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Chemical Engineering and Processing 36 (1997) 133-141

Kinetic

analysis of diethylbenzene-benzene
faujasite Y
L.M.
Chemical

Engineering

Tiako

Ngandjui,

Institute,

Louaain

D. Louhibi,

University,

1 voie Minckelers,

transalkylation

F.C. Thyrion
B-1348

over

Louvain-la-neutie,

Belgique

Received 13 May 1996; received in revised form 14 June 1996; accepted 2 September 1996

Abstract
The thermodynamics
and kinetics of the diethylbenzene-benzene
transalkylation
have been studied in liquid phase over faujasite
Y in a batch reactor. The reactionswere conducted at severaltemperaturesbetween423 and 513 K. The main product of the

reaction was ethylbenzene. When the molar ratio of benzene over diethylbenzene was greater than five, a selectivity in
ethylbenzene

greater

than 90% was found.

The initial

rates showed

that the transalkylation

reaction

followed

a first order

mechanism.A kinetic model is proposed.0 1997Elsevier ScienceS.A.


Keywords: Diethylene-ethylene transalkylation;

Faujasite Y; Temperature

1. Introduction

2. Experimental

The zeolite catalyzed alkylation of benzene and


toluene by olefins has been studied by a great number
of authors [l-6].
All of them pointed out that this reaction produces a
mixture of alkyl and polyalkyl aromatics. So, to increase the production of ethylbenzene from benzene
and ethene, the polyalkylbenzenes formed must be converted by transalkylation. The transalkylation of aromatic compounds is a well known reaction, for which
mordenite and faujasite Y have been reported to be
active [7- 111.
In the study of transalkylation of toluene with
trimethylbenzene over zeolite Y and mordenite [7]
showed that, among the various types of cation in the
zeolite, the hydrogen form exhibits the greatest activity.
Similar results were obtained by Chao and Leu [ll] by
varying the hydrogen ion exchange level of NaY and
testing the activity of this catalyst during transalkylation.
In this work, the thermodynamics of the reaction and
the kinetic study of diethylbenzene-benzene transalkylation are discussed.

2.1. Catalyst description and activation

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +32 10 472327;


472321; e-mail: Thyrion @ prcd.ucl.ac.be

fax: +32

10

0255-2701/97/$17.00 Q 1997 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.


PIISO255-2701(96)04179-7

The catalyst used is a commercial zeolite Y from


Zeocat in a protonic form with a global ratio SijAl
equal to 13.8 and a cristallinity of 93%. The BET
specific area of the extrudates was reported to be 766
m* g - *. The experiments were realized with the white,
free-flowing powder (apparent density: 0.48 g cm - )
obtained by crushing and sieving the industrial catalyst.
The granulometry was between 20 and 80 pm.
The calcined catalyst was activated at 773 K for 2 h
under a flow of dry air in order to remove water and
was kept inside a dessicator until use. Much care was
taken to avoid any contact with atmospheric air. The
catalyst was introduced into the reactor under a controlled nitrogen atmosphere in order to prevent any
contact between the catalyst and air moisture.
2.2. Apparatus and procedure
Batch reaction studies were carried out in a 0.6 1
agitated Parr reactor equipped with a PID temperature
controller actuating an oven. The reaction was conducted in liquid phase using dried heptane as solvent.
The starting procedure involved first the flushing of the
reactor with nitrogen, then the introduction of weighted

134

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Tiako

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et al. /Chemical

Engineering

amounts of heptane (100-200 g) and catalyst (1-5 g)


under a controlled nitrogen atmosphere and finally
closing the reactor.
The reaction mixture was heated to the chosen temperature. During this time, known amounts of diethylbenzene and benzene were heated in a small volume
bulb attached to the reactor and were injected into it
when both temperatures were identical. The stirring
was then activated and the reaction could be started.
2.3. Sampling and analysis
A l/16 in. tube connecting the reactor to a valve
allowed sampling. This tube was purged before each
sampling. The analysis were performed at 410 K on a
Perkin-Elmer sigma chromatograph, using a 3.0 m 15%
OV 275 on chromosorb P column and a flame ionization detector. The analysis was complete after 7 min.
The mass balances were generally better than 2%.
2.4. Initial

rates determination

The initial rates of the reaction occuring in the batch


reactor were obtained by smoothing out the curves of
the mole number, Nx against time t, with a graphical
software in order to obtain a mathematical function of
the form N = m, - m2 em3*where m,, m2, and m3 are the
adjustable parameters. The derivate of this function at
t = 0 gives the initial rate.

3. Thermodynamic

equilibrium

3.1. Mathematical

expression

considerations

It is well known that diethylbenzene can react with


benzene to form ethylbenzene by transalkylation
or
with itself to give ethylbenzene and triethylbenzene by
dismutation
or other addition reactions. That is the
reason why this study was started with chemical equilibrium calculations, in order to point out the effects of
temperature and benzene-diethylbenzene molar ratio on
ethylbenzene yields and to be able to compare the
results issued from thermodynamical
calculations with
the experimental ones. The problem in calculating equilibrium concentrations is that a large number of compounds are involved. But we can reduce the number of
compounds if we suppose that all the isomers are in
equilibrium
and can be considered as a single compound [12].
The calculation of the lumped free energy of the
isomer group representing molecules just requires the
knowledge of the individual isomers free energies of
formation as given by the following relation [13]:

and Processing

36 (1997)

AC?::= -R.ln(i$,

133-141

exp( -g))

(1)

where AG;: and AG: are respectively the standard


Gibbs energies of formation of the group and of the
individual isomers and N,, is the number of isomers in
the group. The free energies of formation of components in the gas phase were taken from the literature
v41.
From the knowledge of the free energy of formation
in the gas phase it is possible to calculate the free
energy of formation in the liquid phase by the relation:
(AGz.lL = (AG$

+ RT In(x$Y)

(2)

where P; represents the vapour pressure of the component i.


When the equilibrium
composition involves several
simultaneous reactions, the computations required become complex and tedious but can be easily performed
with computers. The most direct scheme for doing this
involves the direct minimization
of the Gibbs function.
The total Gibbs function for a system is given by a
linear contribution of the partial molar free energies of
the different components:
nG = c(ni~J
This quantity has to be minimized with respect to the
qs at constant temperature and pressure, with the
limitations imposed by a material balance in a closed
system.
The previous Eq. (3) can also be written as follows:
nG= x(n.GO)
I I + RT 2
Since a liquid phase is being considered, x/f $'may be
replaced by
Ji

Ji

withA: fugacity of the component i in liquid state at the


temperature and pressure of the system fy : fugacity of
the pure component i in liquid state at the temperature
of the system and at 1 atm. As the pressure has a small
effect on the properties of liquids, one can approximate
the ratio J;:/fp by the equation:

In&= v,(P j-7

1)

RT

(6)

The Gibbs function of the system can now be written


as follows
nG= (niAGc) + RT C ni ln(r,) + RT C nixi
+ c n,v,(P - 1)

L.M. Tiako Ngarzajui et al. /Chemical Engineering and Processing 36 (1997) 133-141

135

The knowledge of the molar fractions on one side


and of the liquid activity coefficients (from the regular
solutions theory) of the components present in the
system at the equilibrium conditions on the other side,
allows us to calculate the theoretical equilibrium
constant of the transalkylation
reaction:
BZ + DEBZ

BZ

EBZ

IPBZ

BBZ

DEBZ

TEBZ

lTBZ

Aromatics
Fig. 1. Influence of temperature on thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations

The. problem is to f?nd the set of nis which minimizes


nG at constant temperature and pressure under the
constraints of the material balances. The algorithm
used to solve this problem is the one presented by
Smith et al. [13].
When using this algorithm, we have estimated the
temperature and the initial composition influence on
the equilibrium
composition.

$ 2 EBZ

WI
with BZ, benzene; EBZ, ethylbenzene and DEBZ, diethylbenzene. They are respectively 14.85, 14.69 and
14.28 dm3 mol-
at 450, 500 and 505 K.
Although thermodynamic
calculations on such complex system are based on many assumptions, they give
a good idea of the influence of two main parameters,
the temperature and the ratio of reactants. Now, the
fact that only diethylbenzene and small amounts of
triethylbenzene are really observed indicates that the
system is not yet at equilibrium
but it is a property of
shape-selective catalysts to promote deviation from
equilibrium.
4. Kinetic results

3.2. Temperature and reactants molar ratio effects on


equilibrium compositions

The effect of temperature on the equilibrium compositions is presented in Fig. 1. These results are given for
a starting stoichiometric mixture of benzene and diethylbenzene at a pressure of 6 MPa. It can be seen from this
figure that the temperature has nearly no effect on the
equilibrium yields. At any temperature, the predominant
product is ethylbenzene but the amounts of other alkylbenzenes and polyalkylbenzenes other than diethylbenzene are not negligible at a stoichiometric
ratio of
reactants. When the ratio benzeneldiethylbenzene
is
increased to five, the relative amounts of by-products
becomes negligible as it can be seen in Fig. 2. So if the
goal is to produce high yields of ethylbenzene without
significant amounts of by-products, a molar ratio close
to five should be chosen on thermodynamical
grounds:
that implies an important recycling of benzene.
80

4.1. Absence of internal and external diffusion limited


processes

To prevent extragranular diffusion limitation, experiments were conducted with the smallest particle diameter (d, < 89 urn) at two stirring speeds, 600 and 1000
rpm, all the other conditions being identical. The initial
rates of transalkylation
of diethylbenzene
obtained
from these two experiments did not show any change.
In addition, a simple comparison of the amounts of
reactants transported to the grains by diffusion with the
initial rates of reaction for one grain revealed a higher
value for the first quantity.
In addition, experiments realized with several catalyst
particle diameters extending from 40 to 1000 urn
showed that, the catalyst particle diameter did not
affect the rate of the transalkylation
reaction as far as
the particle diameter is lower than 90 urn. For this
reason, the results reported in this work will refer to a
catalyst particle diameter smaller than 90 pm and a
stirring speed of 1000 rpm.
Experiments realized in order to check the catalyst
stability showed that the activity could be considered
constant during the time of reaction.
4.2. Evolution of products and reactants againkt time

iZ

EiZ

lPSZ

BbZ

DiBZ

TiBZ

Aromatics
Fig. 2. Influence of molar ratio of benzene over diethylbenzene on
thermodynamic equilibrium yields at 500 K

Fig. 3 presents the typical evolution of products and


reactants during the course of a reaction. It is interesting to note that, unlike the thermodynamic calculations
had predicted, ethylbenzene is the only monoalkylbenzene found in the reaction mixture. Moreover, te-

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1.2

Tiako

Ngandjui

T=433K

et al. /Chemical

eBeniBle

0.8
2
5 0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Time (s)
Fig. 3. Evolution of reactants and products during transalkylation.
P = 6 MPa, A& = 3.38 g, heptane weight: 124 g

traethylbenzene is absent and the amount of triethylbenzene is very small. The presence of triethylbenzene
can be justified by the intervention of the dismutation
reaction. So, two reactions have to be considered in
order to propose a model for the conversion of diethylbenzene in the presence of benzene (Scheme 1).
4.3. Kinetic analysis of the forward and reverse
transalkylation reactions
4.3.1. Kinetic study of the forward reaction

Several experiments involving various benzene and


diethylbenzene concentrations were performed at 5 13 K
to calculate the rate under initial conditions. The results
are summarized in Table 1.
4.3.2. Kinetic study of the reverse reaction

Several experiments involving various ethylbenzene


concentrations were performed at 483 K. A linear
dependence between the initial rates and the initial
concentrations are clearly revealed in Fig. 4.

Engineering

and Processing

of

the dismutation

of

During the transalkylation


of diethylbenzene in the
presence of benzene, small amounts of triethylbenzene
- Tramalkylation
CHpCH,

Q,-;

OGe
*

2$-,,,

(RU

- Dismutation

CH,-CH,

FH2-CH,

$2~CH,

Scheme 1.

$H,-CH,

133-141

were found in the reaction products. This indicates that


a part of diethylbenzene undergoes the dismutation
reaction (R2). This reaction is also an opposing reaction. However under the conditions of this study, the
reverse reaction can be neglected because the amount of
triethylbenzene in the reaction mixture is very small due
to the fact that the rate of dismutation of diethylbenzene is low by comparison with the rate of diethylbenzene-benzene transalkylation.
In order to determine the rate constant of the dismutation reaction of diethylbenzene, several experiments
were realized at different initial concentrations of diethylbenzene. The results are plotted in Fig. 5. A linear
dependence between the initial rates and the initial
reactant concentrations is clearly observed.

5. Discussion

When secondary carbocations can be formed in the


can
alkyl chains, then SNl and SN2 transalkylation
occur. On these bases two reactions schemes have been
proposed in the literature for aromatics transalkylation.
The first one [15] assumes that the alkyl group of a
substituted benzenium ion undergoes a nucleophilic
attack by another aromatic molecule. A second scheme
implies bencilium carbocations in diphenylalkane intermediates [16- 181. In any case, it becomes evident that a
second order kinetic equation should be applied. Then,
there are two possible bimolecular models [19]: first, a
Langmuir-Hinshelwood
mechanism involving a reaction between two adsorbed molecules. The rate law for
reaction Rl is then given by
bb
BZ
r=k(lfbBZCsz$b

DEB2

CC
BZ

DEBZCDEBZ

DEB2
+

bEBZGBZ)2

-E

(8)
(I+

4.3.3. Kinetic study


diethylbenzene

36 (1997)

bBzGz

+ bmrsz%mz

+ bzGw42

with k the kinetic constant of the forward reaction; Ci


the concentration of species i; bi the adsorption constant of species i; and E the kinetic constant of the
reverse reaction.
In the liquid phase the catalyst can be assumed to be
fully covered so the term 1 in the denominator
is
negligible by comparison with the other terms. Moreover, under the initial conditions, the term corresponding to the products can be neglegted.
Finally, under the additional assumption of stoichiometric amounts of benzene and diethylbenzene, the rate
becomes
y = r!j = k;

(9)
The same reasoning hold for the reverse reaction
when starting with ethylbenzene
rOzj-9 In = Et
(10)

L.M.

Tiako

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et al. /Chemical

Table 1
Summary of experimental results of the forward transalkylation

Engineering

TROI
TR02
TR03
TR04
TR05
TR06
TR07
TROS

137

133-141

Initial rates of transalkylation of DEBZ(mol s-i gcat-i)

Volume (1)

Gz(mW)

GEBz(molll)

0.538
0.430
0.390
0.365
0.445
0.630
0.430
0.370

2.409

0.647
0.544
1.491
1.580
1.303
2.495
2.510
0.601

3.185
0.945
0.599
2.165
2.510
0.405
1.505

36 (1997)

reaction

Composition of reaction mixturea

Experiments no.

and Processing

0.173
0.155
0.242
0.174
0.330
0.475
0.149
0.150

a All the experiments were realized in n-heptane as solvent.

That means that the rates are independent of the


reactants initial concentrations. As this was not observed in the experiments reported in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5,
we proposed an Eley-Rideal type mechanism that considers that the reaction takes place between one adsorbed molecule and another one in the liquid phase.
This mechanism has been suggested by many authors
for reactions occuring in gaseous or liquid phase,
namely on ion-exchange acidic macro-reticular
resins.
The question arises now if this concept should work for
a reaction inside a microporous material.
In the Eley-Rideal type mechanism, the rate expression of reaction Rl is given by:

b,,zG,z
-ix I+ bBzGz
+ ~EBZCEBZ
+ &mzCmBz (11)

A value of R of 0.0065 1 s - gcat -I is calculated at


483 K.
The dismutation of DEBZ (R2) can be discussed in
the same way since

bEBzC,Bz

(14

This expression is confirmed by the first order with


respect to the reactant concentration observed in Fig. 4
and is consistent with the results reported by Corma et
al. [20] interpreted by an Eley-Rideal type mechanism.
0.02 %

T=483K

C DEBZ

bD,Bz

C DEBZ
+

b,EBz&Bz

(13)
and under the same assumptions

as above it becomes

The linear relationship between Y? and C&n, is


observed in Fig. 5; a k, value of 0.075 1 s - gcat - l is
determined at 523 K.
Now considering the forward reaction, the rate expression (Eq. (11)) becomes under initial conditions:
p

Considering jirst the reverse reaction under initial


conditions at low conversion of EBZ, Eq. (11) becomes
r; = I? C&

bDEBZ CDEBZ

rl =k;

= ,,s =

$BzC:z%Bz

+
bBzC:z

b,EBzCkmzCiz

(15)

bDEBzC&Bz

That can also be written as follows:


1

2 = k(bBZ + bDEBZ)

(16)

8
i%
5
0.12T=523K

e
k
wn
om

0.0
Initial

Initial concentration of ethylbenzene (molll)


Fig. 4. Initial rates versus initial concentrations of ethylbenzene

0.2
concentration

0.4

0.6

0.6

1.0

1.2

of diethylbenzene (molll)

Fig. 5. Initial rates versus initial concentrations for diethylbenzene


dismutation. P = 6 MPa, M, - 2.4 g

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36 (1997)

133-141

Table 2
Summary of the kinetic parameters of the forward transalkylation reaction at various temperatures
T(K)

Kinetic constant L(1 s-l gcat-I)

Adsorption coefficients ratio b DEBZ /b BZ

Multiple linear correlation coefficient

423
453
483
513

0.0035
0.0156
0.06
0.192

0.08
0.15
0.4
0.7

0.9
0.94
0.96
0.96

These results allowed us to calculate an activation energy amounting to 81 kJ mol- I (Fig. 6) and a difference between the adsorption heats
(2 DEsz-?.Bz) equal to -46 kJ mol-.

where k and bDEBZ/bBZcan be determined by fitting the


experimental data to the model.
The result of the multiple regression applied to data
of Table 1 gives a value of the rate constant Lequal to
0.192 1 s- gcat- and an adsorption coefficients ratio
bDEBZ/bBZequal to 0.7 at 513 K.
A similar treatment was applied to other experimental data obtained at different temperatures. The values
of the kinetic parameters and the ratios of the adsorption coefficients are summarized in Table 2 Fig. 6.
Few studies on aromatics transalkylation
in liquid
phase over zeolite catalyst have been reported in the
literature up to now. Most of the studies were conducted in gaseous phase. The activation energies found
in these studies have been collected in Table 3 for
comparison.
Knowing k and E, it is possible to calculate the
experimental value of the equilibrium
constant, K. At
483 K, a K value equal to 10 was obtained which is not
far from 14.75 caiculated from thermodynamic
data.
The difference between the two values could be due to
several causes and it is not easy to determine the real
one: one possibility would be a modification
in the
equilibrium
concentrations due to the shape-selective
catalyst.
In order to determine the other adsorption coefficient
ratio, bEBZlb,,, several experiments were made at different initial molar ratios of ethylbenzene and benzene.
Different reactions can be considered such as the ethyl-

benzene dismutation
and the exchange of an ethyl
group between ethylbenzene and benzene molecules. As
the second reaction will not modify the respective concentrations of the two molecules, only the first reaction
will be considered. The following rate expression for the
initial rate of disappearance of ethylbenzene can be
written:
(17)
which can be rearranged as:

(18)
A graph of C&,/r& versus C,,jC,,,
at 483 K is
given in Fig. 7: this allows us to calculate a value of 2
for b,,,/bBZ and a value of 0.0062 1 s - gcat - i for R at
483 K. This value of is very similar to that determined
from the linear
relationship
between r,, and
C&,(0.0065 1 s- gcat- I).
6. Modelling
Using the kinetic results obtained above, it is now
possible to propose a kinetic model in order to predict
the evolution of products and reactants during diethyibenzene transalkylation
in the presence of benzene.
. .
In the conditions where C,,,, is low, the term b,,.
in the rate expression can be neglected. The
BZ CTEBZ
following equations can be written for a batch reactor:

where M,: catalyst weight

1.9e-3

2.0e3

Z.le-3
UT

2.2e-3

2.3e3

2.4e3

[K-l]

Fig. 6. Determination of the activation energy of the forward reaction


in the diethylbenzene transalkylation

L.M.

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36 (1997)

139

133-141

Table 3
Comparison of activation energies for transaskylation of aromatics over zeolite catalysts
Authors

Reaction
Nature

Catalyst

Activation energy(kJmol-)

Y(Si/Al= 13.8)
HYD-3(Si/Al=
12.8)
WY-3(Si/Al=
12)
Various zeolites
Y
6% Ni-Y
HZSM-5
Pentasil (Si/Al = 36)
Pentasil (Si/Al = 110)

81
107
85.8
83
87 * 10
93+13
100-121
53i5
56kl

Phase

This work
Corma et al. [ZO]

Transalkylation
Transalkylation

of DEBZ-BZ
of aromatics

Liquid
Gaseous

Beltrame et al. [21]


Dooley et al. [22]

Toluene transalkylation
Toluene transalkylation

Gaseous
Gaseous

Bhaskar and Do [23]


Nayak and Riekert 1241

Toluene disproportionation
Disproportionation
of toluene

Gaseous
Gaseous

From these data it can be observed that the activation energy calculated in this work falls in the range of the ones reported in several publications
for toluene or aromatics transalkylation in the gaseous phase.

d%,z
-=

dt

bDEBZ CDEBZ CBZ

7. Conclusions

&z&z

+M,

+ bmzkz
+ bDEBz&Bz
bEBz&Bz
I?
bBzCBz + bmzhz
+ bXBz%Bz
(

bDEBZ%EBZ
+

bmzcmz

bEBz%Bz

(21)
bDEBZ C2
DEBZ

&mz
-=

dt

bBzCBz + bEBz%z

+ bmz&Bz
(22)

k and R are respectively the rate constants for forward


and reverse reactions of diethylbenzene transalkylation;
k, is the rate constant of the forward reaction of
dismutation of diethylbenzene.
This system of differential equations can be solved by
using a Runge-Kutta algorithm in order to predict the
evolution with time of products and reactants in the
reaction system. In Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 the evolution of
the number of moles of the different species have been
plotted against time. It can be concluded that this
model fits the experimental data rather well.
400
T=483K

1
CL
co Em

Fig. 7. Reaction of ethylbenzene in the presence of benzene in order


to determine the ratio of adsorption coefficients

Diethylbenzene has been converted, with high selectivity, in liquid phase, over faujasite Y. The thermodynamic study shows that the transalkylation
is an
opposing reaction. The temperature has little effect on
the position of the equilibrium. The operating condition
that allows a high yield of ethylbenzene is a high molar
ratio of benzene over diethylbenzene. The kinetic study
under initial conditions shows that the transalkylation
reaction follows a first order mechanism. A transalkylation model considering all the aromatics present in the
liquid phase predicts the product distribution
and fits
the experimental data rather well, although some simplifying approximations
are made to describe this system of opposing reactions.

Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Professor D. Decroocq
and M.P. Galtier for fruitful discussions. They are also
grateful to the Institut francais du Petrole for financial
support.

3000

6dOO

9000

12OCO

Time (s)

Fig. 8. Comparison of the experimental conversion of reactants with


the model

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36 (1997)

133-141

liquid molar fraction of speciesi


molar liquid volume of speciesi (1 mol-)
number of moles of speciesi (mol)

xi
vi
ni

Superscripts
*

adsorbed species
initial conditions
forward reaction
inverse reaction

d
in

Fig. 9. Comparison of the experimental evolution of reaction products with the model

Appendix A. Nomenclature

bi
G
-4
r

r
T
P
BZ
EBZ
IPBZ
BBZ
DEBZ
TEBZ
TTBZ
ki
MC
t

nG
G
GP
AGZ
AG;
NI
;:
L

fP

Yi

adsorption equilibrium constant for i based


on concentrations
concentration of component i (mol 1-l)
activation energy (kJ mol-)
reaction rate related to catalyst weight (mol
s-gcat-)
reaction rate at initial conditions (mol s-l
gcat- )
temperature (K)
pressure (atm)
benzene
ethylbenzene
isopropylbenzene
butylbenzene
diethylbenzene
triethylbenzene
tetraethylbenzene
rate constant of reaction i (1 s-l gcat-)
catalyst weight (g)
time (s)
free energy of the system (kJ mol-)
partial molar free energy of component i
free energy in standard state of component
i
standard Gibbs energies of formation of the
group of isomers (kJ mol-)
standard Gibbs energies of formation of the
individual isomers (kJ mol-)
number of isomers in the group i
vapor pressure of component i (atm)
fugacity of the component i in the system
W-4
fugacity of the pure component i in liquid
state at the temperature and pressure of the
system (atm)
fucacity of the pure component i at the
temperature of the system and at 1 atm
W-4
activity coefficient of speciesi

References
K.A. Becker, H.G. Karge and W.-D. Streubel, Benzene alkylation with ethylene and propylene over H-mordenite as catalyst,
J. Catal., 28 (1973) 403-413.
VI Y, Morita, H. Matsumoto, T. Kiruma, F. Kato and M.
Takayasu, Adsorptive and catalytic properties of LaY zeolite in
the alkylation of benzene, Bull. Jpn. Pet. Inst., 15 (1) (1973)
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