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Supplementary Problems

5.10 A heat pump provides 75 MJ/h to a house. If the compressors require an electrical
energy input of 4 kW, calculate the COP.
Ans. 5.21

5.11 A power plant burns 1000 kg of coal each hour and produces 500 kW of power.
Calculate the overall thermal efficiency if each kg of coal produces 6 MJ of energy.
Ans. 30%

5.12 An automobile that has a gas mileage of 13 km/L is traveling at 100 km/h. At this
speed essentially all the power produced by the engine is used to overcome air drag.
If the air drag force is given by 4pV2AC, determine the thermal efficiency of the
engine at this speed using projected area A = 2 m2, drag coefficient C, = 0.28, and
heating value of gasoline 9000 kJ/kg. Gasoline has a density of 740 kg/m2.
Ans. 51.9%

5.13 Show that a violation of the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law implies a
violation of the Clausius statement.

5.14 A battery does work by producing an electric current while transferring heat with a
constant-temperature atmosphere. Is this a violation of the second law? Explain.
Ans. No. This is not a cycle.

5.15 Show that all reversible engines, operating between two given temperature
reservoirs, have the same efficiency as a Carnot engine operating between the same
two temperature reservoirs.

5.16 A Carnot cycle operates between 200°C and 1200°C. Calculate ( a ) its thermal
efficiency if it operates as a power cycle, ( b )its COP if it operates as a refrigerator,
and (c) its COP if it operates as a heat pump.
Ans. ( a ) 67.7% ( b )0.473 ( c ) 1.473

5.17 A Carnot engine rejects 80 MJ of energy every hour by transferring heat to a


reservoir at 10°C. Determine the temperature of the high-temperature reservoir and
the power produced if the rate of energy addition is 40 kW.
Ans. 236.4"C, 17.78 Kw

5.18 A proposed power cycle is designed to operate between


temperature reservoirs, as shown in Fig. 5-13. It is
supposed to produce 43 hp from the 2500 kJ of energy
extracted each minute. Is the proposal feasible?
Ans. No
5.19 ( a ) What is the maximum efficiency that can result from an engine that operates on
the thermal gradients in the ocean? The surface waters at the proposed location are
at 85°F and those at a reasonable depth are at 50°F. ( b )What would be the
maximum COP of a heat pump, operating between the two layers, used to heat an
off-shore oil rig?
Ans. ( a )6.42% ( h ) 15.57

5.20 A Carnot engine operates between reservoirs at temperatures T, and T2,and a second
Carnot engine operates between reservoirs maintained at T2 and T3. Express the
efficiency q3 of the third engine operating between T, and T3 in terms of the
effciencies q1and q2 of the other two engines.
AnS. 771 + 772 – 771712

5.21 Two Carnot engines operate in series between two reservoirs maintained at 500°C
and 40"C, respectively. The energy rejected by the first engine is utilized as energy
input to the second engine. Determine the temperature of this intermediate reservoir
between the two engines if the efficiencies of both engines are the same.
Ans. 218.90C

5.22 A Carnot engine operates on air with the cycle shown in Fig. 5-14. If there are 30
kJ/kg of heat added from the high-temperature reservoir maintained at 200 "C
determine the work produced.
Ans. 16.74 kJ/kg

5.23 A Carnot engine operates between a low pressure of 15 psia and a high pressure of
400 psia. The corresponding volumes are 250 and 25 in3. If there is 0.01 Ibm of air,
calculate the work output.
AnS. 178 ft Ibf

5.24 A Carnot engine using hydrogen gas operates with the high-temperature reservoir
maintained at 600 K. The pressure ratio for the adiabatic compression is 15 to 1 and
the volume during the heat-addition process is tripled. If the minimum pressure is
100 kPa. determine the thermal efficiency and work produced.
Ans. 54.4%, 1480 kJ

5.25 A heat pump is to maintain a house at 20°C when the outside air is at -25°C. It is
determined that 1800 kJ is required each minute to accomplish this. Calculate the
minimum horsepower required.
Ans. 6.18 hp
5.26 If the heat pump of Prob. 5.25 is to be used as an air conditioner, calculate the
maximum outside temperature for which the inside temperature can be maintained
at 23°C. Assume a linear relationship between temperature difference and heat flux,
using the information from Prob. 5.25.
Ans. 71.70C

5.27 A heat pump uses a 5-hp compressor while extracting 500 Btu of energy from
groundwater each minute. What is the COP ( a ) if the purpose is to cool the
groundwater and (6) if the purpose is to heat a building?
Ans. ( a )2.36 (6) 3.36

5.28 A Carnot refrigeration cycle is used to estimate the energy requirement in an attempt
to reduce the temperature of a specimen to absolute zero. Suppose that we wish to
remove 0.01 J of energy from the specimen when it is at 2 X 1OP6 K. How much
work is necessary if the high-temperature reservoir is at 20°C?
Ans. 1465 kJ

5.29 A refrigerator is proposed that will require 10 hp to extract 3 MJ of energy each


minute from a space which is maintained at - 18°C. The outside air is at 20 "C. Is
this possible?
Ans. Yes

5.30 A reversible refrigeration unit is used to cool a space to 5°C by transferring heat to
the surroundings which are at 25°C. The same unit is then used to cool the space to
-20°C. Estimate the cooling rate for the second condition if the cooling rate for the
first is 5 tons.
Ans. 7.12 kW