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Many engineering optimization problems can be considered as linear programming problems where all or some of the parameters involved are linguistic in nature. These can only be quantified using fuzzy sets. The aim of this paper is to solve a fuzzy linear programming problem in which the parameters
involved are fuzzy quantities with logistic membership functions. To explore the applicability of the method a numerical example is considered to determine the monthly production planning quotas and profit of a home-textile group.
Keywords: fuzzy set theory, fuzzy linear programming, logistic membership function, decision making

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Production Planning in the Textile Industry

Universiti Technologi PETRONAS Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus,

Tronoh, Malaysia Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

*

Abstract—Many engineering optimization problems can be analysis of real-world problems [3]. The period of development

considered as linear programming problems where all or some of of fuzzy theory from 1965 to 1977, is often referred to as the

the parameters involved are linguistic in nature. These can only academic phase. The outcome was a rather small number of

be quantified using fuzzy sets. The aim of this paper is to solve a publications of a predominantly theoretical nature by a few

fuzzy linear programming problem in which the parameters contributors, mainly from the academic community. At this

involved are fuzzy quantities with logistic membership functions. time, not much work in the area of fuzzy decision making was

To explore the applicability of the method a numerical example is reported. The period from 1978 to 1988, has been called the

considered to determine the monthly production planning quotas

transformation phase during which significant advances in

and profit of a home-textile group.

fuzzy set theory were made and some real-life problems were

Keywords: fuzzy set theory, fuzzy linear programming, logistic solved. In this period, some important principles in fuzzy set

membership function, decision making theory and its applications were established. However, work on

fuzzy decision making was not very active, in the area of

engineering applications. Some earlier work on fuzzy decision

I. INTRODUCTION making can be found in [4] and [5]. From 1989 to the present

Many problems in science and engineering have been work on fuzzy techniques has boomed . In this period, many

considered from the point of view optimization. As the problems concerning applications in industry and business have

environment is much influenced by the disturbance of social been tackled successfully. In the early 1990s, fuzzy techniques

and economic factors, the optimization approach is not always were used to aid the solution of some soft computing problems.

the best. This is because, under such turbulent conditions, many The aim of soft computing is to exploit, whenever possible, the

problems are ill-defined. Therefore, a degree-of-satisfaction tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty in order to achieve

approach may be better than optimization. Here, we discuss computational tractability, robustness, and low cost, by

how to deal with decision making problems that are described methods that produce approximate but acceptable solutions to

by fuzzy linear programming (FLP) models and formulated complex problems which often have no precise solution.

with elements of imprecision and uncertainty. More precisely,

Currently, fuzzy techniques are often applied in the field of

we will study FLP models in which the parameters are known

decision making. Fuzzy methods have been developed in

only partially to some degree of precision.

virtually all branches of decision making, including multi-

Even though the information is incomplete, the model objective, multi-person, and multi-stage decision making [6].

builder is able to provide realistic intervals for the parameters Apart from this, other research work connected to fuzzy

in these FLP models. We will demonstrate that the modeling decision making includes applications of fuzzy theory in

complications can be handled with the help of some results management, business and operational research [7]. Some

which have been developed in fuzzy set theory. The FLP representative publications can be found in [8], [9], [10], [11]

problem which we will be considering in this work is to find and [12].

ways to handle fuzziness in the parameters. We will develop a

FLP model in which the parameters are known with only some Decision making is an important and much studied

degree of precision. We will also show that the model can be application of mathematical methods in various fields of

parameterized in such a way that a satisfactory solution human activity. In real-world situations, decisions are nearly

becomes a function of the membership values. The FLP model always made on the basis of information which, at least in

derived in this way is flexible and easy to handle part, is fuzzy in nature. In some cases fuzzy information is

computationally [1]. used as an approximation to more precise information. This

form of approximation can be convenient and sufficient for

The first and most meaningful impetus towards the making good enough decisions in some situations. In other

mathematical formalization of fuzziness was pioneered by cases, fuzzy information is the only form of information

Zadeh [2]. Its further development is in progress, with

available.

numerous attempts being made to explore the ability of fuzzy

set theory to become a useful tool for adequate mathematical

238 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

The first step in mathematically tackling a practical ⎧

decision-making problem consists of formulating a suitable ⎪

mathematical model of a system or situation. If we intend to ⎪1 if aij ≤ aija

make reasonably adequate mathematical models of situations ⎪⎪ B

that help practicing decision makers in searching for rational μa%ij =⎨ ⎛ aij − aija ⎞

if aija ≤ aij ≤ aijb (4)

decisions, we should be able to introduce fuzziness into our ⎪ α⎜ b a ⎟

⎜ ⎟

models and to suggest means of processing fuzzy information. ⎪ 1 + Ce ⎝ aij − aij ⎠

In this paper a methodology to solve an FLP problem by ⎪

using a logistic membership function is considered. The rest of ⎪⎩ 0 if aij ≥ aijb

the paper is organized as follows. In section 2, the basic fuzzy

model is defined and this is followed by a numerical example

in section 3. Section 4 provides the results and discussion, and III. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

finally, concluding remarks are made in section 5. In this example the profit for a unit of sheet sales is around

II. THE MODEL 1.05 Euro; a unit of pillow case sales is around 0.3 Euro and a

unit of quilt sales is around 1.8 Euro. The firm concerned

A conventional linear programming problem is defined by would like to sell approximately 25.000 sheet units, 40.000

pillow case units and 10.000 units quilt units. The monthly

Maximize Cx working capacity and required process time for the production

Subject to Ax ≤ b, x ≥ 0. (1)

of sheets, pillow cases and quilts are given in Table 1 [14].

In view of this, let us determine monthly production

planning details and profit for a home-textile group. X1

in which the components of a 1×n vector C, an m×n matrix A presents the quantity of sheets that will be produced, X2

and an n×1 vector b are all crisp parameters and x is an n- presents the quantity of pillow cases and X3 presents the

dimensional decision variable vector. quantity of quilts. The profit figures with logistic membership

The system (1) may be redefined in a fuzzy environment functions as given in Table I.

with the following more elaborate structure:

n TABLE I. REQUIRED PROCESS TIME FOR SHEET, PILLOW CASE

∑cjxj

~ AND OF A QUILT [14]

Maximize

j =1

Subject to Departments hours per

Pillow

Sheet Quilt month

case

n

∑ aij x j ≤~ bi ,

~ Cutting 0.0033 0.001 0.0033 208

i = 1,2 L m (2) Sewing 0.056 0.025 0.1 4368

j =1 Pleating 0.0067 0.004 0.017 520

Packaging 0.01 0.01 0.01 780

~ ~ a b ~ ~ a b

All fuzzy data c j ≡ S (c j , c j ) and aij ≡ S (aij , aij ) are

fuzzy variables with the following logistic membership If we consider, around 1.05 ≡ S% (1.02,1.08) , around 0.3 ≡

functions [13], S% (0.2, 0.4) , and around 1.8 ≡ S% (1.7, 2.0) , then, the

mathematical model of the above problem with fuzzy

⎧ objective coefficients can be described as follows.

⎪

⎪1 if c j ≤ caj Maximize

⎪

⎪ B ~ ~ ~

μc% j = ⎨ if caj ≤ c j ≤ cbj (3) S (1.02,1.08) x1+ S (0.2,0.4) x 2 + S (1.7, 2.0) x 3

⎛ c j −caj ⎞

⎪ α⎜ b a ⎟

⎪ ⎜ c j −c j ⎟ subject to

⎝ ⎠

⎪ 1+ Ce 0 . 033 x1 + 0 . 01 x 2 + 0 .0033 x 3 ≤ 208 ;

⎪0 if c j ≥ cbj

⎩ 0 . 056 x1 + 0 .25 x 2 + 0 .1 x 3 ≤ 4368 ;

0 . 0067 x1 + 0 .04 x 2 + 0 .17 x 3 ≤ 520 ;

(5)

0 . 1 x1 + 0 . 1 x 2 + 0 .01 x 3 ≤ 780 ;

x1 ≥ 25000 ;

x 2 ≥ 40000 ;

x 3 ≥ 10000 ;

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ISSN 1947-5500

and we set B = 1, C = .001, ε = 0.2 and d = 13.8 [15].

solving the following:

subject to

.0033x1 + .001x2 + .0033 x3 ≤ 208;

.056 x1 + .025 x2 + .1x3 ≤ 4368;

.0067 x1 + .004 x2 + .017 x3 ≤ 520; (6)

.01x1 + .01x2 + .01x3 ≤ 780;

x1 ≥ 25000;

Figure 1. 3D plot for iterations M=748.

x2 ≥ 40000;

x3 ≥ 10000;

which gives the optimal value of the objective function as

various alpha values with respect to G. The optimum values

67203.88 for x1 = 29126.21, x2 =35000.00 and x3 =10873.79 for the objective function as per this figure are 86,691.8

[15]. (maximum) and 86,639.5 (minimum).

obtain the following results [15]:

x3 = 10233.01, η = 0.4911863

group should plan for a monthly production of 27766.99 sheet

units, 40000 pillow case units and 102333.01 quilt units. This

plan gives an overall satisfaction of 0.5323011. The decision

making method may be improved further by adopting a

recursive iteration methodology.

Figure 2. 3D plot for iterations M = 749.

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. 3 shows the 3D outcome for M = 750 iterations and

The numerical example is solved by using a recursive various alpha values with respect to G. The optimum values

method for various iterations. This was carried out using the for the objective function as per this figure are 86,576.2

C++ programming language on a personal computer with a (maximum) and 86,524.0 (minimum).

dual core processor running at 2 GHz [16]–[17]. Fig. 1 shows

the 3D outcome of the iterations with M = 748 for various

alpha values with respect to the objective function G. The

values of α 1 and α 2 vary from 0 to 1. The optimum values

for the objective function as per Fig. 1 are 86,807.7

(maximum) and 86,755.4 (minimum).

240 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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Fig. 4 shows the 3D outcome for M = 751 iterations and

various alpha values with respect to G. The optimum value for

the objective function as per this figure are 86,440.7

(maximum) and 86,408.0 (minimum).

iterations 748 to 751. It can be seen that as the iterations are

increased, the values of the objective function decrease. The

percentage error is minimum at iteration, M = 748; however,

after that it increases until it peaks at M = 750; thereafter, the

percentage error decreases again to a level lower than that at

M = 748. This shows that the maximum number of iterations

that can be used for similar cases in the future can be limited

to M = 750.

Figure 7. Decision variable, X2 versus M iterations.

Figure 5. Objective Function (G) versus iterations

Table II presents results that involve α1 , α 2 and α3 with M

variables x1, x2 and x3 with respect to the number of iterations. = 748 for G, x1, x2 and x3. Other results for M = 749 to 751 are

It can be observed that x1, x2 and x3 decrease as the iterations given in the appendix.

are increased from M = 748 to M = 751.

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TABLE II ALPHA, OBJECTIVE FUNCTION From Table IV, the optimum value for the objective function

AND DECISION VARIABLES FOR M=748 using the proposed method outweighs the results obtained in

[14] and [15]. It can be deduced that the recursive iteration

α1 α2 α3 G x1 x2 x3 method proposed here is an efficient and effective way to

solve our example fuzzy problem of production planning in

1 1 *all 86755.4 33422.5 53475.9 13369

the textile industry.

1 0.5 all 86780.3 33422.5 53475.9 13369

0.5 1 all 86767.5 33422.5 53475.9 13369 V. CONCLUSION

0.5 0.5 all 86792.4 33422.5 53475.9 13369 This paper has discussed the use of fuzzy linear

0.3333 1 all 86770.9 33422.5 53475.9 13369 programming for solving a production planning problem in the

0.3333 0.5 all 86795.9 33422.5 53475.9 13369 textile industry. It can be concluded that the recursive method

0.25 1 all 86772.5 33422.5 53475.9 13369

introduced is a promising method for solving such problems.

The modified s-curve membership function provides various

0.25 0.5 all 86797.5 33422.5 53475.9 13369

uncertainty levels which are very useful in the decision

0.2 1 all 86773.5 33422.5 53475.9 13369

making process. In this paper, only a single s-curve

0.2 0.5 all 86798.4 33422.5 53475.9 13369 membership function was considered. In the future, various

0.1667 1 all 86774.1 33422.5 53475.9 13369 other membership functions will be considered. Apart from

0.1667 0.5 all 86799.0 33422.5 53475.9 13369 providing an optimum solution for the objective functions, the

0.1429 1 all 86774.5 33422.5 53475.9 13369 proposed method ensures high productivity. In this regard,

0.1429 0.5 all 86799.4 33422.5 53475.9 13369

there is a good opportunity for developing an interactive self-

organized decision making method by using hybrid soft

0.125 1 all 86774.8 33422.5 53475.9 13369

computing techniques.

0.125 0.5 all 86799.8 33422.5 53475.9 13369

0.1111 1 all 86775.1 33422.5 53475.9 13369 ACKNOWLEDGMENT

0.1111 0.5 all 86800.0 33422.5 53475.9 13369 The authors would like to thank Universiti Teknologi

Note: *all∈ (0, 1) PETRONAS and Swinburne University of Technology

Sarawak Campus for supporting this work.

Table III summarizes the result for M = 748 to 751 for x1, x2

and x3 with maximum and minimum values of G. The overall REFERENCES

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minimum value is 86408.0 at M = 751. For Fuzzy Linear Programming. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 29 : 21-29.

[2] Zadeh, L. A. 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control 8 : 338-353.

TABLE III SUMMARY OF ITERATIONS, DECISION VARIABLES [3] Orlovsky, S. A. 1980. On Formalization Of A General Fuzzy

AND OBJECTIVE FUNCTION Mathematical Programming Problem. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 3 : 311-

321.

M x1 x2 x3 G (max) G(min) [4] Kickert, W.J. 1978. Fuzzy Theories on Decision-Making: Frontiers in

Systems Research. Leiden, The Netherlands : Martinus Nijhoff .

748 33422.5 53475.9 13369 86807.7 86755.4

[5] Zimmermann, H.J. 1987. Fuzzy Sets, Decision Making, and Experts

749 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 86691.8 86639.5 Systems. Boston: Kluwer.

750 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3 86576.2 86524.0 [6] Tamiz, M. 1996. Multi-objective programming and goal programming:

theories and applications. Germany: Springer-Verlag.

751 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6 86440.7 86408.0 [7] Zimmermann, H.J. 1991. Fuzzy Set Theory-and Its Applications, (2nd

rev. ed.). Boston: Kluwer.

Table IV compares the best objective function and decision [8] Ross, T. J. 1995. Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, New

variables x1, x2 and x3 of the proposed method with previous York: McGraw- Hill.

work by other researchers. [9] Klir, G. J., and Yuan, B. 1995. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and

Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR.

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Fuzzy Sets and Applications-Selected Papers by L. A. Zadeh. New York

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The Best Decision Variables [11] Zimmermman, H. J. 1985. Application of Fuzzy Set Theory To

Method Objective Mathematical Programming. Information Sciences 36:25-58.

Function x1 x2 x3

[12] Dubois, D. and Prade, H.1980. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Theory and

Applications, California: Academic Press Inc.

Irfan [14] 64390.999 33825.16 40000.00 9374.760

[13] P. Vasant, A. Bhattacharya, B. Sarkar and S. K. Mukherjee, “Detection

Atanu [15] 66454.369 27766.99 40000.00 10233.01 of level of satisfaction and fuzziness patterns for MCDM model with

modified flexiable S-curve MF”, Applied Soft Computing, 7, 2007, pp.

Proposed Method 86807.700 33422.50 53475.90 13369.00 1044-1054.

242 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

[14] Irfan Ertugrul and Aysegül Tus, “Interactive fuzzy linear programming

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and an application sample at a textile firm”, Fuzzy Optimization and

Decision Making, 6, 2007, pp. 29–49. 0.1667 0.5 all 86567.5 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

[15] Atanu, S., P. Vasant and Cvetko, J.A., Fuzzy Optimization with Robust 0.1429 1 all 86543.1 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

Logistic Membership Function: A Case Study In For Home Textile

0.1429 0.5 all 86568 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

Industry, Proceedings of the 17th World Congress, The International

Federation of Automatic Control, Seoul, Korea, July6-11, 2008, pp5262- 0.125 1 all 86543.4 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

5266.

0.125 0.5 all 86568.3 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

[16] http://www.intel.com/products/processor/core2duo/index.htm

0.1111 1 all 86543.7 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

[17] http://www2.research.att.com/~bs/C++.html

0.1111 0.5 all 86568.5 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

AND DECISION VARIABLES FOR M=749 AND DECISION VARIABLES FOR M=751

α1 α2 α3 G x1 x2 x3 α1 α2 α3 G x1 x2 x3

1 1 *all 86639.5 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 1 1 *all 86408.8 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

1 0.5 all 86664.4 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 1 0.5 all 86433.6 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.5 1 all 86651.7 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.5 1 all 86420.9 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.5 0.5 all 86676.6 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.5 0.5 all 86445.7 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.3333 1 all 86655.1 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.3333 1 all 86424.3 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.3333 0.5 all 86680.0 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.3333 0.5 all 86449.1 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.25 1 all 86656.7 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.25 1 all 86425.9 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.25 0.5 all 86681.6 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.25 0.5 all 86450.7 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.2 1 all 86657.6 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.2 1 all 86426.9 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.2 0.5 all 86682.5 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.2 0.5 all 86451.7 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.1667 1 all 86658.2 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.1667 1 all 86427.5 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.1667 0.5 all 86683.1 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.1667 0.5 all 86452.3 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.1429 1 all 86658.7 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.1429 1 all 86427.9 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.1429 0.5 all 86683.5 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.1429 0.5 all 86452.7 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.125 1 all 86659.0 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.125 1 all 86428.2 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.125 0.5 all 86683.9 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.125 0.5 all 86453 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.1111 1 all 86659.2 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.1111 1 all 86428.4 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

0.1111 0.5 all 86684.4 33377.8 53404.5 13351.1 0.1111 0.5 all 86453.3 33288.9 53262.3 13315.6

AUTHOR PROFILES

TABLE VI ALPHA, OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

AND DECISION VARIABLES FOR M=750 I. Elamvazuthi is a lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Electronic

Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. His

research interests include Control Systems, Mechatronics and Robotics.

α1 α2 α3 G x1 x2 x3

1 1 *all 86524 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3 T. Ganesan is currently a Graduate Assistant with the Department of

Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia,

1 0.5 all 86548.9 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

pursuing a Masters Degree. He has a Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical

0.5 1 all 86536.1 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3 Engineering from the same university. He specializes in Computational Fluid

Mechanics.

0.5 0.5 all 86561 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

P. Vasant is a lecturer in the Department of Fundamental and Applied

0.3333 0.5 all 86564.4 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3 Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. His research

interests are Soft Computing and Computational Intelligence.

0.25 1 all 86541.1 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

J. F. Webb is a lecturer at Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak

0.2 1 all 86542.1 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3 Campus, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. He specializes in Computational

0.2 0.5 all 86566.9 33333.3 53333.3 13333.3

Methods, Nano-Physics and Ferroelectric Materials.

243 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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