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Arab Spring

Arab Spring
Arab Spring

Clockwise from top left: Protesters in Tahrir Square in Cairo; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguiba Avenue in Tunis; Political
dissidents in Sana'a; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama; Mass Demonstration in Douma; Demonstrators in Bayda.
Date

18December2010 present
(3 yearsand4 months)

Location

Arab world

Causes

Authoritarianism
Demographic structural factors
Political corruption
Human rights violations
Inflation
Kleptocracy
Sectarianism
Unemployment
Self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi

Goals

Democracy
Free elections
Human rights
Employment
Regime change
Islamism
Secularism

Methods

Civil disobedience
Civil resistance
Defection
Demonstrations
Insurgency
Internet activism
Protest camps
Revolution
Riots
Self-immolation
Sit-ins
Strike actions
Urban warfare
Uprising

Arab Spring

Status

2
Ongoing

Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali ousted, and government


overthrown.
Egyptian presidents Hosni Mubarak and Mohammed Morsi ousted,
and governments overthrown. Ongoing post-coup political violence.
Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign
military intervention, and government overthrown.
Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, power handed to a
national unity government.
Syria experiences a full-scale civil war between the government and
opposition forces.
Civil uprising against the government of Bahrain despite unsatisfying
government changes.
Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in
response to protests.
Morocco, Jordan implementing constitutional reforms in response to
protests.
Ongoing protests in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania and some other
countries.

Casualties
Death(s)

169,307174,339+ (International estimate, ongoing; see table below)

The Arab Spring (Arabic: , ar-rab al-arab) was the revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests
(both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010.
By December 2013, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt (twice), Libya, and Yemen; civil uprisings
had erupted in Bahrain and Syria; major protests had broken out in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and
Sudan; and minor protests had occurred in Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara, and the
Palestinian territories.
Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has
been described as "fallout" from the Arab Spring in North Africa. The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described
as a spillover of violence from the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring.
The protests have shared some techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes,
demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the effective use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise
awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.
Many Arab Spring demonstrations have been met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from
pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors
in some cases. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam ("the
people want to bring down the regime").
Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also
known as the "Autumn of Nations") that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale
and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements,
such as the desired outcomes and the organizational role of Internet technology in the Arab revolutions.

Etymology
The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as "Springtime of
the People", and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators
and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.[1] The first specific use of the term
Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy.
Marc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy, writes "Arab Springa term I may have unintentionally

Arab Spring
coined in a January 6, 2011 article". Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was "part of a US strategy of
controlling [the movement's] aims and goals" and directing it towards American-style liberal democracy. Due to the
electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be
known as "Islamist Spring" or "Islamist Winter".[2][3]

Background
Causes
The Arab Spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments,
though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well.[4] Numerous factors have
led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political
corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables), economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and
a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the
population. Also, some - like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj iek - name the 20092010 Iranian election protests as
an additional reason behind the Arab Spring. The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 might also have been a factor
influencing its beginning. Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have included
the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its
redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo. Increasing food prices and
global famine rates have also been a significant factor, as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices
that approach levels of the 20072008 world food price crisis.
In recent reports, rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education,
have resulted in an improved Human Development Index in the affected countries.[5] The tension between rising
aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests. Many of the
Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years,[citation needed] been viewing autocrats and
absolute monarchies as anachronisms. An Oman university professor, Al-Najma Zidjaly, referred to this upheaval as
youthquake.
Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations
such as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm
the masses.
The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but
peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government, created a model
(the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states. This view, however, has been contested
and put into perspective by recent waves of anti-government protests in Turkey.

Recent history
The current wave of the protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident
activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia,
Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.
Revolts have been occurring in the Arab area since the 1800s, but only recently have these revolts been redirected
from foreign rulers to the Arab states themselves. The revolution in the summer of 2011 marked the end of the old
phase national liberation from colonial rule; now revolutions are inwardly directed at the problems of Arab society.
Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of
Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during
which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The Egyptian labor
movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004. One important demonstration
was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside

Arab Spring
Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working
class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students. A Facebook page, set up to promote the
strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and
riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April
Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak
demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.
In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States
Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political
alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week;
that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt
and fragile. Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the
country. Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.
In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5mi) south-east of El Aain by a
group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination,
unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000
inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The
security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aain and
other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in
the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab
Spring.
The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to
find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December 2010, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares.
An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011 brought together
various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights
activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian revolution.

Overview
The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010 has
become known as the "Arab Spring", and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter", "Arab Awakening" or "Arab
Uprisings" even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that
occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest
of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the
Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. The largest, most
organised demonstrations have often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests
have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.
As of September 2012[6], governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine
Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President
Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The
Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC)
took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took
control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential
election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of
Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution.
During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their
current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015, as did Iraqi
Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014, although there have been increasingly violent

Arab Spring

demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation. Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of four
successive governments by King Abdullah. The popular unrest in Kuwait has also resulted in resignation of Prime
Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.
The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention, including the suggestion that some
protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three
laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine
named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year". Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel
Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family
member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.
Government overthrown Civil war Protests and governmental changes
Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes (Bahrain) Major protests Minor protests Related crises outside
the Arab world

Summary of conflicts by country


Country
Tunisia

Date
started

Status of protests

18
Government
December overthrown on 14
2010
January 2011

Outcome
Overthrow of Zine El
Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali
flees into exile in Saudi
Arabia

Algeria

29
Ended in January
December 2012
2010

Death toll
338

Situation
Government
overthrown

Resignation of Prime
Minister Ghannouchi
Dissolution of the political
police
Dissolution of the RCD,
the former ruling party of
Tunisia and liquidation of
its assets
Release of political
prisoners
Elections to a Constituent
Assembly on 23 October
2011
2013-2014 protests against
the interim Islamist-led
government.
Adoption of a new
constitution
Lifting of the 19-year-old
state of emergency

Major protests

Arab Spring

Jordan

14 January Ended
2011

On February 2011, King


3
Abdullah II dismisses
Prime Minister Rifai and
his cabinet
On October 2011,
Abdullah dismisses Prime
Minister Bakhit and his
cabinet after complaints of
slow progress on promised
reforms
On April 2012, as the
protests continues,
Al-Khasawneh resigned,
and the King appoints
Fayez al-Tarawneh as the
new Prime Minister of
Jordan
On October 2012, King
Abdullah dissolves the
parliament for new early
elections, and appoints
Abdullah Ensour as the
new Prime Minister of
Jordan

Protests and
governmental
changes

Oman

17 January Ended in May


2011
2011

Economic concessions by
Sultan Qaboos
Dismissal of ministers
Granting of lawmaking
powers to Oman's elected
legislature

Protests and
governmental
changes

26

Arab Spring

Egypt

7
25 January Government
2011
overthrown on 11
February 2011.
The replacement
Islamist
government was
ousted by military
on 3 July 2013.
Ongoing violence
in response to the
coup.

1,700
Overthrow of Hosni
Mubarak; Mubarak
sentenced to life in prison
for ordering the killing of
protesters. Protests over the
imposition of an
Islamist-backed constitution
by the Muslim Brotherhood
and Mohamed Morsi
precipitate a coup d'tat by
the military.

Resignation of Prime
Minister(s) Nazif and
Shafik
Assumption of power by
the Armed Forces
Suspension of the
Constitution, dissolution of
the Parliament
Disbanding of State
Security Investigations
Service
Dissolution of the NDP,
the former ruling party of
Egypt and transfer of its
assets to the state
Prosecution of Mubarak,
his family and his former
ministers
Lifting of the 31-year-old
state of emergency
Democratic election held
to replace Mubarak as the
new president of Egypt;
Mohamed Morsi elected
and inaugurated
Morsi removed by military
in a coup d'tat following a
second revolution that
came after months of
protests.
Senior Islamist figures
have been arrested and
[7]
face trial. </ref>
A court bans all Muslim
Brotherhood activities
nationwide and its assets
will be confiscated.
The government officially
designates the Muslim
Brotherhood as a terrorist
organization on 25
December 2013.
Ongoing Islamist unrest in
response to the coup.

Related issues

Government
overthrown;
Replacement
government
overthrown

Arab Spring

8
Egyptian Armed Forces
launch Operation Eagle
(2011-2012) followed by
Operation Sinai
(2012present).
Increase of violence and
attacks by insurgents since
the ouster of Morsi.

Yemen

27 January Government
2011
overthrown on 27
February 2012

Overthrow of Ali Abdullah


Saleh; Saleh granted
immunity from prosecution

2,000

Government
overthrown

Resignation of Prime
Minister Mujawar
Resignation of MPs from
the ruling party
Occupation of several
areas of Yemeni territory
by al-Qaeda and Houthi
rebels
Restructure of the military
forces by sacking several
of its leaders
Approval of Saleh's
immunity from prosecution
by Yemeni legislators
Presidential election held
to replace Saleh as the new
president of Yemen; Abd
Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi
elected and inaugurated

Djibouti

28 January Ended in March


2011
2011

Minor protests

Somalia

28 January Ended in June


2011
2012

Minor protests

Sudan

30 January Ongoing
2011

Iraq

23
Ongoing
December
2012

President Bashir
200+
announces he will not seek
another term in 2015

Prime Minister Maliki


announces that he will not
run for a 3rd term;
Resignation of provincial
governors and local
authorities

+250

Major protests

Major protests

Arab Spring

Bahrain

9
14
February
2011

Ongoing

Libya

17
February
2011

Government
overthrown on 23
August 2011

Economic concessions by 120


King Hamad
Release of political
prisoners
Negotiations with Shia
representatives
GCC intervention at the
request of the Government
of Bahrain
Head of the National
Security Apparatus
removed from post
Formation of a committee
to implement BICI report
recommendations

Overthrow of Muammar
Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by
rebel forces

Sustained civil
disorder and
government
changes

25,000-30,000+

Government
overthrown

Protests and
governmental
changes

Government defeated by
armed revolt with
UN-mandated military
intervention
Assumption of interim
control by the National
Transitional Council
Beginning of sporadic
low-level fighting and
clashes
Elections to a General
National Congress on 7
July 2012

Kuwait

19
February
2011

December 2012

Resignation of Prime
Minister Nasser
Mohammed Al-Ahmed
Al-Sabah
Dissolution of the
Parliament

Morocco

20
February
2011

Ended in
Political concessions by
MarchApril 2012
King Mohammed VI;
Referendum on
constitutional reforms;
Respect to civil rights and
an end to corruption

Protests and
governmental
changes

Mauritania

25
February
2011

Ongoing

Minor protests

Lebanon

27
February
2011

Ended in
December 2011

Protests and
governmental
changes

Arab Spring

10

Saudi
Arabia

11 March
2011

Ongoing

Economic concessions by
King Abdullah
Male-only municipal
elections held 29
September 2011
King Abdullah announces
women's approval to vote
and be elected in 2015
municipal elections and to
be nominated to the Shura
Council

Syria

15 March
2011

Ongoing

24

[8]
Release of some political
150,000+
prisoners
Dismissal of Provincial
Governors
Resignation of the
Government
End of Emergency Law
Resignations from
Parliament
Large defections from the
Syrian army and clashes
between soldiers and
defectors
Formation of the Free
Syrian Army
The Free Syrian Army
takes controls of large
swathes of land across
Syria.
Battles between the Syrian
government's army and the
Free Syrian Army in many
governorates.
Formation of the Syrian
National Council
Syria suspended from the
Arab League
Several countries
recognize Syrian
government in exile
Kurdish fighters enter the
war by mid-2013

Minor protests

Ongoing civil
war

Iran

15 April
2011

Ended on 18 April
2011

12

Major protests

Israel

15 May
2011

Ended on 5 June
2011

1240

Major protests

Arab Spring

The
Palestinian
Territories

11
4
Ended
September
2012

Then Palestinian prime


0
minister Salam Fayyad
states that he is "'willing to
resign"
Fayyad resigns on 13 April
2013 but because of
political differences
between him and the
Palestinian president
Mahmoud Abbas over the
finance portfolio

Minor protests

Total death toll and other consequences: 179,670184,702+ 5 Governments


(International
overthrown
estimate, ongoing, ~
(Egypt twice)
80% in Syria)
5 Protests and
governmental
changes
5 Minor
protests
5 Major
protests
1 Civil
disorder and
governmental
changes
2 Civil wars

Major events
Tunisia
Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a
series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December
2010 ultimately led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El
Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were
preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, lack of
freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom, and poor
living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of
social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades, and have
resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result
of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali
fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.

Protesters in downtown Tunis on 14 January


2011

A state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created following Ben Ali's departure,
which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well as opposition
figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately.
As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the
government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was
suspended; later, on 9 March, it was dissolved. Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27
February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister.
On 23 October, citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member
constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution. The leading Islamist party, Ennahda, won

Arab Spring

12

37% of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the Constituent Assembly.

Egypt
Inspired by the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central
figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate Mohamed
ElBaradei warned of a "Tunisia-style explosion" in Egypt.
Protests in Egypt began on 25 January 2011 and ran for 18 days.
Beginning around midnight on 28 January, the Egyptian government
attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's Internet
access, in order to inhibit the protesters' ability use media activism to
organize through social media. Later that day, as tens of thousands
protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Hosni
Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet.
Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years.

Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar


Suleiman's statement concerning Hosni
Mubarak's resignation

The U.S. embassy and international students began a voluntary evacuation near the end of January, as violence and
rumors of violence escalated.
On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter
announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term. However, protests continued the next day,
and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the
Armed Forces of Egypt. The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of
Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws". A civilian, Essam Sharaf, was appointed as
Prime Minister of Egypt on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square. Violent protests
however, continued through the end of 2011 as many Egyptians expressed concern about the Supreme Council of the
Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms and their grip on power.
Hosni Mubarak and his former interior minister Habib al-Adli were convicted to life in prison on the basis of their
failure to stop the killings during the first six days of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. His successor, Mohamed Morsi,
was sworn in as Egypt's first democratically elected president before judges at the Supreme Constitutional Court.
Fresh protests erupted in Egypt on 22 November 2012. On 3 July 2013, the military overthrew the replacement
government and President Morsi was removed from power.

Libya
Anti-government protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. By 18
February the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's
second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and militia
in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. By 20 February,
protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television
address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their
country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, numbering
in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the
resignation of several Libyan diplomats, along with calls for the
government's dismantlement.

Thousands of demonstrators gather in Bayda

Amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the Jamahiriya, the
opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule. However, despite
initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast.

Arab Spring
On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya,
and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom
intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and
the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the
rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and
a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega and
Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. Focus then shifted to the
west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, a loyalist siege of rebel-held
Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. The four major fronts of
combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitanian coast, the Gulf of Sidra, and the
southern Libyan Desert.
In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42
years of power. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top government officials,
regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital. Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, and remote
reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries. However, Sabha fell in late September, Bani Walid was
captured after a grueling siege weeks later, and on 20 October, fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional
Council seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.

Yemen
Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen
starting in mid-January 2011. demonstrators initially protested against
governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen,
unemployment and economic conditions, and corruption, but their
demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali
Abdullah Saleh, who had been facing internal opposition from his
closest advisors since 2009.
A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sana'a
on 27 January 2011, and soon thereafter human rights activist and
Protests in Sana'a
politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February.
According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters. In response to the planned protest, Ali
Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013. On 3 February, 20,000 protesters
demonstrated against the government in Sana'a, others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden that was called for by
Tawakel Karman, while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a
pro-government rally in Sana'a. Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took
to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage". The protests
continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates. In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18
February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a,
Taiz, and Aden. Protests continued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly
intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition
on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.
After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange
for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times, an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and
several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque. Saleh was
evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi,
who has largely continued his policies and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the
presidential compound. While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be

13

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14

present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni
people on 7 July. On Friday 13 August, a demonstration was announced in Yemen as "Mansouron Friday" in which
hundreds of thousands of Yemenis called for Ali Abdullah Saleh to go. The protesters joining the "Mansouron
Friday" were calling for establishment of "a new Yemen". On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidential decree while
still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi to negotiate a deal with
the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.
On 23 September, three months since the assassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly, defying all earlier
expectations. Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23
November, in which Saleh agreed to step down and set the stage for the transfer of power to his vice-president. A
presidential election was then held on 21 February 2012, in which Hadi (the only candidate) won 99.8 percent of the
vote. Hadi then took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February. By 27 February, Saleh had resigned
from the presidency and transferred power to his successor, however he is still wielding political clout as the head of
the General People's Congress party.

Syria
Protests in Syria started on 26 January 2011, when a police officer
assaulted a man in public at "Al-Hareeka Street" in old Damascus. The
man was arrested right after the assault. As a result, protesters called
for the freedom of the arrested man. Soon a "day of rage" was set for
45 February, but it was uneventful. On 6 March, the Syrian security
forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa, in southern Syria, for
writing slogans against the government. Soon protests erupted over the
arrest and abuse of the children. Daraa was to be the first city to protest
against the Baathist regime, which has been ruling Syria since 1963.
Anti-government demonstrations in Baniyas

Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah,


Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15 March, with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial
spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution". The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few
martyrs, but there are no official figures on the number of deaths. On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000
protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests
continued through July 2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in
several districts, especially in the north.
On 31 July, Syrian army tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, Abu Kamal, and Herak near
Daraa. At least 136 people were killed, the highest death toll in any day since the start of the uprising.
On 5 August 2011, an anti-government demonstration took place in Syria called "God is with us", during which the
Syrian security forces shot the protesters from inside the ambulances, killing 11 people consequently.
By late November early December, the Baba Amr district of Homs fell under armed Syrian opposition control. By
late December, the battles between the government's security forces and the rebel Free Syrian Army intensified in
Idlib Governorate. Cities in Idlib and neighborhoods in Homs and Hama began falling into the control of the
opposition, during this time military operations in Homs and Hama ceased and stopped.
By mid-January the FSA gained control over Zabadani and Madaya. By late January, the Free Syrian Army launched
a full-scale attack against the government in Rif Dimashq, where they took over Saqba, Hamoreya, Harasta and other
cities in Damascus's Eastern suburbs. On 29 January, the fourth regiment of the Syrian Army led by the president's
brother Maher al-Assad and the Syrian Army dug in at Damascus, and the fighting continued where the FSA was
8km away from the Republican palace in Damascus. Fighting broke out near Damascus international airport, but by
the next day the Syrian government deployed the Republican Guards. The military gained the upper hand and

Arab Spring
regained all land the opposition gained in Rif Dimashq by early February. On 4 February, the Syrian Army launched
a massive bombardment on Homs and committed a huge massacre, killing 500 civilians in one night in Homs. By
mid-February, the Syrian army regained control over Zabadani and Madaya. In late February, Army forces entered
Baba Amr after a big military operation and heavy fighting. Following this, the opposition forces began losing
neighborhoods in Homs to the Syrian Army including al-Inshaat, Jobr, Karm el-Zaytoon and only Homs's old
neighborhood's, including Al-Khalidiya, Homs|al-Khalidiya, remained in opposition hands.
By March 2012, the government began military operations against the opposition in Idlib Governorate including the
city of Idlib, which fell to the Army by mid-March. Saraqib and Sarmin were also recaptured by the government
during the month. Still, at this time, the opposition managed to capture al-Qusayr and Rastan. Heavy fighting also
continued in several neighborhoods in Homs and in the city of Hama. The FSA also started to conduct hit-and-run
attacks in the pro-Assad Aleppo Governorate, which they were not able to do before. Heavy-to-sporadic fighting was
also continuing in the Daraa and Deir ez-Zor Governorates.
By late April 2012, despite a cease-fire being declared in the whole country, sporadic fighting continued, with heavy
clashes specifically in Al-Qusayr, where rebel forces controlled the northern part of the city, while the military held
the southern part. FSA forces were holding onto Al-Qusayr, due to it being the last major transit point toward the
Lebanese border. A rebel commander from the Farouq Brigade in the town reported that 2,000 Farouq fighters had
been killed in Homs province since August 2011. At this point, there were talks among the rebels in Al-Qusayr,
where many of the retreating rebels from Homs city's Baba Amr district had gone, of Homs being abandoned
completely. On 12 June 2012, the UN peacekeeping chief in Syria stated that, in his view, Syria has entered a period
of civil war.

Bahrain
The protests in Bahrain started on 14 February, and were initially
aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human
rights; they were not intended to directly threaten the
monarchy.(pp1623) Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority
with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but
the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the
demonstrations.(p65) The protests were largely peaceful until a
pre-dawn raid by police on 17 February to clear protestors from Pearl
Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed four protesters.(pp734)
Following the raid, some protesters began to expand their aims to a call
for the end of the monarchy. On 18 February, army forces opened fire
on protesters when they tried to reenter the roundabout, fatally
wounding one.(pp778) The following day protesters reoccupied Pearl
Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to
withdraw.(p81) Subsequent days saw large demonstrations; on 21
February a pro-government Gathering of National Unity drew tens of
Over 100,000 of Bahrainis taking part in the
thousands,(p86) whilst on 22 February the number of protestors at the
"March of Loyalty to Martyrs", honoring political
Pearl Roundabout peaked at over 150,000 after more than 100,000
dissidents killed by security forces
protesters marched there and were coming under fire from the Bahraini
Military which killed around 20 and injured over 100 protestors.(p88) On 14 March, Saudi-led GCC forces were
requested by the government and entered the country,(p132) which the opposition called an "occupation".
King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to
reassert its control as clashes spread across the country.(p139) On 16 March, armed soldiers and riot police cleared the
protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout, in which 3 policemen and 3 protesters were reportedly killed.(pp1334)

15

Arab Spring

16

Later, on 18 March, the government tore down Pearl Roundabout monument.(pp150) After the lifting of emergency
law on 1 June, several large rallies were staged by the opposition parties. Smaller-scale protests and clashes outside
of the capital have continued to occur almost daily. On 9 March 2012, over 100,000 protested in what the opposition
called "the biggest march in our history".
The police response has been described as a "brutal" crackdown on peaceful and unarmed protestors, including
doctors and bloggers. The police carried out midnight house raids in Shia neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints,
and denial of medical care in a "campaign of intimidation". More than 2,929 people have been arrested, and at least
five people died due to torture while in police custody.(p287,288) On 23 November 2011, the Bahrain Independent
Commission of Inquiry released its report on its investigation of the events, finding that the government had
systematically tortured prisoners and committed other human rights violations.(pp415422) It also rejected the
government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran. Although the report found that systematic torture had
stopped,(pp417) the Bahraini government has refused entry to several international human rights groups and news
organizations, and delayed a visit by a UN inspector. More than 80 people had died since the start of the uprising.

Concurrent incidents
Concurrent with the Arab Spring, protests flared up in other parts of the region, some becoming violent, some facing
strong suppression efforts, and some resulting in political changes.

Analysis
Ethnic scope
Many analysts, journalists, and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arab phenomenon,
and indeed, protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arabic-speaking
countries, giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Springa play on the so-called 1968 Prague Spring, a
democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakiato refer to protests, uprisings, and revolutions
in those states. However, the international media has also noted the role of minority groups in many of these
majority-Arab countries in the revolts.
In Tunisia, the country's small Jewish minority was initially divided by
protests against Ben Ali and the government, but eventually came to
identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime, according to
the group's president, who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the
revolution". While many in the Coptic minority in Egypt had criticized
the Mubarak government for its failure to suppress Islamic extremists
who attack the Coptic community, the prospect of these extremist
groups taking over after its fall caused most Copts to avoid the
protests, with then-Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church
of Alexandria calling for them to end. The international media pointed
to a few Copts who joined the protests.

Bahrain's Shia protesters shot by security forces,


February 2011

Because the uprisings and revolutions erupted first in North Africa before spreading to Asian Arab countries, and the
Berbers of Libya participated massively in the protests and fighting under Berber identity banners, some Berbers in
Libya often see the revolutions of North Africa, west of Egypt, as a reincarnated Berber Spring. In Morocco, through
a constitutional reform, passed in a national referendum on 1 July 2011, among other things, Amazigha
standardized version of the three Berber languages of Moroccowas made official alongside Arabic. During the
civil war in Libya, one major theater of combat was the western Nafusa Mountains, where the indigenous Berbers
took up arms against the regime while supporting the revolutionary National Transitional Council, which was based

Arab Spring

17

in the majority-Arab eastern half of the country.


In northern Sudan, hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris joined anti-government protests, while in Iraq and Syria, the
ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government, including the Kurdistan Regional
Government in the former's Kurdish-majority north, where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.

Impact of the Arab Spring


The regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. The early uprisings in North Africa were
inspired by the 20092010 uprisings in the neighboring state of Iran; these are considered by many commentators to
be part of a wave of protest that began in Iran, moved to North Africa, and has since gripped the broader Middle
Eastern and North African regions, including additional protests in Iran in 20112012.
In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasusnamely Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgiaas well as some
countries in Europe, including Albania, Croatia, and Spain; countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso,
and Uganda; and countries in other parts of Asia, including the Maldives and the People's Republic of China,
demonstrators and opposition figures claiming inspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their
own popular protests. The protests in the Maldives led to the resignation of the President.
The bid for statehood by Palestine at the UN on 23 September 2011 is also regarded as drawing inspiration from the
Arab Spring after years of failed peace negotiations with Israel. In the West Bank, schools and government offices
were shut to allow demonstrations backing the UN membership bid in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Nablus and Hebron;
echoing similar peaceful protests from other Arab countries.
The 15 October 2011 global protests and the Occupy Wall Street movement, which started in the United States and
has since spread to Asia and Europe, drew direct inspiration from the Arab Spring, with organizers asking U.S.
citizens "Are you ready for a Tahrir moment?" The protesters have committed to using the "revolutionary Arab
Spring tactic" to achieve their goals of curbing corporate power and control in Western governments.
Also, the Occupy Nigeria protests beginning the day after Goodluck Jonathan announced the scrap of the fuel
subsidy in oil-rich Nigeria on 1 January 2012, were motivated by the Arab people.
The Tunisian revolution also brought about important changes to the intersection of art and politics in post-2011
Tunisia.

International reactions
Protests in many countries affected by the Arab Spring have attracted
widespread support from the international community, while harsh
government responses have generally met condemnation. In the case of
the Bahraini, Moroccan, and Syrian protests, the international response
has been considerably more nuanced.
Some critics have accused Western governments and media, including
those of France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, of
hypocrisy in the way they have reacted to the Arab Spring.[9] Noam
Chomsky accused the Obama administration of endeavoring to muffle
the revolutionary wave and stifle popular democratization efforts in the
Middle East.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry shakes hands


with Bahraini Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad
Al-Khalifa, Washington, D.C., on June 6, 2013

The International Monetary Fund said oil prices were likely to be higher than originally forecast due to unrest in the
Middle East and North Africa (MENA), major regions of oil production. Starting in 2010 global investors have
significantly reduced their stakes in MENA region holdings since December 2010 resulting in significant declines in
region-linked stock indexes.

Arab Spring
Kenan Engin, a German-Kurdish political scientist, identified the new uprising in Arab and Islamic countries as the
"fifth wave of democracy" because of evident features qualitatively similar to the "third wave of democracy" in Latin
America that took place in the 1970s and 1980s.

Social media and the Arab Spring


In the wake of the recent events occurring in Syria, Egypt and Tunisia, a considerable amount of attention has been
focused on the concept of democracy and collective activism, which continues to unravel in front of Western eyes
across mass media.
Equally important has been the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within areas
affected by 'the Arab Uprisings' as a means for collective activism to circumvent state-operated media channels.
Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they used Facebook to organize protests and spread
awareness. Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook
greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication.
The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Uprisings has been much debated. Some critics
have argued that digital technologies and other forms of communicationvideos, cellular phones, blogs, photos and
text messages have brought about the concept of a 'digital democracy' in parts of North Africa affected by the
uprisings. Other have claimed that in order to understand the role of social media during the Arab Uprisings, it must
be first be understood that in the context of high rates of unemployment and corrupt political regimens led to dissent
movements within the region.
In revolutions that were previously started on Facebook alone were rapidly quashed by secret police in those
countries, so much so that in Egypt a prominent activist group always had "Do not use Facebook or Twitter" on the
front and backs of their revolutionary material.
Further evidence that suggests an important role of social media on the uprisings is that social media use more than
doubled in Arab countries during the protests. Some research have shown how collective intelligence, dynamics of
the crowd in participatory systems such as social media, have the immense power to support a collective action
such as foment a political change.
The graph depicting the data collected by the Dubai School of Government illustrates this sharp increase in Internet
usage. The only discrepancy in the trend is with the growth rate in Libya. The report proposes a reasonable argument
that explains such discrepancy: many Libyans fled the violence, and therefore moved their social media usage
elsewhere.
This influx of social media usage indicates the kind of people that were essentially powering the Arab Spring. Young
people fueled the revolts of the various Arab countries by using the new generation's abilities of social networking to
release the word of uprising to not only other Arab nations, but nations all over the world. As of 5 April 2011[6], the
amount of Facebook users in the Arabian nations surpassed 27.7 million people, indicating that the constant growth
of people connected via social media acted as an asset where communication was concerned.
Others have argued that television, specifically the constant live coverage by Al Jazeera and the sporadic live
coverage by BBC News and others, was highly important for the 2011 Egyptian Revolution as the cameras provided
exposure and prevented mass violence by the Egyptian government in Tahrir Square, as opposed to the lack of such
live coverage and the more widespread violence in Libya.[10] The ability of protesters to focus their demonstrations
on a single area and be covered live was fundamental in Egypt, but was not possible in Libya, Bahrain and Syria.
Different sorts of media such as image and video were also used to portray the information. Images surfaced that
showed current events, which illustrated what was going on within the Arabian nations. The visual media that spread
throughout the Internet depicted not only singular moments, but showed the Arabian nations' history, and the change
that was to come. Through social media, the ideals of rebel groups, as well as the current situations in each country
received international attention. It is still debated whether or not social media acted as a primary catalyst for the Arab

18

Arab Spring
Spring to gain momentum and become an internationally recognized situation. Regardless, it has still played a
crucial role in the movement.

References
[1] Krauthammer, Charles (21 March 2005): " The Arab Spring of 2005 (http:/ / seattletimes. com/ html/ opinion/ 2002214060_krauthammer21.
html)". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
[2] The Atlantic: Muslim Protests: Has the US President, Barak Obama Helped Bring On an Anti-U.S. 'Islamist Spring'? (http:/ / www.
theatlantic. com/ international/ archive/ 2012/ 09/ muslim-protests-has-obama-helped-bring-on-an-anti-us-islamist-spring/ 262731/ ), 23
September 2012, retrieved 30 November 2012
[3] Foreign Policy: Learning to Live With the Islamist Winter (http:/ / www. foreignpolicy. com/ articles/ 2012/ 07/ 19/
learning_to_live_with_the_islamist_winter), 19 July 2012, retrieved 30 November 2012
[4] * The Arab SpringOne Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its
momentum. (http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 90470593/ The-CenSEI-Report-Vol-2-No-6-February-13-19-2012#outer_page_23) The CenSEI
Report, 13 February 2012
[5] Five Arab countries among top leaders in long-term development gains (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ mediacentre/ news/ announcements/
title,21573,en. html), United Nations Development Programme
[6] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Arab_Spring& action=edit
[7] See <ref>
[8] http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ 2014/ 04/ 01/ us-syria-crisis-toll-idUSBREA300YX20140401
[9] " U.S. Hypocrisy on Parade: Washington Arms Bahrain, Denounces Russia For Arming Syria (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ sites/ dougbandow/
2012/ 06/ 18/ u-s-hypocrisy-on-parade-washington-arms-bahrain-denounces-russia-for-arming-syria/ )". Forbes. 18 June 2013.
[10] Hearns-Branaman, Jesse Owen (2012), 'The Egyptian Revolution did not take place: On live television coverage by Al Jazeera English',
International Journal of Baudrillard Studies Vol 9, no 1 (http:/ / www. ubishops. ca/ baudrillardstudies/ vol-9_1/ v9-1-branaman. html)

Further reading
Aa. Vv. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on
Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno.
Abaza, M. (2011), Revolutionary Moments in Tahrir Square, American University of Cairo, 7 May 2011,
www.isa-sociology.org.
Abdih, Y. (2011), Arab Spring: Closing the Jobs Gap. High youth unemloyment contributes to widespread unrest
in the Middle East Finance & Development, in Finance & Development (International Monetary Fund), Giugno.
Anderson, L (MayJune 2011). "Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences between Tunisia, Egypt,
and Libya". Foreign Affairs 90 (3).
Beinin, J. Vairel, F. (2011), (a cura di), Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East
and North Africa, Stanford, CA, Stanford University press.
Brownlee, Jason; Masoud, Tarek; Reynolds, Andrew (2013). The Arab Spring: the politics of transformation in
North Africa and the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Browers, Michaelle (2009). Political Ideology in the Arab World: Accommodation and Transformation. New
York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-76532-9.
Cohen, R. (2011), A Republic Called Tahrir, in New York Times.
Dabashi, Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 182 pages
Darwish, Nonie (28 February 2012). The demon We Don't Know: The Dark Side of Revolutions in the Middle
East (http://books.google.com/books?id=VjiKZwEACAAJ). John Wiley & Sons.
Gardner, David (2009). Last Chance: The Middle East in the Balance. London: I.B. Tauris.
ISBN978-1-84885-041-5.
Gause, F. G. (2011), Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability, in
Foreign Affairs, July/August.
Goldstone, Jack A.; Hazel, John T., Jr. (14 April 2011). "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and
Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies" (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67694/jack-a-goldstone/
understanding-the-revolutions-of-2011). Foreign Affairs.

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Arab Spring
Haddad, Bassam; Bsheer, Rosie; Abu-Rish, Ziad, eds. (2012). The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old
Order?. London: Pluto Press. ISBN978-0-7453-3325-0.
Kaye, Dalia Dassa (2008). More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World.
Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. ISBN978-0-8330-4508-9.
Lutterbeck, Derek. (2013). Arab Uprisings, Armed Forces, and Civil-Military Relations. (http://afs.sagepub.
com/content/39/1/28.abstract) Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 39, No. 1 (pp.2852)
Ottaway, Marina; Choucair-Vizoso, Julia, ed. (2008). Beyond the Faade: Political Reform in the Arab World.
Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN978-0-87003-239-4.
Pelletreau, Robert H. (24 February 2011). "Transformation in the Middle East: Comparing the Uprisings in
Tunisia, Egypt and Bahrain" (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67546/robert-h-pelletreau/
transformation-in-the-middle-east). Foreign Affairs.
Phares, Walid (2010). Coming Revolution: Struggle for Freedom in the Middle East. New York: Simon &
Schuster. ISBN978-1-4391-7837-9.
Posusney, Marsha Pripstein; Angrist, Michele Penner, ed. (2005). Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes
and Resistance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. ISBN1-58826-317-7.
Struble, Jr., Robert (22 August 2011). "Libya and the Doctrine of Justifiable Rebellion" (http://catholiclane.
com/libya-and-the-doctrine-of-justifiable-rebellion/). Catholic Lane.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on International Operations and
Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues. (2012). Women and the Arab Spring:
Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights,
Democracy, and Global Women's Issues and the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian
Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First
Session, November 2, 2011. (http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo18547) Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.

External links
Right to Nonviolence (http://www.righttononviolence.org)
United States Institute of Peace (http://www.usip.org)
Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter (http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/
facebook-and-twitter-key-to-arab-spring-uprisings-report)
Middle East Constitutional Forum (http://www.righttononviolence.org/mecf)
Live blogs
Middle East (http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/) at Al Jazeera
Middle East protests (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12480844) at BBC News
Arab and Middle East protests (http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/blog+world/middleeast) live blog at The
Guardian
Middle East Protests (http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/) at The Lede blog at The New York Times
Middle East protests live (http://live.reuters.com/Event/Middle_East_Protests) at Reuters
Ongoing coverage
A (Working) Academic Arab Spring Reading List (https://docs.google.com/document/d/
1DU8AOlkTV6F0ZyoGcbk_060iBZG5tWKwj_n97EJPe9M/edit) collected peer-reviewed academic articles on
the impact of social media on the Arab Spring
Constitutional Transitions Timeline (http://www.righttononviolence.org/mecf/timeline-me) Collected legal
and political changes and short analysis at Middle East Constitutional Forum (http://www.righttononviolence.
org/mecf/)
Unrest in the Arab World (http://www.carnegieendowment.org/topic/?fa=list&id=839) collected news and
commentary at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

20

Arab Spring
Issue Guide: Arab World Protests (http://www.cfr.org/egypt/issue-guide-arab-world-protests/p23929),
Council on Foreign Relations
Middle East protests (http://www.ft.com/indepth/middle-east-protests) collected news and commentary at The
Financial Times
Unrest in the Arab World (http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2011/arab.unrest/) collected map, news and
commentary at CNN
Arab and Middle East unrest (http://www.theguardian.com/world/arab-and-middle-east-protests) collected
news and commentary at The Guardian
Arab and Middle East unrest interactive timeline (http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2011/
mar/22/middle-east-protest-interactive-timeline) collected news and commentary at The Guardian
Rage on the Streets (http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/t.php?t=uprising) collected news and commentary at
Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review
Middle East Unrest (http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/
syria-president-appoints-new-government-orders-protesters-freed-from-jail) collected news and commentary at
The National
Middle East Uprisings (http://www.showdownmideast.com/) collected news and commentary at Showdown in
the Middle East website
The Arab Revolution (http://www.spiegel.de/international/topic/the_arab_revolution//) collected news and
commentary at Spiegel.de
The Middle East in Revolt (http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/0,28757,2045328,00.html)
collected news and commentary at Time
Other
The Arab SpringOne Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met
2012's need to sustain its momentum. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/90470593/
The-CenSEI-Report-Vol-2-No-6-February-13-19-2012#outer_page_23) The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
Interface journal special issue on the Arab Spring (http://www.interfacejournal.net/2012/05/
interface-volume-4-issue-1-the-season-of-revolution-the-arab-spring-and-european-mobilizations/), Interface: a
journal for and about social movements, May 2012
"The Shoe Thrower's index (An index of unrest in the Arab world)" (http://www.economist.com/blogs/
dailychart/2011/02/daily_chart_arab_unrest_index). The Economist. 9 February 2011.
"Interview with Tariq Ramadan: 'We Need to Get a Better Sense of the Trends within Islamism'" (http://en.
qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c-478/_nr-1164/i.html). Qantara.de. 2 February 2011.
Sadek J. Al Azm, "The Arab Spring: Why Exactly at this Time?" Reason Papers 33 (Fall 2011) (http://www.
reasonpapers.com/pdf/33/rp_33_18.pdf)
Tracking the wave of protests with statistics (http://www.revolutiontrends.org), RevolutionTrends.org
Arab uprisings: 10 key moments (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20626645) from BBC
Middle East Editor Jeremy Bowden (10 December 2012)

21

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Arab Spring Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=604482256 Contributors: !!2011WorldProtests!!, -js-, 069952497a, 2011 prediction is party time, 23sports, 3RRORCode,
48Lugur, 8digits, A. Parrot, A.K.Khalifeh, A.h. king, A.sky245, A2Editor, ACSE, AK2, ALEXF971, AMK152, ANG99, Aa2-2004, AbbaIkea2010, Abductive, Abdullais4u, Aberdonian99,
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Info box collage for mena Arabic protests.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Info_box_collage_for_mena_Arabic_protests.png License: Creative Commons
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File:Flag of Tunisia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Tunisia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: entraneur: BEN KHALIFA WISSAM
File:Flag of Algeria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Algeria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: This graphic was originaly drawn by User:SKopp.
File:Flag of Jordan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Jordan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp

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File:Flag of Oman.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Oman.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: *drew, Alkari, Bast64, Cycn, Duduziq, Fry1989,
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, 8 anonymous edits
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File:Flag of Syria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Syria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: see below
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File:Flag of Israel.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Israel.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: The Provisional Council of State Proclamation of the
Flag of the State of Israel of 25 Tishrei 5709 (28 October 1948) provides the official specification for the design of the Israeli flag. The color of the Magen David and the stripes of the Israeli flag
is not precisely specified by the above legislation. The color depicted in the current version of the image is typical of flags used in Israel today, although individual flags can and do vary. The flag
legislation officially specifies dimensions of 220 cm 160 cm. However, the sizes of actual flags vary (although the aspect ratio is usually retained).
File:Flag of Palestine.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Palestine.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Orionist, previous versions by Makaristos,
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File:Tunisia Unrest - VOA - Tunis 14 Jan 2011 (2).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tunisia_Unrest_-_VOA_-_Tunis_14_Jan_2011_(2).jpg License: Public Domain
Contributors: VOA Photo/L. Bryant
File:Tahrir Square on February11.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tahrir_Square_on_February11.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors:
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File:Demonstration in Al Bayda (Libya, 2011-07-22).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Demonstration_in_Al_Bayda_(Libya,_2011-07-22).jpg License: Creative
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File:Hundreds of thousands of Bahrainis taking part in march of loyalty to martyrs.jpg Source:
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File:Secretary Kerry Shakes Hands With Bahraini Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad Al-Khalifa.jpg Source:
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