
joints, ligaments, muscles, tendons,
cartilage and spine)

What is an orthopaedic surgeon?


The expert in treating the
musculoskeletal system
The expert in maintaining
musculoskeletal health

Educating an Orthopaedic
Surgeon

College
Medical School
Internship
Orthopaedic Residency
Fellowship (optional)
2 Years Practice

TOTAL
6

4
4
1
4
(1)
2
16 years!

What do orthopaedic surgeons do?

Diagnose
Treat
Medication
Physical
Exercise
Brace
Surgery

Prevent

Therapy

Osteoarthritis

Your Orthopaedic Surgeon

Getting You Back In The Game

Osteoarthritis

Nearly 27 million Americans age 25 and


older have osteoarthritis

46 million U.S. adults report doctordiagnosed arthritis

As the U.S. population ages, these


numbers are likely to increase dramatically.

People who have doctor-diagnosed arthritis


is projected to increase to 67 million in
2030.

Synovial Joints

Bone
Joint space
filled with
synovial fluid

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Fibrous capsule
Synovial
membran
e

Articular
cartilage

Osteoarthritis
Spine
Hips
Hands
Fingers
Knees
Feet
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Osteoarthritis (Inflammation of
Joints)
Pain

Loss of
Motion

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Avoidance
of
Motion
Increased
Muscle
Tightness

Osteoarthritis
Cartilage

Healthy
Knee
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Osteoarthritic
Knee

Who is affected by osteoarthritis?


Gender:

Before age 45, osteoarthritis occurs


more frequently in males.
After age 45, it occurs more
frequently in females

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Burden of Disease

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11 million visits to physicians offices


815,000 hospitalizations

Symptoms
Pain in affected joints
Pain worse with
prolonged overuse
Pain better with rest
and exercise
Stiffness relieved by
flexing

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Diagnosis

Physical exam
X-rays
Blood test to rule out
other diseases

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Diagnosis

Healthy knee
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Osteoarthritic knee

Diagnosis
Before your appointment:
Prepare to describe your symptoms
Gather medical history
Make list of medications

Write down questions and concerns


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Diagnosis
During Your Appointment
1.

2.

3.

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What should I expect from my


treatment?
What effect will my treatment have on
my daily activities?
What can I do to prevent further
disability?

Diagnosis
Location, duration, &
character of symptoms
Appearance of joints
Results of clinical
diagnosis tools

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Causes
Primary Osteoarthritis: Most Common
Thought to be result of aging
Decreased ability of cartilage to repair itself
Ligaments and muscles supporting joints
weaken

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Causes
Secondary Osteoarthritis
Obesity
Trauma
Surgery
Abnormal joints
Gout
Diabetes
Hormone disorders
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Treatment

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Treatment
Health and behavior modifications
Drug therapy
Intra-articular treatment
Surgery
Experimental/alternative treatments

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Medication: NSAIDs

NSAIDs are nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs


Aspirin
Ibuprofen

Naproxen

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Vitamins &
Nutritional Supplements

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Vitamins & Nutritional


Supplements

Glucosamine

Chondroitin Sulfate

Some positive results


Mild

to moderate pain relief

If

benefits not seen within 8 weeks, not


likely

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Proceed with caution

Alternative Medicine
Complementary Approaches
May:
Ease symptoms
Improve outlook and attitude

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Alternative Medicine
Complementary Approaches Will
Not:
Cure acute illness
Replace proven medical treatments
for osteoarthritis

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Exercise

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Exercise

Strengthening
exercises can help
Correct positioning is
critical

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Exercise Dos
Include flexibility, strengthening, and
aerobic exercises
Exercise when pain and stiffness
lowest
Exercise when you are not tired
Exercise when medication having
greatest effect

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Exercise Dos
Always warm-up and cool down
Start slowly, progress gradually
Avoid becoming chilled or
overheated when exercising
Use heat, cold, & other pain
reducers

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Exercise Dos
Use aids like walking sticks or
canes if needed
Expect minor discomfort
Use two-hour rule: No more pain
two hours after exercising than
before you started

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Exercise Dos

Talk to your doctor first


Consider athletic
trainer or physical
therapist

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Exercise Donts

Do too much too soon


Hold your breath while
exercising
Take extra medication before
unless your orthopaedic
surgeon suggests it

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Heat & Ice

Moist Heat
Towels,

hot packs, bath, or shower


15-20 minutes
3 times each day

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Heat & Ice

Cold Therapy
Ice

packs
10-15 minutes at a time

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Too Much Exercise


Consult your doctor if these symptoms are
present:
Unusual or persistent fatigue
Increased weakness
Decreased range of motion
Increased joint swelling
Continued pain 1 hour after exercising

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Asking Questions About Surgery

Why?
Alternatives
Benefits and for how long?

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Asking Questions About Surgery


Duration of recovery?
Assistance at home? How long?
Disability after surgery?
Physical therapy?
Return to normal activity?

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Surgery

Arthroscopy
Surgical abrasion of
cartilage

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Surgery

Pre-Osteotomy
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Post-Osteotomy

Surgery: Total Joint


Replacement

Knee
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Hip

Getting You Back in The Game

Name: Karen Skinner


Age: 51
Condition: Torn Meniscus and
Osteoarthritis of Knee
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Emerging Knowledge and Future


Research

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AAOS Research Agenda


Developed a summary of common
OA research questions
Moving beyond drug testing and
surgical outcomes

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AAOS Research Agenda


1)
2)

3)
4)
5)

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Inflammatory response & OA disease


Important risk factors
Genes that trigger OA
Impact of improved implant design
Biological & mechanical factors that
influence OA

OA Knee Research Agenda


6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

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Cartilage cell transplantation & other soft


tissue grafts
Impact of standardized criteria for
diagnosis
Exploration of factors that account for high
incidence rates
Societal impact of OA
Activity and exercise levels and OA

Osteoarthritis
If you are experiencing chronic
or recurring pain, stiffness, or
swelling around a joint, consult
your physician
Your orthopaedic surgeon can
determine what type of arthritis
you have and make treatment
recommendations

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Resources

www.nih.gov/niams/
www.aboutarthritis.com
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Osteoarthritis and You

What are your questions and concerns?

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Osteoarthritis and You

Thank you for participating today

Remember, your orthopaedic


surgeon can help get you back in
the game

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