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Engine fuel system

General
The purpose of the engine fuel system is
To clean fuel
To supply and control the fuel flow into the engine combustion chamber
To effect control over the compressor control system
To disengage the air starter
Engine fuel system comprises the following:
a) A low-pressure fuel system.
b) A main fuel system.
c) A compressor turbine inlet gas temperature limiting system.
d) A free turbine protection system.
e) A fuel drains system.
f) An engine power condition limiting system
g) Piping
a. Low-Pressure Fuel System
Purpose of the low-pressure fuel system is to raise the fuel pressure, to clean the fuel
and to supply it into the main fuel system.
Components
Centrifugal fuel pump
Installed on the left, front upper side of engine external drive gearbox, and is mechanically
driven from engine external drive gearbox. It ensures the required fuel pressure of received fuel
from airframe fuel system and provides to the inlet of main fuel system.
Tech Data
Sense of rotation (looking from the side of delivery of operational torque)..................
Counterclockwise
Parameters at Temp....................... 200 to 100 c operation
Operating
condition

Shaft, RPM

Idling
Maximum
Autorotation

5340
8900
7120

Absolute
pressure
at inlet Kgf /cm2
0.5 t o 2.2
0.5 t o 2.2
0.5 to 2.2

Output, lit/h
120
800
0

Pressure differential
built up by pump,
kgf/cm2
Not less than 0.4
0.7 to 1.6
1.5. max

Altitude (above sea level )..Up t o 5000 m


Mode of operation .Continuous
Fuel Filter
Purpose of fuel filter is to clean the fuel foreign matter in the fuel. The fuel filter is secured to the
engine with aid of studs.
Fuel filter includes the
Filter bowl is made of aluminum alloy
A gauze crimped cylinder type filter element

By-pass valve intended to by-pass the filter element in case it gets clogged.
Differential pressure switch intended to send a signal to the warning light whenever filter
element is reached to the limit.

Tech Data.
Filtering rating
Normal.0.016 mm
Absolute...0.025 mm
Pressure differential across filter element at which by-pass valve gets open
0.5+0.2 to 0.7+ 0.1 kgf/cm2
Pressure differential across filter element at which differential pressure switch comes into action
0.4 0.08 kgf/cm2
Operation
The fuel is fed from the helicopter fuel system to the inlet of the centrifugal fuel pump. The
Pump raises fuel pressure to the required value and supplies it to the fir fuel filter. The filtered
fuel is delivered to the inlet of the FCU.
Whenever the filter element gets clogged and the pressure differential across the filter element
reaches a level of 0.4 0.08 kgf/cm2 , the differential pressure switch completes the circuit of
the helicopter's warning light.
When the pressure differential rises to a level of 0.7+ 0.1 (0.5+0.2) kgf/cm2, the bypass valve gets
open and a proportion of the fuel is directed to the filter outlet chamber by-passing the filter
element.
MAIN FUEL SYSTEM
General
The purpose of the main fuel system is to supply and control the fuel flow into the combustion
chamber, to effect control over the compressor mechanism and to cut out the air starter.
Functions
The main fuel system performs the following functions on the engine:
Ensures engine auto start on the ground and at altitude
Provides a signal to cut out the air starter
Automatically maintains pre-set operating power conditions with respect to gas
generator RPM.
Automatically maintains pre-set operating power conditions with respect to main rotor
RPM.
Ensures acceleration time and power drop as well as operation at transient power
conditions.
Ensures distribution of fuel between fuel manifolds
Ensures automatic limitation of limit power conditions with respect t o gas generator
RPM and maximum compressor turbine inlet gas temperature (TIT)
Ensures engine shutdown by means of free turbine protection system
Effects control Over compressor VGV'S
Controls operation of air bleed valves
Ensures engine shutdown

In case of simultaneous operation of both engines of the helicopter, the main fuel system
performs the following functions:
Ensures equality of power of both engines by maintaining equality of compressor
delivery pressures
Ensures emergency cutout of the power synchronizing system
Automatically maintains main rotor RPM by maintaining free turbine RPM
Ensures re-setting of main rotor rotational speed
Ensures automatic acceleration to maximum power condition in case of a failure of one
of engines at main operating conditions.
Major Components
a) Fuel control unit (FCU).
b) Drain valve
c) Fuel manifold with fuel nozzles
d) Hydraulic power cylinder with limit switch
e) Air conduit
f) Piping.
b. DRAIN VALVE
The drain valve serves to supply into the fuel manifold and to fuel from the pressurizing air valve
and combustion chamber.
The drain valve is mounted on the lower flange of the combustion chamber casing and secured
with four screws.
Operation
When the engine is at standstill, valve (6) is kept open by the force of spring (7) allowing the
residual fuel to drain from combustion chamber. At engine starting when the secondary air
pressure within combustion chamber builds up to 1.2 kgf/cm2, the valve is closes. When the
engine is running, the fuel is drained from the pressurizing air valve overboard. Drain valve is
provided additionally with three valves ( 6 ) (Ref. Fig. 3) identical in design, two of which serving
to drain fuel from the fuel manifold during the engine shutdown and one serving to drain fuel
from the combustion chamber.
c. FUEL MANIFOLD WITH FUEL NOZZLES
The fuel manifold together with the fuel nozzles is fitted in the combustion chamber and secured
to combustion chamber casing (5) (Ref. Fig. 1) The fuel manifold is basically a ring-shaped
assembly consisting of twelve fuel nozzles interconnected by two rows of pipes.
The main fuel nozzles are of a two-jet, duplex, centrifugal type. Fitted inside each fuel nozzle
are atomizing and filtering elements of the primary and main fuel manifolds supplying fuel into
the combustion
The fuel supply along the primary fuel manifold is effected both engine starting and at all engine
operating conditions, whereas the supply along the main fuel manifold is effected at all
operating conditions above idling setting.
d. HYDRAULIC POWER CYLINDER WITH LIMIT SWITCH
The purpose of the hydraulic power cylinder (Ref. Fig. 2) is to change the angular setting of the
VIGV's and VGV's as well as to effect control over the compressor air bleed valves.

When starting the engine, hydraulic power cylinder with the help of high-pressure fuel supply
from FCU (working as hydraulic pressure) opens the bleed valves and ensures the angular
setting of tine VIGV's and VGV's required at engine starting.
On acceleration to a pre-determined gas generator RPM, hydraulic power cylinder with cutting
the high pressure fuel supply to the air bleed causes the valves to close and gradually opens
the VIGV's/VGV's.
e. AIR CONDUIT
Air conduit (3) (Ref. Fig. 4) serves to blow off temperature-sensing probe (8) (Ref.Fig. 5) of the
FCU with the air delivered from the helicopter's air intake.
The air conduit is attached with flange to air intake and FCU. On a running engine, a proportion
of the air passing through the helicopter's air intake, though a delivery passage, flows around
the temperature probe and is delivered to the engine inlet . When the engine anti-icing system is
selected, the hot air is provided to the air conduit to prevent icing air conduit.
f. PIPING
The purpose of stainless steel pipes is to ensure supply of fuel to the accessories and
assemblies of the fuel system.
FUEL CONTROL UNIT(FCU)
The fuel control unit (PCU) serves to schedule the fuel flow into the engine at all engine
operating conditions including starting. It is installed on engine external gear box.
Tech Data:
Drives..
External drive from gas generator shaft through drive gear box
Internal drive from free turbine shaft trough fle drive shaft and engine
accessory drive gear box
Filtration rating .0 .012 t o 0.016 mm
Pressure at starting 0 .4 t o 1.2 kgf/cm 2
Pressure at operational conditions 0.4 to 2.8 kgf/cm2
Pressure with booster pump failed 0.3 t o 1.6 kgf/cm2
Fuel pressure in primary fuel manifold on running engine 60 kgf/cm2 max
Components
1. An inlet fuel filter
2. A high-pressure fuel pump
3. A throttle valve with piston
4. A constant-pressure differential valve
5. A shut-down valve
6. Primary fuel manifold shut off and back up valves
7. A distributor and shut-off valves of main fuel manifold
8. Central filters of regulator and throttle valve
9. A constant-pressure valve
10. A gas generator and main rotor fuel control pressure transmitters
11. An air starter cutout Control valve and control mechanism
12. An air starter cutout control mechanism
13. Gas Generator Speed Governor
14. Temperature Connector
15. Main Rotor Speed Governor
16. Power Synchronizer

17. Power Synchronizer Emergency Cutout Control Valve


18. Fuel Control Unit (FCU) Electric Actuator (el)
19. FCU El. Actuator Interlock Control Valve
20. Low Fuel Pressure Valve
21. Air Filter with Pressure Reducer
22. Auto Start Control Unit with Altitude Sensing Unit
23. Acceleration Time Control Unit with max Fuel Flow Limiter
24. Compressor Variable Guide Vanes (VGV) Control Mechanism
1. Inlet Fuel Filter
Inlet fuel filter is intended to filter the fuel supplied to the FCU from the engine low pressure fuel
system. The filler of 0.025 to 0.040 mesh size is inserted into the FCU easing tightened with
straight through connection.
2. High-Pressure Fuel Pump
A plunger type high pressure fuel pump, Driven by gas generator shaft through external drive
gear box serves to supply fuel into the main fuel manifold and to feed the automatic system
units.
As the gas generator shaft RPM increases, the output of the pump increase
3. Throttle Valve with Piston
The purpose of the throttle valve is to supply fuel into the engine. Amount of fuel flow to the
engine is controlled by the move of servo piston acted upon from the bottom by the throttle
valve downstream pressure chamber. Fuel pressure in the chamber is effected by the automatic
system units.
4. Constant-Pressure Differential Valve
The constant-pressure differential valve serves to maintain a constant-fuel pressure differential
across the throttle valve orifice within 3 0.5 kgf/cm 2. One side of the constant pressure
differential valve fuel pressure is supplied from the bottom of throttle valve, and the fuel
pressure from the top of the servo piston is provided to the other side. Equilibrium state with the
pressure difference by 3 to 0.5 is kept by this valve. As the pressure difference increases, fuel
fed from the bottom of throttle valve servo piston is leaked to the drain line to get the equilibrium
state and vice versa.
5. Shut-down valve
Shut-down valve mechanical cut off the fuel flow into the engine. Mechanically operated by from
the cockpit, by passing the fuel from the fuel line into the spillage line
6. Primary fuel manifold shut-off and back-up valve
Shut-off valve spool (3) (Ref. Fig, 8 ) is intended to supply fuel to the primary fuel manifold and
to shut off the fuel flow into the primary fuel manifold when the engine is brought to a standstill.
The back-up valve serves to create additional hydraulic resistance in order to maintain the
required fuel pressure downstream of the throttle valve which is necessary to move the servo
piston of the throttle valve at starting.
The fuel, passing through the throttle valve and the acceleration time control unit throttle valve
enters the shutoff valve. As the fuel pressure builds up to a level of (3-0.5 kgf/cm2),
corresponding to gas generator RPM of 15% to 20%, valve opens and allows fuel to the engine.
When the valve is closed, high pressure fuel is by passed to the spill.

When the engine is shut down, the fuel pressure drops and the shut-off valve gets closed,
ensuring reliable cut-off of the fuel flow into the primary fuel manifold.
7. Distributor and Shut-Off Valves of Main Fuel Manifold
The distributor valve serves to initiate the fuel flow into the main fuel manifold, when the fuel
pressure downstream of the acceleration time control unit reaches to a preset value.
The shut off valve completely cuts off the fuel flow into the main fuel manifold, when the engine
is being shutdown.
8. Central Filters of Fuel Flow Regulator end Throttle Valve
The filters are intended for additional cleaning of the fuel delivered to the precision pairs of the
FCU for a reliable operation. In case of filter get clogged, the fuel by passes through by passing
the valve incorporates magnetic ring to catch metallic particles by the running-in of the FCU
friction components.
9. Constant-Pressure Valve
The constant-pressure valve serves to reduce the fuel high pressure downstream of the
pumping section into a constant one, used to feed free turbine fuel control pressure transmitter
(29) (Ref. 073.12.00, Fig. 6) and gas generator fuel control pressure transmitter (59) as well a s
the passages controlling acceleration time control unit throttle valve (39).
10. Gas Generator and Main Rotor Fuel Control Pressure Transmitters
The gas generator fuel control pressure transmitter serves to reduce the constant pressure fuel
into the control pressure (Pcont gg), which is proportional to the square of the gas generator
rotor rotational speed. This constant pressure is used to control the air starter cutout control
valve and the FCU el. actuator cutout control valve, and to provide for operation of the
acceleration time control unit and the compressor VGV control mechanism.
The main rotor fuel control pressure transmitter (Pcont MR), which is proportional to the square
of the main rotor rotational speed, is used to control the power synchronizer cutout control
valve.
11. Air Starter Cutout Control Valve
The air starter cutout control valve is intended to supply the fuel pressure delivered to the
diaphragm of air starter cutout switch.
At a preset RPM, on receiving fuel pressure signal from gas generator control pressure
transmitter, the fuel pressure under the diaphragm the cutout control valve increases and the
diaphragm deflected, thus causing the actuation the actuation of the micro switch.
12. Air Starter Cutout Control Mechanism
Air starter cutout control mechanism is intended to break the air starter solenoid valve electric
circuit on receiving a signal from the air starter cutout control valve.
13. Gas Generator Speed Governor
The purpose of the centrifugal fly weights type gas generator speed governor is to maintain the
gas generator rotational speed at the idle and maximum power conditions to the pre-set
accuracy as well as to set the power conditions with respect t o the gas generator rotor
rotational speed by operating the engine control lever when the main rotor speed governor is
imperative. The governor is driven by gas generator shaft through external drive gear box.
14. Temperature Corrector

The purpose of the temperature corrector is to correct the setting of the gas generator speed
governor with respect to the engine air inlet temperature in order to maintain a constant power
at the maximum power within an OAT range of -600C to +600C, as well as to provide correction
to the setting of the compressor VGV's with the air inlet temperature ranging from -600C to
+600C.
15. Main Rotor Speed Governor
The purpose of the centrifugal fly weight type main rotor speed governor is to maintain the free
turbine rotor RPM constant irrespective of a main rotor loading within a power range from the
power condition when the twist grip is turned fully clockwise (to full open position).
Main rotor speed governor is driven by free turbine shaft though flexible drive shaft and engine
external drive gear box.
16. Power Synchronizer
The purpose of the power synchronizer is to equalize the power of the engines during their
concurred operation by equalizing the compressor delivery air pressures P2.
17. Power Synchronizer Emergency Cutout Control Valve
The purpose of the power synchronizer emergency cutout control valve is to disengage the
power synchronizer in case the main rotor RPM reach a level of 107 2%. (On receiving fuel
control pressure signal from the free turbine control pressure transmitter)
18. Fuel Control Unit (FCU) Electric Actuator (el)
The purpose of the FCU el. actuator is to effect control over the throttle valve on receiving
signals from the electronic governors.
19. FCU El. Actuator Interlock Control Valve
The FCU el. actuator interlock control valve is intended t o disengage the FCU el. actuator
whenever the gas generator rotational speed drops below 84%.
20. Low Fuel Pressure Valve
The purpose of the low fuel pressure valve is to prevent the fuel flow into the engine from
dropping below a minimum value required to ensure normal operation of the engine, without a
flame out in the combustion chamber.
21. Air Filter with Pressure Reducer
The purpose of the air filter with a pressure reducer is to clean the air tapped aft of the engine
compressor and to feed a reduced pressure to the air chambers of the auto start control unit
and acceleration time control unit.
22. Auto Start Control Unit with Altitude Sensing Unit
The purpose of the auto start control unit with the altitude sensing unit is to schedule the fuel
flow into the primary fuel manifold at the initial stage of a starting cycle to the gas generator
RPM reaches 45% and to make the necessary correction in the fuel flow with the aid of altitude
sensing unit in accordance with change in the atmospheric pressure (P ambient)
23. Acceleration Time Control Unit with max Fuel Flow Limiter
The purpose of the acceleration time control unit is to schedule the fuel flow into the engine at
transient conditions of starting and acceleration, ensuring a fast acceleration of the engine
without excessive over temperature and surging, as well as to limit the maximum fuel flow.

The acceleration time control unit schedules the fuel flow into the engine by varying the orifice
area of the acceleration time control unit throttle valve in relation to the value of the corrected
compressor delivery pressure and variation in the fuel pressure differential across the
acceleration time control unit throttle valve in accordance with the gas generator RPM.

24. Compressor Variable Guide Vanes (VGV) Control Mechanism


The compressor VGV control mechanism is designed to effect angular setting of the
compressor VIGV's and VGV's in relation to the corrected value of the gas generator RPM.
The compressor VGV control mechanism comprises a hydraulic power cylinder located in the
FCU, a hydraulic power cylinder with a limit switch, a control valve assembly, a lever-balance
assembly, a control pressure P cont gg piston assembly, a temperature compensation leverage,
a feedback system, power control levers , a spring, and a feedback dial.
Operation of main fuel system
At starting

APU
Throttle
Starting button
Eng cut off lever

On
at idle
depressed for 2 to 3 seconds
fully forward (for opening of FCU shut down valve)

The electrical supply provided to air starter solenoid valve through air starter cut out switch,
installed on FCU, APU engine starts supplying compressed air to the air starter air turbine, as a
result. The air starter and gas generator rotor begin to rotate, indicated by illuminating of auto
control and starter lights in the cockpit.
In the course of the gas generator rotor cranking by the air starter the pumping section of highpressure pump building pressure
Throttle valve moves to a position corresponding to the minimum position.
Throttle valve starts moving towards increasing the flow in result gas generator RPM also keeps
to increase by the air starter.
As soon as the gas generator RPM reaches a level to 15 to20%. The fuel pressure ever comes
the spring tension of shut off valve and valve gets open and fuel starts flowing via back up valve
into primary fuel manifold.
To improve the fuel atomization and its reliable ignition in combustion chamber at all altitudes
and climatic condition, particularly at sub zero OAT. The compressed air is supplied from the air
starter via pressurizing air valve into main fuel manifold. The atomized fuel in the combustion
chamber lit up by two torch igniters and the gas flow starts producing an access power in the
compressor turbine.
Magnitude of the fuel pressure in the primary fuel manifold at the time of ignition is controlled by
the auto start control unit in the limit of 2.5 to 3.0 kgf/cm2 in order to ensure the reliable ignition
of fuel and steady running of the compressor.

As soon as the fuel pressure in the primary fuel manifold comes to be within 5 to 6 kgf/cm2,
pressurizing air valve cuts off the compressed air supply in to the main fuel manifold. As result
of combined action of the air starter and compressor turbine excess power, Gas generator rotor
speed increases and p2 air pressure rises.
As the p2 air pressure increases, auto start control unit schedule the fuel flow in proportion to p2
air and throttle valve increase the metering orifices.
Auto start control unit schedules fuel flow up to gas generator rotational speed of 45%.
As soon as the gas generator rotor RPM exceed 45 %, the acceleration time control unit starts
limiting the fuel flow depending on the gas generator rotor RPM and p2 air pressure.
Simultaneously with the scheduling the fuel flow fuel control pressure transmitter produces fuel
control pressure which is proportional to the square of the gas generator.
As soon as the gas generator RPM reaches 60 to 65% a fuel pressure signal from control
pressure transmitter, air starter cut out control valve operates the switch, which disconnect
electric supply to the solenoid valve of air starter.
When gas generator rotor reaches to idle RPM, gas generator speed governor comes into
action and maintains idle RPM in accordance to the outside air pressure which is delivered to
the altitude sensing unit of auto start control.
Low pressure valve limits minimum fuel flow to the engine if it reachs to a pressure 12 kgf/cm2
(90 kg/h), in order to achieve a reliable stop at the altitude above 3km.

After compressor air pressure (P2) is provided to the diaphragm of power synchronizer
of both engines i.e., own engine and neighboring engine. As P2 of neighboring engine
increased, as a result of increasing of its compressor RPM, the diaphragm deflects,
causing decreasing the spillage of fuel from upper chamber of throttle valve. As the
result the fuel going to engine increases and its RPM increases, until it reaches equal to
the RPM of neighboring engine and a new position of throttle valve is attained.

Operation of Main Fuel System at Steady-State Operating Conditions


The fuel flow into the combustion chamber at the steady-state operating conditions is scheduled
by the following unit of the fuel and electric automatic equipment:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Engine electronic governor


Gas generator speed governor
Main rotor speed governor
Gas temperature controller (on book2 page 304)

Operation at power conditions controlled by gas generator speed governor:


Throttle at idle stop engine runs at idle RPM controlled by gas generator speed governor.

On advancing the throttle, spring tension of fly weights of gas generator speed governor
increases causing the fly weights towards inside, increases the fuel supply. The engine through
throttle valve in proportion to the travel of the throttle lever.
At a ECL >70o the setting of gas generator speed governor reaches a maximum value and
remains unchanged at further movement.
Correction in gas generator rotor RPM control by gas generator speed governor is made by the
temperature sensing probe with respect to temperature of air supplied from the air intake.
Operation of Main Fuel System at Power Conditions Controlled by Main Rotor Speed
Governor
It schedules fuel flow and maintains the main rotor RPM starting from throttle fuel open at higher
power settings except for maximum power, in a way similar to that of gas generator speed
governor.
The FCU incorporates resetting mechanism controlled with a resetting lever, which provides a
manual adjustment of main rotor RPM on a running engine. As the lever is turned form the oo to
100o position with the beeper switch located on the collective sticks, varies the main rotor speed
governor setting by 15%.

VIGV/VGVS and air bleed valves control


To ensure the engines basic performance parameters and stability margin, Engine is provided
with VIGVS/VGVS and air bleed valves, which are controlled with respect to the gas generator
RPM.
At the starting condition and when gas generator RPM are below 81% the VIGV/VGVS are set
against the upper stop (in closed position). Starting from 81% RPM, by a fuel pressure signal
from gas generator fuel control pressure transmitted, high pressure fuel is fed to hydraulic
power cylinders (one cylinder being built into the FCU), VIGV/VGVS are getting open in
accordance with a linear relationship. At 100% VGV is equal to O0 and to 102% RPM. The
VGVs come to rest against the lower stop.
The reversal of the VIGV/VGVs is effected by the some system. Hydraulic power cylinder is
provided with limit switch, which produces a command signal by the fuel pressure signal form
gas generator control pressure transmitter for closing air bleed valves at a gas generator RPM
84 to 87%.
Operation of the turbine over speed protection system
The purpose of the free turbine protection system is to shut down two engine if the free turbine
RPM exceeds 118+2%.

This system includes the following units:


Engine electric governor (EEG)
Two free turbine inductive transducers
Free turbine a1 actuator

FCU

Block diagram
Free Turbine Inductive

Free turbine Inductive

Transducer

Transducer

Free turbine RPM

Free turbine RPM

Engine
Governor
EngineElectric
Electric Governor
(EEG)

EL.
EL.Actuator
Actuator

As the free turbine RPM exceeds 118+2%, free turbine inductive transducers send RPM signal
of free turbine to EEG. EEG sends electrical signals to El. actuator, which drains fuel form
throttle valve constant pressure differential valve of FCU to the inlet of the fuel filter, resulting
shutting down the engine.
Fuel to
Fuel to Engine
Inlet of Fuel Filter
FCU
Engine
Returned
Operation of turbine inlet gas temperature limiting system
The purpose of the turbine inlet gas temperature limiting (TIT) system is to ensure automatic
limitation of the compressor turbine inlet gas temperature at a predetermined level (985+5oc).
This system includes the following units.

Thermocouples
Temperature controller amplifier
Engine Electronic Governor (EEG)
FCU el. Actuator
FCU throttle valve
FCU
Thermocouples

Temp Controller

Amplifier

El. Actuator

Throttle Valve
o

As the TIT exceeds the pre determined level (985+15 c). the received signal by
temperature controller from thermocouples is supplied to EEG. EEG sends signal to el. Actuator
of FCU, el. Actuator limits the amount of fuel going to engine and does not allow it to increase
by effecting over throttle valve of the FCU.
Engine power condition limiting system
This system is intended to limit the gas generator rotor rotational speed verses engines inlet air
temperature (OAT) and pressure (OAP).
The system comprises on following components

Temperature probe
Pressure transmitter
Gas generator rotation speed transducer
Engine electronic governor (EEG)
FCU el. actuator

Block Diagram

Pressure Transmitter

Temperature Probe

OAP

OAT
EEG

Gas Generator Rotor


Speed transducer

FCU
El. actuator
FCU
Main Throttle
Valve

OAP and OAT signals are supplied to EEG from pressure transmitter and temperature probe
respectively from these two signals EEG calculate maximum gas generator rotor rotational
speed (max. take off RPM).
A signal of gas generator rotor rotational speed is provided to the EEG by a transducer. EEG
makes comparison the calculated and actual rotational speeds of the gas generator shaft. If the
actual rotational speeds exceed the preset rotational speed, EEG sends a signal to FCU el.
Actuator which limits the amount of fuel going to the engine with the help of main throttle valve
of the FCU.
Fuel Drain System
The purpose of the drain system is to remove the fuel and oil seeped past the seals of the fuel
system accessories. Engine exhaust stack through ejector residual fuel from the combustion
chamber when shutting the engine down as well as fuel leaked from the pressurizing air valve
overboard via the drain valve.
Operation

When the engine is at a standstill, drain valve of the combustion chamber is kept open by a
spring allowing the fuel to drain. At engine starting, when the secondary air pressure in the
combustion chamber increases to 1.2kgf/cm2 the valve closes.