10 views

Uploaded by Judap Floc

Ciência da computação, probabilidade, música.

- Aru Article New 4.10.17
- Markov Chain Random Walk
- Excercises
- Dsd Vhdl Ch5
- 2286398
- Modeling neural activity by Variable Length Markov Chains
- Yarn Ecvvenness
- Lec9-MarkovModel
- An Analysis of the Information Spreading Delay in Heterogeneous Mobility DTNs
- PQT_QB_
- ECE697AA 08-10-31 Queuing Systems I
- IPMA ICB 3 w edukacji - Czechy.pdf
- The Google Markov Chain - Convergence and Eigenvalues
- MA41_19_M2
- 1997PNPM-FSPNsimul
- When Do Stop-Loss Rules Stop Losses
- Making Sense of Rock's Tonal Systems
- Finite Automata
- Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression
- Lecture 4

You are on page 1of 6

Escola Politcnica da Universidade de So Paulo

Abstract

This paper presents an algorithmic composition technique derived from

Markov chain modeling, which may be used for efficiently describing musical

knowledge, providing means of hierarchical structuring and context expressing

by linguistic formalis ms.

What does it mean to compos e music? This is an essential question, since its answer can

lead to more interesting system s of automa te d composition. Composi ng is a creative

attitude, in which something new is created, by a specific intention of a composer, who is

motivated by aesthetic or expressive needs. Such a composing act can be thought as some

organization of the sonorous material. Therefore, some sort of musical semantics is

associated to an ordering imposed to musical sounds by the composer in a procedure that

is just the opposite of chaos, which in sound terms may be identified to noise .

From the previous definition, one must find paradoxical using computers in music

composition, since these devices cannot make any creative decisions, so, it is impossible

for them to perform innovative creation and they have no means of expression and are not

able to manifest any kind of aesthetic reactions to anything.

Although true creation is actually impossible to computers, since they are

machine progra ms that define a priori what will be their behavior, an

alternative would be found by relying on unpredictable results, that is, those

stochas tic processes. In such processes, a kind of creative pheno m en o n

associated to the production of somet hing new, in the sense of unexpected .

guided by

interesting

related to

would be

Following this idea, one may argue that the almost unpredictable results produced by such

system s are more related to noise or chaos than to music itself. Although that is true for

completely rando m system s, one may impose organization rules into this stochastic

system in order to obtain some musical structure that a human listener would interpret as

music.

How can music be properly represente d in comput er systems? A better question is: how

would musical knowledge for composing be properly represented in such systems?

Considering the very nature of computi ng system s, it seems we should treat music as some

kind of language. That subject is usually controversial, but it seems clear that using

syntactic struct ure s may be very useful as a mental model for describing musical structu re.

Therefore, gram m a r s are pointed to be valuable for representing musical knowledge in a

computer, and they constitut e a very practical user interface as well.

The present work is intende d to be part of a musical meta - instru me nt, which has the

objective to work in music therapy applications, not only in contem po r ary music

perfor m ances. In such applications, music perception and response from the performe r is

the most import ant requirement. Therefore, our starting point relies on three principles:

emulating musical creativity by means of rando m choice; representing musical knowledge

and musical structure by means of syntactic structures, like gramm ar s; and real- time

perfor m ance, allowing the presence of huma n performe rs who should interfere in

composing decisions.

MARKOV

CHAINS AND

LANGUAGES

Looking at computer music history, we will find the early experiences in algorithmic

composition at Hiller - Isaacsons Illiac Suite [1]. In that work, stochas tic paradigms were

used for choosing compositional param eters, and musical structuring (or noise filtering) is

represent ed by a transition state matrix or a Markov network.

A Markov chain is a non - deterministic state machine, where the probability of the system

being at some particular state depend s only on its previous state and on the probability of

a transition between those states. This could be described by a state transition table. Such

a device turns out to be useful for music composi ng through the attachme nt of

compositional decisions to their transitions, such as producing musical output s as a

response to the occurrence of some transition.

Even though this kind of approach obtained very poor musical results, our interest in

Markov chains rely on the fact that we can establish connections between them and the

logical concept of language. In fact, the sequences of symbols produced by a series of

Markov chain transitions can be proved to belong to some regular language. We may start

from a linear gramma r for that language, generating a correspon di ng finite state

automa to n and then transfor mi ng it into a non - deter ministic first - order state machine by

converting its deterministic symbol - consu mi ng transitions into probabilistic symbol producing ones by attaching them probabilities of occurrence. The second reason for the

interest in Markov chains is the great simplicity shown by such devices, which makes its

real - time implementa tion and interface very neat.

The obvious limitation of this class of algorithm s is the fact that first order Markov chains

can only produce results equivalent to those of linear gramm ar s. Considering that musical

structure happens to be hierarchically organized, or, in other words, that there are usually

nested structure s in most musical works, we have to choose a less restrictive type of

language, namely the context - free languages. It is a consens u s that even this kind class of

languages is not enough for representi ng music: one may find several examples in which a

compositional decision affects future symbol substit uting; this fact is related to a specific

context allowed by some rules in the gram ma r. These are context - sensitive ones, hardly

implemente d on comput er system s.

A quick analysis of compositions made by a first - order Markov chain will lead one to the

conclusion that the system was only barely able to structure musical material as the

composition enlarges, since its organization will be strictly local. The first choice for

overcoming this difficulty was using higher order Markov chains, that is, a state transition

probabilistic system where the next decision depends not only on the present state, but

also on a number of past states. This does not lead to a practical solution since the original

simplicity vanishes suddenly as the order of the system rises and the musical result is still

poor. The use of higher order Markov chains usually conduces to non - linear behaviors, like

the presence of cycles, and its relationshi p with formal gram mar s becoming less

immediate.

Our problem is then representing probabilistic system s which are able to model

hierarchical musical structure (and not only a linear one), trying to find a particular means

of introducing musical context - sensitive decisions, without discarding the simple idea of

Markov networks.

The idea behind adaptive schemes is that, although the basic structure of the automa t a is

maintained, it can be self modified in response to the occurrence of a transition. Therefore,

an adaptive Markov network is defined by its initial set of states, initial state transition

matrix and a set of transition functions , which are invoked whenever the associated

transition is executed. Those functions may create or remove states or transitions in the

automa to n, what means that they are able to dynamically change the graph topology, that

is, the algorithm itself. Adaptive formalism s are efficiently employed in compiler

construction and natural language processing. Their use in non - deterministic schemes is

new, and it showed to be a good contribution to computer music composition.

It seems intuitive that such a mechanis m is able to attach new processing steps to the

original algorithm, associated to decisions that would be taken later in the future . That is,

at a moment we may be concerne d with choices that had a foundation in the past, what is

equivalent of context sensitivenes s. This new flexibility is introduced to make it possible to

handle more sophisticated types of languages, leaving the original simplicity of the finite

automa ta formalism untouched.

We can extend this concept to a set of adaptive state machines, where all state machines

may be executed independen tly, but the set of transition functions can make

transfor m a tions not only local to a particular machine, but in any of the machines

belonging to the set. These relations hips between any pair of adaptive Markov chains can

be of two types: the first, both state machines interfere with each other, by adapting its

own behavior to the other. The second kind of interaction is when one machine controls

the other, by imposing restrictions or constraint s it must meet; such inter - relation is

called hierarchical.

Presented this way, one may use adaptive sets of probabilistic state machines to make a

compositional framework with a much smaller number of states, employing transition

functions to change contexts or interacting with another machine at the same level or

vertically structure d. One composer transcribing musical knowledge to this framework, can

treat any isolated detail, modeled through a particular state machine, while having control

over the entire structure, expressed by machine interactions. With this idea, we kept simple

the model, by making it hierarchically structure d and by adding to it the capacity of taking

contexts into account.

PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

melodies by imposing successive restrictions to the chosen musical notes.

Lets start with a simple eight - state non - adaptive Markov chain to create a single melody

line. For every transition arriving to each state we associate the generation of a musical

note, in the scale of c major. The simpler machine has all transitions allowed between all

states, with equal probabilities of occurrence (1/8). Hence, the probabilities of the system

being in each of its states are the same, then the generated music will have the notes

uniformly distribut ed among the possible notes. For instance, the system led to the

following:

This result shows a melody line without any structuring param et er, and even considering

the fact that it generates only notes from a known scale, its random n es s gives us the

sensation of noise. We would add some sort of redun da ncy in order to reduce such a noise

effect. The first aspect one can note from the analysis of this melody is the fact that its

melodic moves do not follow any principle of connectivity. We can improve that by making

adaptive this probabilistic machine and by writing transition functions that increase the

probabilities of transitions leading to non - distant states, which generate notes at intervals

of seconds, thirds and fourths, in this order of preference. The octave jump is also allowed.

With these restrictions, we can obtain the following:

We can observe that this particular result has much better melodic consistence, and its

smaller degree of local rando m ne s s has reduced the noise sensation detected in the

preceding case. The music generated still lacks any musical structure. The first level of

structuring we have chosen to include refers to harmonic consistence. In order to achieve

that, it would be convenient to use another Markov chain, which will be responsible for

choosing the current harmonic function (tonic, dominant, subdo minan t), always following

the correct evolution between two harmonic functions. That behavior is defined by a

simple gramm ar. Each state of this machine will force preferential transitions to the earlier

basic machine (which will corres pon d to preferential notes at the melody), increasing their

probabilities at downbeats, like in:

where the key was turned into g major. Capital letters over the measures represent the

current state of the harmony Markov chain; the generated melodic line closely follows the

chosen harmonic functions. One may easily identify the stronger musical character of this

fragment. We may now aggregate to the music - generating framework some thematic structuring feature, by adding yet another machine - a deter ministic one - which will

induce directions of melodic movement by increasing the probabilities of the transitions

that correspo n d to the desired movement. Such a change may give us the following result:

This composition is more interesting. A motive that last one measure is clearly identifiable,

which is repeated through the entire period. We can easily have phrase - structuring if we

extend this idea by aggregating sections with different thematic material, allowing nesting

phrase struct ures by means of adding hierarchically influencing adaptive Markov chains.

Again, the syntactic structure of the musical phrase to be created is defined by a gram mar

that will define the behavior of the top - most machine.

In the following example, we show the result obtained by adding one more adaptive state

machine interacting with the previous melody - generator, generating another melody line

(the bass line), which will imply counter point restrictions over the former.

The last example is particularly interesting, since it contains all the features presente d

behind, its acoustical result carry several intrinsic musical properties, like harmonic,

thematic and voice structuring. We may describe the machine relations hips with the

following diagram that also represent s the actual implement ation, where circles denote

Markov chains and the arrows represent interactions between a pair of them:

Harmony

Bass

Line

Motif

Melody

line

MIDI

output

CONCLUSIONS

There are two kinds of users of the impleme nte d system. The first is the composer , who

will introduce machine definitions corres pon di ng to the musical knowledge actually

modeled, by means of a simple language that is interpret ed for constructing individual

state transition matrices for the desired machines. The second is the perfor mer , who

interact to the system while it is composing and performing a new piece according to the

behavior progra m m e d by the composer. While the progra m is being executed, transitions

fire attached adaptive functions, according to the specification in the source code, which

modify transitions within machine structures, and change their associated probabilities. A

run - time MIDI output is produce d at each interaction and the system offers several

primitives for controlling the MIDI channel. The perfor mer is allowed to control several

paramet ers like tempo, dynamics and articulation, which are kept by a timing controller.

Several other higher - level compositional paramet ers can be set and altered in real - time,

serving as external param eters for the adaptive machines. They may be used for forcing

some musical decision by increasing its associated probability of occurrence, or simply for

decision through conditional if- then - else clauses.

By now the perfor mer interacts to the system through a set of windows - like controllers

like scrollers and buttons, but this interface shall be converted into a group of sensors and

cameras for interacting with the performer into a non - comput ational environme n t. The

system works as a musical meta - instrum ent, where the perform er make changes in highlevel musical language structures, like harmony, sentence structure, form, row and so on,

and not only on low- level note events.

The practical results we had obtained have demons t ra te d the power of the adaptive

formalism in representi ng musical knowledge. The model kept simple our implement ation,

which allowed efficient real- time perform a nce s. We found that the most important feature

displayed has been the ability of formally describing musical knowledge.

One can extend the shown examples to higher orders of musical material organization, like

entire sections of musical pieces. For example, anot her Markov chain that controls the

harmony generator behavior may be used for making the system to modulate to other keys

inside a musical composition. The same way, the motif machine may be subordinate d to a

higher - level struct ure - generating machine that would make the musical piece to exhibit

some given structure, e.g., a ternary ABA struct ure. The last machines may interact to each

other to make, for example, the internal section B to be in the key of the dominant,

returning to the original key by the end of the composition. Note that all of these

enrichme nt s are extremely simple to implement, without changing any part of the rest of

the state machines.

The use of the adaptive formalis m is also useful for implementing some musical language

characteristics that are usually difficult to be done with other approache s. One particular

and interesting example is the production of the matic variations . This is a situation where

there is a context change; it can be easily implemente d by allowing the theme - inducing

machine to be affected by the current notes chosen by the melody generator. Therefore,

such a memory of past variations works like an algorithm alteration over the original

theme program m e d into the system.

Although the examples shown were related to tonal music, the present system is perfectly

applicable to many other forms of musical organizations, from serialism to microtonal

music. The system would be used to control any low- level musical param eter and not only

MIDI notes on and off, which may be very interesting for creating new forms of musical

expression.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] HILLER, L., ISAACSON, Experimental Music , 1ed, New York, McGraw- Hill, 1959.

[2] NETO, J. J., Contribuie s Metodologia de Construo de Compiladores , Tese de

Livre Docncia, So Paulo, Escola Politcnica da Universidade de So Paulo , 1993.

[3] HOWARD, R. A. Dynamic Probabilistic Systems , v. 1 e 2, 1ed., New York, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc., 1971.

[4] LERDAHL, F., JACKENDOFF, R. A Generative Theory of Tonal Music , 1ed., Cambridge,

The MIT Press, 1983.

[5] POLANSKY, L. Live Interactive Comput er Music in HMSL, 1984 - 1992. Computer Music

Journal v.18 n.2 pp.59 - 77, 1994.

[6] ROADS, C. Grammars as Represent ations for Music. Computer Music Journal v.3 n.1

pp.48 - 55, 1979.

[7] SCHOENBERG, A. Fundamentos da Composio Musical , 2ed, So Paulo, Editora da

Universidade de So Paulo, 1993.

[8] SMAILL, A., WIGGINS, G., HARRIS, M.

Hierarquical Music Represent ation for

Composition and Analysis. Computer and the Humanities n.27 pp.7 - 17, 1993.

- Aru Article New 4.10.17Uploaded byDr.R.Arumugam
- Markov Chain Random WalkUploaded byFann Ming
- ExcercisesUploaded byR.A.M
- Dsd Vhdl Ch5Uploaded byftkoay
- 2286398Uploaded byAja Nasrun
- Modeling neural activity by Variable Length Markov ChainsUploaded byantonio.zippo
- Yarn EcvvennessUploaded byshivam pradhan
- Lec9-MarkovModelUploaded byBùi Chung
- An Analysis of the Information Spreading Delay in Heterogeneous Mobility DTNsUploaded bymiladydesummer
- PQT_QB_Uploaded bykrrmallika
- ECE697AA 08-10-31 Queuing Systems IUploaded byabarai_renji1978
- IPMA ICB 3 w edukacji - Czechy.pdfUploaded byTomasz Wiatr
- The Google Markov Chain - Convergence and EigenvaluesUploaded bybrpinheiro1
- MA41_19_M2Uploaded byMansoor Pasha
- 1997PNPM-FSPNsimulUploaded bysfofoby
- When Do Stop-Loss Rules Stop LossesUploaded byBlunders
- Making Sense of Rock's Tonal SystemsUploaded bypolkmnnl
- Finite AutomataUploaded byAkshay Oberoi
- Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular ExpressionUploaded byAnonymous t1W5G4UZw
- Lecture 4Uploaded byVicky Mit
- CameraReady_185Uploaded byNghĩa Zer
- IntroductiontoFiniteAutomata-2Uploaded byshibru90
- Probability, RandomUploaded byJordy Grandez Abrigo
- EnglishFileDigital Pre Int Rev Check KeyUploaded byJairo Leoncio Medina Accostupa
- Problemas Ivan GomezUploaded byIvan Gomez
- DYNAMIC POWER MANAGEMENT FOR NON-STATIONARY SERVICE REQUESTUploaded byapi-26871643
- TFTT_TOCUploaded byAmit Bairwa
- Documento de Trabajo 20 2012Uploaded byalbi_12291214
- ASIC Design Lab ReportsUploaded byNisar Ahmed Rana
- newsletter 11-26Uploaded byapi-268804697

- latex-sim.pdfUploaded byJudap Floc
- Expressive Musical IconsUploaded byJudap Floc
- Emotional LearningUploaded byJudap Floc
- Desde Que o SambaUploaded byJudap Floc
- User’s Guide to the Beamer Class, Version 3.01Uploaded bysoupochoux
- Extracting EmotionsUploaded byJudap Floc
- Issues Detecting EmotionsUploaded byJudap Floc
- LaTeX-demo-src-1.13.pdfUploaded byJudap Floc
- Modelling Emotion in Computational AgentsUploaded byJudap Floc
- como escrever tese em latexUploaded byLucas Mendes Santos
- tech-12446Uploaded byJudap Floc
- Inducing Physiological ResponseUploaded byJudap Floc
- Modeling of Emotional ContentUploaded byJudap Floc
- ElaboracaoDeArtigosCientificosUploaded byJudap Floc
- Cur So LatexUploaded byRodrigo Arruda
- Artificial LifeUploaded byJudap Floc
- Music exploration recognitionUploaded byJudap Floc
- d AnnenbergUploaded byViviane Papis
- dafx08_01Uploaded byS.c. Hung
- java e computação musicalUploaded byjesday
- Generating Rhythmic Accompaniment for Guitar- the Cyber-João Case StudyUploaded byEugene Quah
- Sistema mozartUploaded byJudap Floc
- Emotion Theme and Structure Enhancing Computer Music ThroughUploaded byJudap Floc
- Música eletrónica, improvisaciónUploaded byJudap Floc
- Cifras para guitarraUploaded byJudap Floc
- Computer MusicUploaded byJudap Floc
- Composing Affective MusicUploaded byJudap Floc
- 000rHugo SantanaUploaded byJudap Floc
- 21_LeGroux-ICMC08Uploaded byJudap Floc

- How to Calculate Original Size of Objects in Digital Image by MatlabUploaded byJans Hendry
- Scalable Architecture for Word HMM-BasedUploaded byMathew George
- SEECS-2712Uploaded byKisan Kisan
- IEEE-RITA.2008.V3.N1.A3Uploaded byVirgilio Diaz
- TsukubaUploaded byfauzan masy
- Fault SimulationUploaded bysivaprasadchitineni
- Online Dynamic Graph DrawingUploaded byFryGuy222
- Fuzzy-logic based Target Classification using DroolsUploaded byeditorijsaa
- Lab View Student WorkbookUploaded byjzmrpa
- Tardiness Integer ProgrammingUploaded bynvcg10
- 00097741Uploaded bycarloviggiano4_26961
- Thompson HOTSUploaded byTan Wooi Choong
- CisoGuideUploaded byraj28_999
- 17 Stirling Numbers of Second TypeUploaded bybmandar
- MEUploaded byMrunal Upasani
- KSCEUploaded bySurafel L. Tilahun
- Attack-Surface metrics OSSTMMUploaded byAlex Gonzaga
- Dialogic LearningUploaded byfniegas172
- On Solving 2D and 3D Puzzles Using Curve MatchingUploaded bymccord411
- 01 Ipo Programming ExamplesUploaded byAfïf SánqArëmániámylánysty
- Analysis of Software Performance Enhancement and Development of AlgorithmUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- chap1Uploaded bysilillo
- lesson plan progranimate introUploaded byapi-169562716
- Catalan Sequence GenerationUploaded byLuc-Andre Sabourin
- Electrical power.pdfUploaded byred_champion
- Weft StraightnerUploaded bygksamy
- Operations Scheduling_SequencingUploaded byAjitesh Abhishek
- Minemax Planner Geovia Whittle Comparison 2014Uploaded bymanuelglt
- Time Table Management SystemUploaded byHarikrishnan Shunmugam
- StreamMining.pdfUploaded byusernameuserna