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FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION

REDUCTION BY DE-LINKING ALTERNATOR IN


AUTOMOBILES
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO
THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, MYSORE
(An Autonomous College)

In partial fulfillment for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering
In

Mechanical Engineering
Submitted by
ANJAN N B

4NI11ME015

BASAVASAGAR TAMBAKE 4NI11ME026


Under the guidance of

Mr. N. SESHAPRAKASH
Visiting Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The National Institute of Engineering
Mysore-570008

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
The National Institute Of Engineering
Mysore

_____________________________________________
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the report entitled Fuel Consumption & Emission Reduction
by De-linking Alternator in Automobiles submitted by Anjan N B (4NI11ME015) and
Basavasagar Tambake (4NI11ME026) in fulfillment of requirements for the mini project as
prescribed in the syllabus of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering, The
National Institute of Engineering, Mysore, is evaluated and is an authentic work under my
guidance and supervision.

Place: Mysore
Date:

Mr.N. Seshaprakash
Visiting Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The National Institute of Engineering
Mysore- 570008

ABSTRACT

The present technology in the automobile industry is to reduce fuel consumption and
emission. This is affected by different types of loads acting on the engine. Charging the
battery of an automobile using alternator is also a load on the engine. Delinking the alternator
from the engine will cut down fuel consumption and emission.
In this project, an effort has been made to design a cone clutch assembly to disengage
the drive of an alternator. It disengages the drive when battery gets fully charged and engages
automatically when it reaches the threshold voltage using a pneumatic circuit. The source for
the pneumatic circuit is the Automobile Air Braking System. The circuit is controlled by the
ECU (Electronic Control Unit).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This is to mark my sincere gratitude towards those who made this project work, a
possibility. We wish to thank my guide Mr N. Seshaprakash, Visiting Professor, Department
of Mechanical Engineering, The National Institute of Engineering, Mysore for being a
constant source of encouragement and providing proper technical guidance.
We owe our gratitude to Dr. N. V. Raghavendra, Professor and Head, Dept. of Mechanical
Engineering, NIE Mysore, for his valuable guidance and for permitting us to avail the
facilities in the college.
We also thank the teaching and non-teaching staff of Mechanical Engineering Department,
NIE Mysore.
Lastly I also thank my fellow classmate for his kind suggestions and encouragement.

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................1
2. DESIGN OF SPRING................................................................................3
1) Design Details of Spring:....................................................................6
3. Design of Pneumatic Circuit to Actuate Cone Clutch.............................8
4. PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT............................................................................10
5. ASSEMBLY OF THE SYSTEM IN SOLIDWORKS.......................................13
6. MOTION STUDY OF THE MECHANISM...................................................15
7. REFERENCES.......................................................................................17

List of Tables:
Table 2-1 : Design Details of Spring------------------------------------------------------------------6
Table 3-1 : List of Components-------------------------------------------------------------------------8
Table 5-1 : List of Components in Assembly--------------------------------------------------------13

List of Figures:
Figure 2-1: Free Body diagram of Spring --------------------------------------------------------- 3
Figure 2-2: Force acting on cross section of Spring---------------------------------------------- 4
Figure 2-3: Final Design of Helical Coil Spring in Solid Works------------------------------- 7
Figure 4-1: Pneumatic Circuit to actuate Cone Clutch------------------------------------------- 10
Figure 4-2: 3- Way Directional Valve ------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Figure 4-3: Types of Single Acting Cylinder------------------------------------------------------ 12
Figure 4-4: Solid Works model of Fork which engages the Clutch---------------------------- 12
Figure5-1: Assembly of Alternator Drive Isolation Sysytem----------------------------------- 14
Figure6-1: Motion Study of Alternator Drive Isolation System--------------------------------- 16

1. INTRODUCTION
Fluid power systems convert mechanical energy into fluid energy, and then convert this
fluid energy back into mechanical energy to do useful work. The fluid power devices that
convert the energy of a pressurized fluid into mechanical energy to do work are called
actuators. The two basic types of actuators are cylinders, which generate linear motion, and
motors or rotary actuators, which generate rotary motion.
Most pneumatic circuits contain a source of compressed air, a pressure control device,
conductors such as pipe or tubing, an actuator, and a directional control valve to control the
operation of the actuator. The power source comes from a motor or engine, called a prime
mover that operates a compressor having its inlet port connected to .the atmosphere. The
mechanical energy is converted into fluid power when this air is compressed. In addition to a
prime mover and a compressor, a pneumatic power source includes an air storage tank called
a receiver. The receiver stores the compressed air until this energy is needed elsewhere in the
system.
A pneumatic circuit is a fluid power circuit that uses gas to transmit power. Air is commonly
used as a gas in pneumatics because it is readily available, inexpensive, and can be returned
to the atmosphere after use.
Air is extremely compressible and elastic. It is capable of absorbing large amounts of
potential energy. These properties of compressed air make possible smooth acceleration and
deceleration and reversal of direction of mechanical motions, with relative freedom from
shock.
As a power medium, compressed air has numerous distinct advantages such as:
Easy to transport and store
Offers little risk of explosion or fire
Is a very fast working medium and enables high working speed to be obtained
Provides flexibility in the control of machines
Provides an efficient method of multiplying force
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No return lines necessary


The main disadvantages of compressed air are:
Safety precautions are necessary in handling
Two forms of environmental pollution may occur in pneumatic systems:
a) Noise: caused by the escape of compressed air
b) Oil mist: caused by lubricants which have been introduced at the compressor
or via a service unit which are discharged into the atmosphere during the

exhaust cycles
Generally suitable for relatively low power requirements
Pressure limits
Leakages must be controlled to maintain usable pressures
Dirt and humidity must not be present

Compressed air finds wide use in transportation and industry fields: air brakes, air cylinder,
tools, die casting, etc.

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2. DESIGN OF SPRING
The figures below show the schematic representation of a helical spring acted
upon by a tensile load F and compressive load F. The circles denote the cross
section of the spring wire. The cut section, i.e. from the entire coil somewhere
we make a cut, is indicated as a circle with shade. If we look at the free body

diagram of the shaded region only (the cut section) then we shall see that at the cut section,
vertical equilibrium of forces will give us force, F as indicated in the figure. This F is the
shear force. The torque T, at the cut section and its direction is also marked in the figure.
There is no horizontal force coming into the picture because externally there is no horizontal
force present. So from the fundamental understanding of the free body diagram one can see
that any section of the spring is experiencing a torque and a force. Shear force will always be
associated with a bending moment. However, in an ideal situation, when force is acting at the
centre of the circular spring and the coils of spring are almost parallel to each other, no
bending moment would result at any section of the spring ( no moment arm), except torsion
and shear force. The Fig. will explain the fact stated above.

Figure 2-1: Free Body diagram of Spring

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Figure 2- 2: Force acting on the cross section of Spring

Design Procedure:
The spring used for the Cone clutch is responsible in holding the Male cone in engaged
position. This ensures that the alternator is always engaged with the engine shaft. To do so the
spring has to exert some force on the male cone and it is computed as follows,
Estimation of Load:
Force required to engage the clutch : Fen = Dmbp(sin + cos)
Mean Diameter of Cone Clutch = Dm = 94.617 mm
Width of the Clutch = b = 18 mm
Unit normal pressure at the contact surface = p = 0.45 N/mm2
Semi Cone Angle = = 13
Co-efficient of Friction = = 0.1
Therefore the force required to engage the clutch is
Fen = 94.617180.45(sin(13) +0.1cos(13))
Fen = 776 Newton
Design of Helical Coil Spring:
Assuming spring material to be ' Music Wire'. This spring material is most widely used for
small springs. It is the toughest and has highest tensile strength and can withstand repeated
loading at high stresses. However, it cannot be used at subzero temperatures or at
temperatures above 1200C. Normally when we talk about springs we will find that the music
wire is a common choice for springs.

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Material Properties:
Rigidity Modulus G = 0.07845106 MPa
Torsional elastic limit yp = 620MPa
FOS = 1.24
Allowable Shear Stress all = 500MPa
Load acting on the spring = 776N
We know that, shear stress induced in the spring is given by

8 FCK
2
d

Wahl factor K =

-----------------------------------------------------Equation(1)
4 C1
4 C4

0.615
C

D
d

Spring index C =

From Equation (1), KC3 =

D
8F

As per the space available to insert the spring is 37.5 mm, we assume D = 37.5 mm.
Substituting D=37.5 mm in above equation we get,
KC3 = 500(37.52)/(8776) = 355.82
Substitute K =

4 C1
4 C4

4 C1 0.615
+
4 C4
C

0.615
C

in above equation

C3 = 355.82

Solving above equation , C = 6.625 d =

D
C

37.5
6.625

= 5.66

Available Coil wire diameter is 5.6 mm


Permissible deflection = 25mm
No of active coils required i =
i=

25 0.07845 106 5.6


8 776 6.6253

Spring Rate (Fo) : Fo =


6

Fo =

yGd
3
8FC

= 6.08 6 coils

Gd 4
8i D 3

0.07845 10 5.6
8 6 37.53

= 30.479 N/mm
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Free length of the Spring, lo = (i+1)d + y + a


where a = xdi total clearance between working coils in mm
'i' is the number of active coils, x is the constant
x = 0.15; d=5.6; i=6
a = 0.155.66 = 5.04mm; y=25mm
lo = (6+1)5.6 +25 + 5.04 = 69.24mm
Free length of the spring is = 69.24mm
Solid Length of the Spring ls = id
ls = 65.6 = 33.6 mm
The available space to assemble the spring is 42mm and hence it is compressed by27.24mm
Initial compression is 27.24mm
Axial Force exerted by the spring on the clutch = Fa = Fo(deflection)
Fa = 30.47927.24
Fa = 830.24N
This force ensures that the clutch is engaged always.
Force required to disengage the clutch:
Fd,en = Fa + Fo(axial movement) ; Distance to be moved to disengage the clutch = 5mm
Fd,en = 830.24 + (30.4795) = 982.642N
Fd,en is the load carried by the Single acting cylinder, hence cylinder has to be chosen based
on this.
1) Design Details of Spring:
Sl.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6

Parameter
Spring Index (C)
Coil Mean diameter (Dm)
Wire Diameter (d)
No of active coils (i)
Free length(lo)
Solid length(ls)
Table 2-1 : Design Details of Spring

Value in mm
6.625
37.5
5.6
6
69.24
33.6

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Figure 2-3: Final design of Helical Coil Spring in Solidworks

3. Design of Pneumatic Circuit to Actuate Cone Clutch


Once the alternator drive is isolated from the engine, the process of charging the battery
stops. In order to charge the battery, the isolated system has to couple with the engine shaft.
This makes the alternator pulley to rotate, thereby charging the battery.
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To accomplish this, a Single acting pneumatic cylinder with spring return is used. This
actuates the Cone clutch. The control of the actuation is done by the ECU (Electronic Control
Unit) of the automobile.
List of Components:
Sl.N

Components

Quantity

o
1
2
3
4

Single Acting Cylinder with spring return


3/2 Direction Control Valve with solenoid actuation
Compressor
Fork to move the male cone

1
1
1
1

Table 3-2 : List of Components


The air source for the pneumatic actuation is from automobile air braking system. The design
of the circuit is based on the pneumatic pressure available from the Air Braking System of an
Automobile. The available pneumatic pressure in a typical automobile is around 80 psi.
Hence this is assumed as the source for designing the entire system.
Estimation of Load:
From Design of the Cone Clutch, the force required to engage the clutch was found to be Fen
= 776N
Load acting on the cylinder is found to be = Fa + Fo(axial movement) ; Distance to be
moved to disengage the clutch = 5mm
Load to be carried by cylinder = 830.24 + (30.4795) = 982.642N
Pressure Available: 80psi (0.55158Mpa)
Bore area of cylinder should be = Ac = F/P =982.642/0.55158 = 1781.50 mm2.
4
4
Diameter of the cylinder = dc =
Ac =
1781.50 = 47.62 mm

Specifications of Single Acting Cylinder:


Sl.N

Parameter

Value in mm

O
1

Diameter of blank end of cylinder

47.62
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Stroke

5-10

Single acting cylinder from the manufacturer is selected to meet these requirements.
Selection of the cylinder:
From SMC Catalogue, the standard available Single acting Cylinder and its specifications are
as follows,
Bore in mm
12
16
20
25
32
40
50

Sl. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Stroke in mm

5,10
10,20

The nearest value which meets the requirement is 50mm bore diameter and 10 mm stroke
length and hence it is selected.

4. PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT
The cone clutch is actuated by the pneumatic circuit. This circuit either engages the clutch
with the engine or disengages with the engine crankshaft. The circuit is controlled by the
ECU. The clutch remains in engaged position when the battery is to be charged. Once the
battery is charged fully, the circuit disengages the alternator from the engine.
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The isolation of the alternator depends on the battery voltage. Normally the battery is charged
at constant voltage of 14.2 Volts. Once the battery attains this voltage, the battery becomes
saturated. At this point the circuit disengages the alternator from the engine. Later when the
battery voltage drops down to 7.5 Volts, the circuit engages the alternator with the engine,
thereby charging the battery. This cycle continues.

Figure 4- 4: Pneumatic circuit used to actuate cone clutch


The circuit is controlled by the signal sent from ECU. The positive voltage at port S actuates
the left mode of the DCV. This results in the extension of the piston, thereby disengaging the
clutch. The negative voltage at Port S results in the retraction of the cylinder, thereby
engaging the clutch. The magnitude of the signal is controlled by the signal generator, which
is responsible for the spool movement in the DCV.
Pneumatic Source: 80 psi pressure from the Air Braking System
3-Way Directional Valve:
A three-way directional valve consists of three ports connected through passages
within a valve body that are shown here as port A, port P and port Ex. If port A is
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connected to an actuator, port P to a source of pressure and port Ex is open to


exhaust, the valve will control the flow of air to (and exhaust from) Port A.
The function of this valve is to pressurize and exhaust one actuator port. When the
spool of a three-way valve is in one extreme position, the pressure passage is
connected with the actuator passage. When in the other extreme position, the spool
connects the actuator passage with the exhaust passage.

Figure 4- 5: 3-Way Directional Valve


Single Acting Cylinder:
The single-acting piston-type cylinder is similar in design and operation to the single-acting
ram-type cylinder. The single-acting piston-type cylinder uses fluid pressure to provide the
force in one direction, and spring tension, gravity, compressed air, or nitrogen is used to
provide the force in the opposite direction. Figure below a single-acting, spring loaded, piston
type actuating cylinder. In this cylinder the spring is located on the rod side of the piston. In
some spring-loaded cylinders the spring is located on the blank side, and the fluid port is on
the rod side of the cylinder.

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Figure 4-6: Types of Single Acting Cylinder


Link used to engage the clutch:

Figure 4- 7: Solidworks Model of the Fork which engages the clutch

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5. ASSEMBLY OF THE SYSTEM IN SOLIDWORKS


Assembly modeling is a process of creating designs that consists of two or more components
assembled together at their respective work positions. The components brought together and
assembled in the Assembly work bench.
Types of Assembly:
1. Bottom Up Assembly
2. Top Down Assembly
Bottom-Up Assembly:
The bottom up assembly design approach is the most preferred approach for creating
assembly models. In this approach the components are created in the part design work bench
then those components are import in assembly workbench then assemble them.
Top Down Assembly:
In Top down assembly design approach components are created inside the assembly
workbench. Therefore there is no need to create separate parts of the components in part
workbench.
Components Used:
Sl. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Part Name
Male Cone
Female Cone
Spline Shaft
Shaft
Key
Housing
Bearings
Fork
Pneumatic Cylinder

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1

Table 5-3 : List of Components in Assembly

To assemble different components of the "Alternator Drive Isolation and Actuation System"
we have used Bottom Up Assembly approach.

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Figure 5-8: Assembly of Alternator Drive Isolation and Actuation System

6. MOTION STUDY OF THE MECHANISM


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Motion simulation provides complete, quantitative information about the kinematics


including position, velocity, and acceleration, and the dynamics including joint reactions,
inertial forces, and power requirements, of all the components of a moving mechanism.
The motion simulation program uses material properties from the CAD parts to define inertial
properties of the mechanism components, and translates CAD assembly mating
conditions into kinematic joints. Motion simulation conducts interference checks in real time,
and provides the exact spatial and time positions of all mechanism components as well as the
exact interfering volumes.
Features of Motion Study
Motion Study Tab This tab allows us to analyze the motion study of the assembly
file.
Motion Manager Tree This contains all the parts, sub-assemblies, mates, and the
simulation elements.
Calculate This button allows calculating the motions of the assembly and helps to
update after changes made.
Play This button allows us to play the animation to see how it works after
calculating the motion.
Playback Speed This helps to reduce or increase the speed of the animation.
Save Animation This button helps to save the animation as a video.
Motor This allows simulating a motor or giving a torque to the animation such as at
pin connections.
Contact This allows stopping the interference between solid objects and adjusting

the friction between objects when it is in motion.


Gravity This allows simulating the effect of gravity on solid objects.
Zoom Time Scale This allows zooming in/out the timeline.
Key Point This point decides where the motion has to be stopped.
Time line This shows the moving time frame.

Various components of the system from the assembly workbench are taken to Motion Study
Workbench. The process of assembly of all the components is shown. This demonstrates the
relationship between different components in the assembly.
By using the feature of ' Motor' angular movement is given to the input shaft, which then
drives the alternator shaft.

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The process of engaging and disengaging the clutch is demonstrated using the feature 'Linear
Motor (Actuator)' .The movement of piston can be precisely controlled, which controls the
movement of the clutch.

Figure 6- 9: Motion Study of the "Alternator drive Isolation and Actuation System"

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7. REFERENCES
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Kamlesh purohit, C. S. Sharma, Design of Machine Elements, New Delhi : PrenticeHall of India, 2003.
2. Peter Croser, Frank Ebel, Pneumatics, Edition 2002

DATAHAND BOOKS:
1. K. Mahadevan, K. Balaveera Reddy, Design Data Handbook for Mechanical
Engineers,4th Edition 2013

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