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OF DESIGN OF

REINFORCED CONCRETE

STRUCTURES

SCOPE

(LIMIT STATE METHOD)

1.VARIOUS LIMIT STATES, DESIGN VALUES, SAFETY

FACTORS.

2.LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE ITS APPLICATIONS

TO DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL MEMBERS.

3.LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY.

4.PROVISIONS OF IS 456.

5.DESIGN AIDS SP 16

MAIN MENU

General

Methods of Design

Working Stress Method

Ultimate Load Method

Limit State Method

Exit

GENERAL

Civil engineering structures are a combinaton

of structural elements beams, columns, slabs,

footings etc.

Due to external loads on the structure,

forces are generated in these elements which

cause bending and shear. Axial forces are also

generated in some elements.

Design involves providing a member of a

suitable size and material to withstand these

forces.

Main Menu

METHODS OF DESIGN

Theoretical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Experimental

Main Menu

This method assumes that both concrete and

steel act together and are elastic at all stages.

It adopts permissible stresses which are

derived by applying a factor of safety to the

ultimate strength of the materials. The factor

of safety for concrete is 3 and for steel it is

1.8.

AND STEEL

B

A

A

C

Concrete

OC Linear

CA Elastic Range

AB Plastic Range

both concrete and steel.

STRESS METHOD OF DESIGN

c

cb

kd

d

C=0.5cb(kd)b

jd

NA

Ast

b

Cross Sec

T= st Ast

Strain Diag

Stress Diag

cb

k

m cb st

k

j 1

3

M 0.5 kj cb bd

Main Menu

the strength of materials.

takes into account the plastic range also.

Design by this method results in an

economical design.

lead to excessive deformations (deflections) and

cracking.

It does not take into consideration effects of

creep, shrinkage etc.

cu

kcu=0.55 cu

cb

C

d

a=0.43d

NA

Ast

b

Cross Sec

sy

Strain Diag

T

Stress Diag

T

Whitneys stress block

Main Menu

Design Philosophy

Characteristic Values

Definitions

Characteristic Strength

Characteristic Load

Partial Safety Factors

Exit

Limit State of Collapse (Assumptions)

Limit State of Collapse (Flexure)

Balanced Section (Rectangular Beam)

Under Reinforced Section (Rectangular Beam)

Over Reinforced Section (Rectangular Beam)

Doubly Reinforced Section (Rectangular Beam)

Flanged Beam

Exit

Design Philosophy

likely to act on it throughout the life of the structure

without any danger to life, property and its function.

which it can become unfit for use such as:

Limit State of failure strength, shear, bond,

torsion etc.

Serviceability Limit State deflection, cracking,

vibration etc.

Working Stress Method deals with serviceability

limit state.

safety of the structures, which depend on:

Inaccuracies in design assumptions or

errors in calculations.

Inaccuracies in assessing the properties

of the materials.

Degree of supervision, quality of

materials,

execution of work etc.

Possible deterioration of the structure

with time.

account all the random factors which can lead to

the limit state to arrive at the :

Magnitude of load causing the most

unfavourable effects.

Strength of materials, their quality and

variation.

depending on the dispersion of data relating to

intensity of loading and the strength of the

materials.

of an equation in terms of the mean value (Qm), standard

deviation () and a variable (k) depending on the

probability accepted.

Qc = Qm k )

This leads to :

Design load

= Amplification Factor f x

characteristic load

Reduction Factor m

These factors are called Partial Safety Factors and

Overall Factor of safety = Product of

Menu LS

...

Amplification and

the

DEFINITIONS

Limit State: It is the acceptable limit for the

safety and serviceability of a structure before

failure.

The structure should be able to withstand all

the loads liable to act on it throughout its life

satisfying the limits of collapse as well as

serviceability (deflection and cracking).

The aim is to achieve acceptable probabilities

such that the structure will not become unfit for

the use for which it is intended i.e. it will not

reach its limit state.

of material strengths and the applied loads

which take into account the variations in the

strengths of the material and the loads which

are applied on the structure.

statistical data which are obtained from

frequency distribution curve called Gaussian

Distribution Curve.

strength of the material below which not more

than 5% of the test results are expected to fall.

fk= fm ks

where fk = characteristic strength

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

1.64 s

fk

fm = mean strength

k = coefficient depending

on the accepted

probability of tests

falling below charac

strength (5% in this

case) & is equal to 1.64

s = standard deviation

5% chances

that

results will

fall below

this value

Strength

n1

where = deviation of

individual test

mean

strength from

Menu LS

which has a 95% probability of not exceeding

during the life of the structure.

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

fk = fm + ks

fk

Mean Strength

1.64 s

5% chances

that

results will

exceed

this value

Load

f = partial safety factor which is different for different types of

loading and are given in IS 456:2000

Design strength = Characteristic strength / m

m = partial safety factor

1.15 for steel

1.5 for concrete

Menu LS

For LS of Collapse

*

*

DL

IL

EL

1.5(DL + WL) or (0.5DL + 1.5WL or EL)

Dead Load

LL

Imposed Load

WL

Earthquake Load

Live Load

Wind Load

together.

The structure is to be designed for the worst

combination of loads.

For LS of Serviceability

*

*

*

1.0(DL + LL)

1.0(DL + LL)

1.0DL + 0.8(LL + WL)

Design Criteria

flexure, shear, bond, axial compression/ tension,

torsion or a combination of any of these.

Therfore, in LS Method of design the structure

is designed for LS of Collapse and checked for

LS of Serviceability (i.e. deflection, cracking

etc).

Menu LS

Assumptions

Plane sections normal to the plane of bending

remain plane after bending.

Tensile stress in concrete is ignored. Tensile

stress in concrete is ignored.

There is perfect bond between concrete and

steel.

The strain in concrete at the outermost

compression fibre reaches a specified value of

0.0035 in bending at the Limit State.

Click here to view diagram

shall not be less than 0.002 + fy/(1.15Es) where

fy = characteristic strength of steel

Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel (2x105 N/mm2)

Click here to view diagram

representative stress- strain diagram of the steel used

with partial safety factor of 1.15.

Click here to view diagram

defined by an idealised stress-strain curve with partial

factor of safety of 1.5.

Click here to view diagram

Menu LS

RECTANGULAR BEAM

d Effective cover to

compression steel

Asc

Effective depth

d

Ast

Asc

Ast

b

Width of beam

Cross Section

BALANCED SECTION

0.0035

0.002

xu

d

0.45fck

3xu/7

=0.43xu

4xu/7

=0.57xu

0.42xu

C = 0.36fck xu b

z = d - 0.42xu

Ast

0.002+0.87fy/Es

b

Cross Section

Strain Diagram

T = 0.87fy Ast

Stress Diagram

derived from :

xu ,max

d

0.0035 Es

0.0055 0.87 f y

Balanced Section for different

grades of steel

Grade

fy (N/mm2)

xu,max/d

Fe 250

250

0.53

Fe 415

415

0.48

Fe 500

500

0.46

different grades of concrete and steel:

pt ,lim

xu ,max f ck

41.4

d

fy

pt,lim for fy =

fck

250

415

500

15

1.136

0.718

0.571

20

1.755

0.958

0.762

25

2.194

1.197

0.952

Balanced Section:

M u ,lim 0.36 f ck xu ,max b d 0.42 xu ,max

M u ,lim

xu ,max

xu ,max

1 0.42

0.36

d

d

f ck bd 2

For Fe 415 Mu,lim = 0.138 fckbd2

For Fe 500 Mu,lim = 0.133 fckbd2

Solve

Problem

Menu LS

Section is under reinforced if %steel (or area

of steel) provided is less than that required for

the balanced section i.e.

pt < pt,lim or Ast < Ast,lim

0.45fck

0.0035

xu,max

d

xu

0.42xu

C = 0.36fck xu b

z = d - 0.42xu

Ast

0.002+0.87fy/Es

T = 0.87fy Ast

Stress Diagram

Balanced Sec

Under Reinf Sec

moment acting at the section is less than the

limiting moment of the section (moment of

resistance of the balanced section) i.e.

Mud < Mu,lim

will be less than the max depth of the neutral

axis for than section i.e.

xu/d < xu,max/d

or

xu < xu,max

f y Ast

M u 0.87 f y Ast d 1

f ck bd

found.

Variations

If Mu is known/given, Ast can be obtained by solving

the above quadratic equation.

Ast can also be found by:

* calculating xu from the quadratic equation below:

and

M u 0.36 f ck xu b d 0.42 xu

f ck

bxu

then obtaining Ast from: Ast 0.414

f

y

OR

*

4.6 M u

1 f ck

Ast

bd 1 1

2 f y

f ck bd 2

Solve

Problem

Menu LS

Section is over reinforced if %steel (or area

of steel) provided is more than that required for

the balanced section i.e.

pt > pt,lim or Ast > Ast,lim

TO AVOID COMPRESSION FAILURE OF CONCRETE,

WE NEVER PROVIDE AN OVER REINFORCED SECTION.

LOAD ON THE STRUCTURE HAS TO BE RESTRICTED

SUCH THAT IT DOES NOT GENERATE A MOMENT

MORE THAN THE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE OF THE

Solve

Menu LS

BALANCED SECTION.

Problem

If the design moment acting on the section is

more than the moment of resistance of the

balanced section, the section is required to be

designed as a doubly reinforced section.

Mud > Mu,lim ;

Mu,lim = Mu1

balanced moment Mu1.

Additional tensile (Ast2) and compressive steel

(Asc) are provided to resist the moment Mu2 i.e

moment in excess of Mu,lim

sc

0.0035

d

Asc

d

xu

0.002

0.002+0.87fy/Es

Cross Section

3xu/7

=0.43xu

4xu/7

=0.57xu

0.42xu

C = 0.36fck xu b

z = d - 0.42xu

Ast

0.45fck

T = 0.87fy Ast

Strain Diagram

Stress Diagram

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAMS

xu ,max d

x

u

,

max

For Fe 250, fsc= 0.87fy

For Fe 415 and Fe 500 it is obtained from Table A

of SP 16 for different values strains or from Table F

for different values of d/d

To Flanged Beam

Additional area of

tensile steel:

Ast 2

Area of compression

steel:

Asc

M u2

0.87 f y ( d d )

M u2

f sc ( d d )

OR

0.87 f y Ast 2

Asc

f sc

Solve

Problem

Menu LS

Edge Beams

( L Beam)

C=(Cweb+Cflange)

bf

c=0.0035

Df

xu

d

0.45fck

C 0.43xu

0.002

NA

0.57xu

Ast

s

T=0.87fckAst

bw

Cross Sec

Strain Diag

Stress Diag

CASE 1:

xu < Df

CASE 2:

or xu >= 7Df/3

CASE 3:

Df> 3xu/7

or xu <

i.e. 0.43xu

7Df/3

CASE 4:

CASE 1:

Flange.

This is the condition when Design Moment

is less than the Moment of Resistance of

the flange (Muf) which is obtained by

substituting xu with Df and b with bf in

the formula for Rectangular Beam

M u 0.36 f ck xu b d 0.42 xu

Area of steel can be obtained from the

formula for Rectangular Beam given below or

from direct formula.

M u 0.87 f y Ast d

f y Ast

1

f ck bd

CASE 2:

or Df/d <= 0.2 i.e entire flange is within

the rectangular portion of the stress block

To calculate Mu,lim for a section,

substitute xu with xu,max in the formula

given below.

To calculate xu for a given Design Moment

Mud, substitute Mu with Mud and solve the

quadratic equation.

Contribution of web

Contribution of flange

force (T) in steel to the compressive force in concrete

due to flange (Cf) and web (Cw)

T = Cw + Cf

0.36 f ck bw xu 0.45 f ck b f bw D f

Ast

0.87 f y

CASE 3:

i.e flange is in the parabolic portion of the stress

block.

To calculate Mu,lim for a section, substitute xu with

xu,max in the formula given below.

xu is calculated by trial and error by solving the

quadratic equation and substituting the value of yf as

given below.

Alternatively, xu can be calculated by substituting Mu

with Mud and expressing yf in terms of xu and solving

the quadratic equation.

where

0.15 xu 0.65 D f D f

force (T) in steel to the compressive force in concrete

due to flange (Cf) and web (Cw)

T = Cw + Cf

0.36 f ck bw xu 0.45 f ck b f bw y f

Ast

0.87 f y

Case 4:

If Design Moment(Mud) > Mu,lim, the

section is to be designed as a Doubly

Reinforced section.

Tensile steel (Ast1) is provided for the

balanced moment (Mu1 = Mu,lim).

Additional tensile (Ast2) and compressive

steel (Asc) are provided to resist the

moment Mu2 i.e moment in excess of

Mu,lim

Balanced Section

Additional Area of

tensile steel

M u2

Ast 2

0.87 f y d d

Area of Compression

steel

Exit

0.36 f ck bw xu 0.45 f ck b f bw y f

Ast1

0.87 f y

M u2

Asc

fsc d d

as in Rectangular Beam

Solve

Problem

Menu LS

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