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LIMIT STATE METHOD

OF DESIGN OF
REINFORCED CONCRETE
STRUCTURES

SCOPE
(LIMIT STATE METHOD)
1.VARIOUS LIMIT STATES, DESIGN VALUES, SAFETY
FACTORS.
2.LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE ITS APPLICATIONS
TO DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL MEMBERS.
3.LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY.
4.PROVISIONS OF IS 456.
5.DESIGN AIDS SP 16

MAIN MENU
General
Methods of Design
Working Stress Method
Ultimate Load Method
Limit State Method

Exit

GENERAL
Civil engineering structures are a combinaton
of structural elements beams, columns, slabs,
footings etc.
Due to external loads on the structure,
forces are generated in these elements which
cause bending and shear. Axial forces are also
generated in some elements.
Design involves providing a member of a
suitable size and material to withstand these
forces.
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METHODS OF DESIGN
Theoretical
(a)

Working Stress Method

(b)

Ultimate Load Method

(c)

Limit State Method

Experimental
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WORKING STRESS METHOD


This method assumes that both concrete and
steel act together and are elastic at all stages.
It adopts permissible stresses which are
derived by applying a factor of safety to the
ultimate strength of the materials. The factor
of safety for concrete is 3 and for steel it is
1.8.

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAMS FOR CONCRETE


AND STEEL
B
A

A
C

Concrete

OC Linear

Mild Steel (Fe 250)

CA Elastic Range

HYSD Bars (Fe 415)

AB Plastic Range

WS Method confines itself to the linear and elastic ranges in


both concrete and steel.

STRESS-STRAIN BLOCKS FOR WORKING


STRESS METHOD OF DESIGN
c

cb

kd
d

C=0.5cb(kd)b
jd

NA

Ast
b
Cross Sec

T= st Ast

Strain Diag

Stress Diag

cb
k
m cb st
k
j 1
3
M 0.5 kj cb bd

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ULTIMATE LOAD (LOAD FACTOR) METHOD

A load factor is applied to the service loads.

Does not take into account the variations in


the strength of materials.

It has sound experimental backing.

It uses the idealised stress-strain curve and


takes into account the plastic range also.
Design by this method results in an
economical design.

Design results in slender members which may


lead to excessive deformations (deflections) and
cracking.
It does not take into consideration effects of
creep, shrinkage etc.
cu

kcu=0.55 cu

cb

C
d

a=0.43d

NA

Ast

b
Cross Sec

sy
Strain Diag

T
Stress Diag

T
Whitneys stress block
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LIMIT STATE METHOD OF DESIGN


Design Philosophy
Characteristic Values
Definitions
Characteristic Strength
Characteristic Load
Partial Safety Factors
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LIMIT STATE METHOD OF DESIGN


Limit State of Collapse (Assumptions)
Limit State of Collapse (Flexure)
Balanced Section (Rectangular Beam)
Under Reinforced Section (Rectangular Beam)
Over Reinforced Section (Rectangular Beam)
Doubly Reinforced Section (Rectangular Beam)
Flanged Beam
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Design Philosophy

Structure is designed to withstand safely all loads


likely to act on it throughout the life of the structure
without any danger to life, property and its function.

Limit State corresponds to each of the states in


which it can become unfit for use such as:
Limit State of failure strength, shear, bond,
torsion etc.
Serviceability Limit State deflection, cracking,
vibration etc.
Working Stress Method deals with serviceability
limit state.

All design procedures are concerned about the


safety of the structures, which depend on:
Inaccuracies in design assumptions or
errors in calculations.
Inaccuracies in assessing the properties
of the materials.
Degree of supervision, quality of
materials,
execution of work etc.
Possible deterioration of the structure
with time.

Probability calculations are done taking into


account all the random factors which can lead to
the limit state to arrive at the :
Magnitude of load causing the most
unfavourable effects.
Strength of materials, their quality and
variation.

Deterioration with passage of time.

Code has introduced characteristic values


depending on the dispersion of data relating to
intensity of loading and the strength of the
materials.

Characteristic values (Qc) are expressed in the form


of an equation in terms of the mean value (Qm), standard
deviation () and a variable (k) depending on the
probability accepted.
Qc = Qm k )
This leads to :
Design load

= Amplification Factor f x
characteristic load

Design strength = characteristic load/


Reduction Factor m
These factors are called Partial Safety Factors and
Overall Factor of safety = Product of
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...

Amplification and

the

DEFINITIONS
Limit State: It is the acceptable limit for the
safety and serviceability of a structure before
failure.
The structure should be able to withstand all
the loads liable to act on it throughout its life
satisfying the limits of collapse as well as
serviceability (deflection and cracking).
The aim is to achieve acceptable probabilities
such that the structure will not become unfit for
the use for which it is intended i.e. it will not
reach its limit state.

The design is based on characteristic values


of material strengths and the applied loads
which take into account the variations in the
strengths of the material and the loads which
are applied on the structure.

The characteristic values are based on


statistical data which are obtained from
frequency distribution curve called Gaussian
Distribution Curve.

Characteristic Strength: It is that value of the


strength of the material below which not more
than 5% of the test results are expected to fall.

fk= fm ks
where fk = characteristic strength

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

Mean Strength (fm)


1.64 s
fk

fm = mean strength
k = coefficient depending
on the accepted
probability of tests
falling below charac
strength (5% in this
case) & is equal to 1.64
s = standard deviation

5% chances
that
results will
fall below
this value

Strength

n1

where = deviation of
individual test
mean

strength from

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Characteristic Load is that value of the load


which has a 95% probability of not exceeding
during the life of the structure.
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

fk = fm + ks

fk
Mean Strength

1.64 s

5% chances
that
results will
exceed
this value

Load

Design Load = f x Characteristic load


f = partial safety factor which is different for different types of
loading and are given in IS 456:2000
Design strength = Characteristic strength / m
m = partial safety factor
1.15 for steel
1.5 for concrete

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Partial Safety Factors for Loads

For LS of Collapse

*
*

DL
IL
EL

1.5(DL+LL or IL) + 1.0 WL or EL


1.5(DL + WL) or (0.5DL + 1.5WL or EL)
Dead Load
LL
Imposed Load
WL
Earthquake Load

Live Load
Wind Load

It is assumed that WL and EL do not act


together.
The structure is to be designed for the worst
combination of loads.

For LS of Serviceability
*
*
*

1.0(DL + LL)
1.0(DL + LL)
1.0DL + 0.8(LL + WL)

Design Criteria

The collapse of a member may occur in


flexure, shear, bond, axial compression/ tension,
torsion or a combination of any of these.
Therfore, in LS Method of design the structure
is designed for LS of Collapse and checked for
LS of Serviceability (i.e. deflection, cracking
etc).
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LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE

Assumptions
Plane sections normal to the plane of bending
remain plane after bending.
Tensile stress in concrete is ignored. Tensile
stress in concrete is ignored.
There is perfect bond between concrete and
steel.
The strain in concrete at the outermost
compression fibre reaches a specified value of
0.0035 in bending at the Limit State.
Click here to view diagram

Max strain in tensile reinforcement (Fe 415) at failure


shall not be less than 0.002 + fy/(1.15Es) where
fy = characteristic strength of steel
Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel (2x105 N/mm2)
Click here to view diagram

Stress in reinforcement is derived from


representative stress- strain diagram of the steel used
with partial safety factor of 1.15.
Click here to view diagram

Distribution of compressive stress in concrete is


defined by an idealised stress-strain curve with partial
factor of safety of 1.5.
Click here to view diagram

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RECTANGULAR BEAM

d Effective cover to
compression steel

Asc
Effective depth

d
Ast

Effective cover to tensile steel dc

Asc

Area of compression steel

Ast

Area of tensile steel

b
Width of beam

Cross Section

Case 1: Balanced Section

Case 3: Over Reinforced Section

Case 2: Under reinforced Section

Case 4: Doubly Reinforced Section

BALANCED SECTION
0.0035
0.002

xu
d

0.45fck
3xu/7
=0.43xu
4xu/7
=0.57xu

0.42xu
C = 0.36fck xu b
z = d - 0.42xu

Ast
0.002+0.87fy/Es
b

Cross Section

Strain Diagram

T = 0.87fy Ast

Stress Diagram

STRAIN AND STRESS DIAGRAMS

Depth of Neutral Axis for Balanced Section (xu= xu,max) is


derived from :
xu ,max
d

0.0035 Es
0.0055 0.87 f y

Depth of Neutral Axis for a


Balanced Section for different
grades of steel

Grade

fy (N/mm2)

xu,max/d

Fe 250

250

0.53

Fe 415

415

0.48

Fe 500

500

0.46

Limiting value of percentage of steel for


different grades of concrete and steel:
pt ,lim

xu ,max f ck
41.4
d
fy

pt,lim for fy =
fck

250

415

500

15

1.136

0.718

0.571

20

1.755

0.958

0.762

25

2.194

1.197

0.952

Limiting value of Moment of Resistance of


Balanced Section:
M u ,lim 0.36 f ck xu ,max b d 0.42 xu ,max
M u ,lim

xu ,max
xu ,max
1 0.42
0.36
d
d

f ck bd 2

For Fe 250 Mu,lim = 0.148 fckbd2


For Fe 415 Mu,lim = 0.138 fckbd2
For Fe 500 Mu,lim = 0.133 fckbd2

Solve
Problem
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UNDER (SINGLY) REINFORCED SECTION


Section is under reinforced if %steel (or area
of steel) provided is less than that required for
the balanced section i.e.
pt < pt,lim or Ast < Ast,lim
0.45fck

0.0035
xu,max
d

xu

0.42xu
C = 0.36fck xu b
z = d - 0.42xu

Ast
0.002+0.87fy/Es

T = 0.87fy Ast

Cross Section Strain Diagram Strain Diagram


Stress Diagram
Balanced Sec
Under Reinf Sec

This will imply that the design moment or the


moment acting at the section is less than the
limiting moment of the section (moment of
resistance of the balanced section) i.e.
Mud < Mu,lim

Consequently the depth of the neutral axis


will be less than the max depth of the neutral
axis for than section i.e.
xu/d < xu,max/d

or

xu < xu,max

Moment of Resistance (under reinforced section):

f y Ast
M u 0.87 f y Ast d 1
f ck bd

If Ast is known/given, Mu of the section can be


found.

Variations
If Mu is known/given, Ast can be obtained by solving
the above quadratic equation.
Ast can also be found by:
* calculating xu from the quadratic equation below:
and
M u 0.36 f ck xu b d 0.42 xu

f ck
bxu
then obtaining Ast from: Ast 0.414

f
y

OR
*

Directly from the equation:

4.6 M u
1 f ck
Ast
bd 1 1
2 f y
f ck bd 2

Solve
Problem

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OVER REINFORCED SECTION


Section is over reinforced if %steel (or area
of steel) provided is more than that required for
the balanced section i.e.
pt > pt,lim or Ast > Ast,lim
TO AVOID COMPRESSION FAILURE OF CONCRETE,
WE NEVER PROVIDE AN OVER REINFORCED SECTION.

IMPORTANT: IN THE ABOVE CIRCUMSTANCES, THE


LOAD ON THE STRUCTURE HAS TO BE RESTRICTED
SUCH THAT IT DOES NOT GENERATE A MOMENT
MORE THAN THE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE OF THE
Solve
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BALANCED SECTION.
Problem

DOUBLY REINFORCED SECTION


If the design moment acting on the section is
more than the moment of resistance of the
balanced section, the section is required to be
designed as a doubly reinforced section.
Mud > Mu,lim ;

Mu,lim = Mu1

Tensile steel (Ast1) is provided for the


balanced moment Mu1.
Additional tensile (Ast2) and compressive steel
(Asc) are provided to resist the moment Mu2 i.e
moment in excess of Mu,lim

sc
0.0035

d
Asc
d

xu

0.002

0.002+0.87fy/Es

Cross Section

3xu/7
=0.43xu
4xu/7
=0.57xu

0.42xu
C = 0.36fck xu b
z = d - 0.42xu

Ast

0.45fck

T = 0.87fy Ast

Strain Diagram
Stress Diagram
STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAMS

xu ,max d

Strain in compression steel: sc 0.0035

x
u
,
max

Stress in compression steel:


For Fe 250, fsc= 0.87fy
For Fe 415 and Fe 500 it is obtained from Table A
of SP 16 for different values strains or from Table F
for different values of d/d
To Flanged Beam

Additional area of
tensile steel:

Ast 2

Total tensile steel:

Ast Ast 1 Ast 2

Area of compression
steel:

Asc

M u2

0.87 f y ( d d )

M u2

f sc ( d d )
OR

0.87 f y Ast 2
Asc
f sc

Solve
Problem

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FLANGED BEAMS: T AND L BEAMS

Intermediate beams ( T Beam)

Edge Beams
( L Beam)

C=(Cweb+Cflange)

bf
c=0.0035
Df

xu
d

0.45fck
C 0.43xu

0.002

NA
0.57xu

Ast
s

T=0.87fckAst

bw
Cross Sec

Strain Diag

Stress Diag

CASE 1:

xu < Df

i.e. Neutral Axis in the Flange.

CASE 2:

Df <= 3xu/7 i.e. 0.43xu

or xu >= 7Df/3

or Df/d <= 0.2

CASE 3:

Df> 3xu/7

or xu <

or Df/d > 0.2

i.e. 0.43xu

7Df/3

In all above cases xu < xu,max i.e. section is under reinforced


CASE 4:

xu > xu,max i.e. doubly reinforced section

CASE 1:

xu < Df i.e. Neutral Axis in the


Flange.
This is the condition when Design Moment
is less than the Moment of Resistance of
the flange (Muf) which is obtained by
substituting xu with Df and b with bf in
the formula for Rectangular Beam

M u 0.36 f ck xu b d 0.42 xu
Area of steel can be obtained from the
formula for Rectangular Beam given below or
from direct formula.

M u 0.87 f y Ast d

f y Ast
1
f ck bd

CASE 2:

Df <= 3xu/7 i.e. 0.43xu or xu >= 7Df/3


or Df/d <= 0.2 i.e entire flange is within
the rectangular portion of the stress block
To calculate Mu,lim for a section,
substitute xu with xu,max in the formula
given below.
To calculate xu for a given Design Moment
Mud, substitute Mu with Mud and solve the
quadratic equation.

M u 0.36 f ck bw xu d 0.42 xu 0.45 f ck b f bw D f d 0.5 D f


Contribution of web

Contribution of flange

Area of steel is calculated by equating the tensile


force (T) in steel to the compressive force in concrete
due to flange (Cf) and web (Cw)
T = Cw + Cf

0.36 f ck bw xu 0.45 f ck b f bw D f
Ast
0.87 f y

CASE 3:

Df> 3xu/7 i.e. 0.43xu or xu < 7Df/3 or Df/d > 0.2


i.e flange is in the parabolic portion of the stress
block.
To calculate Mu,lim for a section, substitute xu with
xu,max in the formula given below.
xu is calculated by trial and error by solving the
quadratic equation and substituting the value of yf as
given below.
Alternatively, xu can be calculated by substituting Mu
with Mud and expressing yf in terms of xu and solving
the quadratic equation.

M u 0.36 f ck bw xu d 0.42 xu 0.45 f ck b f bw y f d 0.5 y f

where

y f Modified thickness of the flange


0.15 xu 0.65 D f D f

Area of steel is calculated by equating the tensile


force (T) in steel to the compressive force in concrete
due to flange (Cf) and web (Cw)
T = Cw + Cf

0.36 f ck bw xu 0.45 f ck b f bw y f
Ast
0.87 f y

Case 4:

Doubly reinforced section


If Design Moment(Mud) > Mu,lim, the
section is to be designed as a Doubly
Reinforced section.
Tensile steel (Ast1) is provided for the
balanced moment (Mu1 = Mu,lim).
Additional tensile (Ast2) and compressive
steel (Asc) are provided to resist the
moment Mu2 i.e moment in excess of
Mu,lim

Mu2 = Mud Mu1 &

Ast = Ast1 + Ast2

Area of steel for


Balanced Section

Additional Area of
tensile steel

M u2
Ast 2
0.87 f y d d

Total tensile steel

Ast Ast1 Ast 2

Area of Compression
steel

Exit

0.36 f ck bw xu 0.45 f ck b f bw y f
Ast1
0.87 f y

M u2
Asc
fsc d d

where fsc is calculated


as in Rectangular Beam

Solve
Problem

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