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Works Cited

"Agent GARBO." MI5. Crown, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2014. <https://www.mi5.gov.uk/home/mi5history/world-war-ii/agent-garbo.html>. This MI5 source provides a thorough overview
of Garcia's background and his leading role in Operation Fortitude to deceive the
Germans.The website was useful in highlighting Garcia's most importance message,
which convinced the Germans that the attack at Normandy was a diversion of the larger
attack set to happen at Pas de Calais. The source was biased because it was told from the
perspective of MI5, whom Garcia worked for, so it particularly highlighted Garcia's
achievements and the German's pitfall right into the scheme. It was helpful to understand
how Garcia's actions led to actions in the US and German army.
"'Agent Garbo': The Spy Who Lied about D-Day." NPR Books. NPR, 7 July 2012. Web. 14 Dec.
2014. <http://www.npr.org/2012/07/07/156189716/agent-garbo-the-spy-who-lied-aboutd-day>. NPR offers a review on the book Agent Garbo, and conducts an "All Things
Considered" interview with the author, Stephen Talty. This source not only provides new
details about Garbo's involvement in WWII, but also looks at the work of Garbo from a
modern-day perspective. Talty is an engaging yet accurate storyteller, and it is likely that
his book is even more detailed and fascinating. Being a storyteller, although he is
factually correct, it is likely that Talty has a bias or will exaggerate, since his primary job
is to entertain.
"Alan Brooke, Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough." Spartacus Educational. Ed. John Simkin.
Spartacus Educational, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://spartacuseducational.com/2WWbrookeA.htm>. This source is great for learning about Sir Alan
Brooke of England because the website itself focuses on British and American

perspectives of World War I and World War II. Spartacus Educational provides an
insightful depth into Sir Alan Brooke's life and even quotes him after D-Day and the
subsequent liberation of France from Nazi rule: "Attended thanksgiving service... for the
liberation of Paris... hearing the Marseillaise gave me a great thrill. France seemed to
wake again after being knocked out for five years."
Chen, Peter C. "Gnther von Kluge." WWII Database. Laca Development, n.d. Web. 26 Jan.
2015. <http://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=124>. This source is an overview
of von Kluge's life, and contains a few quotes from him as well. The source mostly states
facts, therefore leaving less room for bias. Although not an extremely lengthy or in-depth
article, it provided details about his participation in WWII and offered lots of information
on his personal relationships to people.
Churchill, Winston. "Churchill's Speech on the Invasion of France." British House of Commons.
6 June 1944. Speech. So far the Commanders who are engaged report that everything is
proceeding according to plan. And what a plan!... There are already hopes that actual
tactical surprise has been attained, and we hope to furnish the enemy with a succession of
surprises during the course of the fighting (This is an excerpt from Winston Churchill's
speech to the British House of Commons on the day of the D-Day invasion about how
Churchill feels the deception of Operation Fortitude is working.)
Colley, Rupert. "Juan Pujol Garcia - a Summary." History in an Hour. WordPress, n.d. Web. 15
Dec. 2014. <http://www.historyinanhour.com/2014/02/14/juan-pujol-garcia-summary/>.
This source, although a summary of information from a book (the book is listed at the
bottom), is very in-depth, while still covering most of Garbo's life. It is helpful source in
starting out and gathering basic information. Instead of focusing upon the height of

Garbo's involvement in the war, this article looks more at his backstory, such as his
motives and his work to become a spy.
"Counter Intelligence in World War II." National Counterintelligence Center. N.p., 1 Feb. 2001.
Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <http://www.fas.org/irp/ops/ci/docs/ci2/2ch1_d.htm>. The source is
credible because it quotes Garcia's exact words regarding the size of the Allied forces in
Britain, which he then transmitted directly to the Germans to notify them. There are
specific phrases in the website that are great for primary sources and they compliment the
existing information in the project with regards to Allied troops.
Garbo Communications by Letter and WT with Germans. N.d. UK National Archives. Web. 23
Jan. 2015. <https://images.nationalarchives.gov.uk/assetbanknationalarchives/action/viewAsset?
id=42861&index=41&total=51&view=viewSearchItem>. This message was sent from
Garbo to the Germans early in his career of espionage. It shows his method of writing
and creating fake characters from early on. There is barely any useful information in
there, yet it seems like a detailed report and it is hard to imagine that Garbo was actually
in Britain during this time. It is a primary source, written by Garbo himself, and is
therefore very accurate.
"The Garbo Network." UK National Archives. Bright Interactive, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2015.
<http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/>. This source was created by Garbo and Tomas Harris (a
Spanish-speaking officer in M16 assigned to Garbo) in order to keep track of all the
imaginary agents under their command that they have to account for. They worked as a
pair to consistently send believable messages to the Germans and keep themselves in
favor. It is a very reliable source because it is the the direct reference Garbo and Harris

used when writing their messages, and reflects his true thought process without outside
interpretation or influence.
Garcia, Juan Pujol, and Nigel West. Operation GARBO: The Personal Story of the Most
Successful Double Agent of World War II. New York: Random, 1986. Print. This source is
an autobiography written by Juan Pujol Garcia himself, who collaborated with Nigel
West. The book is excellent in providing Garcia's point of view of the events leading up
to and those of Operation Fortitude. It is a valuable primary source because not only does
it have photocopies of newspaper clippings and sent messages, but it also offers Garcia's
own account. This book also includes two primary sources: one was a newspaper
clipping of the death of one of Garbo's fake agents in the Liverpool Daily Post, and a
coded message that Garbo sent to German Abwehr officials with regard to information
about the British.
"The Invasion of France." The Churchill Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/116-theinvasion-of-france>. The Churchill Centre is a credible website completely dedicated to
the life of Winston Churchill. The website is run by the Churchill Museum whose
purpose is to educate the public on his leadership, statesmanship and courage. Many of
Winston Churchill's speeches are documented verbatim on the website, including one he
gave to the House of Commons on the day of D-Day. Excerpt: "So far the Commanders
who are engaged report that everything is proceeding according to plan. And what a
plan!... There are already hopes that actual tactical surprise has been attained, and we
hope to furnish the enemy with a succession of surprises."

Isby, David C. "World War II: Double Agent's D-Day Victory." History Net Where History
Comes Alive. Weider History, 12 June 2006. Web. 14 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-double-agents-d-day-victory.htm>. David Isby
tracks Garcia's spying career from the very beginning to Garcia's most important
moment, on June 9th, 1944. This source was useful for understanding Garcia's role in
deceiving the Germans and how it led to the Allied victory at Normandy. The source was
unbiased and it presented many details regarding the diversionary plan not present in
other articles.
"Juan Pujol-Garcia, Codename Garbo, German Map of Perceived Troop Locations in the UK."
Map. The UK National Archives. Bright Interactive, 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
<https://images.nationalarchives.gov.uk/assetbank-nationalarchives/action/viewAsset?
id=47105&index=0&total=1&view=viewSearchItem>. The source was created on May
15, 1944 by Nazi cartographers and it reflects the Germans' perception of the Allied troop
locations in the UK, which was at the southeast end of the UK close to Pas-de-Calais.
The source is credible in terms of the German POV. Although the actual positioning of
the Allied troops is questionable, the perspective of the Germans is key in understanding
Garbo's impact on Operation Fortitude.
Kelly, Jon. "The Piece of Paper That Fooled Hitler." BBC News. BBC, 27 Jan. 2011. Web. 14
Dec. 2014. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-12266109>. Jon Kelly, a journalist,
provides a comprehensive overview of the message that Garcia sent to the Germans on
the day of June 9th, 1944. The article was useful for understanding of how Garcia was
able to send the message of a larger attack at Pas de Calais and divert more German

troops from arriving at Normandy. The source, which is a primary source, was helpful
because it showed the actual details about the impending attack at Pas de Calais.
Macintyre, Ben. "The D-Day Spies, Part V: Juan Pujol Garcia." Command Posts. MacMillan, 22
Aug. 2012. Web. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://www.commandposts.com/2012/08/the-d-dayspies-part-v-juan-pujol-garcia/>. This source goes into great depth on Garbo's past before
the war, and examines his motives. It does not offer much information on Garbo's
involvement in the war and his actions at D-Day, but focuses on his life before the war. It
contains many details about his education, his perspectives, his personality, and more,
including direct quotes. It is a less factual source and reads more like a story, which could
mean that it is more biased/has more skewed facts, but its use of quotes from Garbo
himself and specific details make it still very valuable.
- - -. Double Cross: The True Story of the D-day Spies. N.p.: Crown, 2012. Print. This book takes
a unique perspective on D-day by looking at the extensive preparations for the event from
the point of view of spies - specifically double agents. Garbo is prominently featured in
this book as one of five double agents under the M15. Because this book focuses on the
perspectives and backgrounds of the spies greatly, it contains more useful information on
Garbo's past than almost any other source used. It is slightly biased because it is a
narrative and adds dramatic emphasis on occasion, but for the most part tells facts as they
are in great detail.
Mendoza, No. "Pressbook 'Garbo, the Man Who Saved the World.'" Bu0113hance. Adobe
Systems, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <https://www.behance.net/gallery/747365/PressbookGarbo-the-documentary>. This source is promoting the documentary created about Garbo
by showcasing his portfolio in a series of pictures. His portfolio is clearly full of his very

own supplies he used as a spy. These supplies (mostly official or forged papers) are all
primary sources that show his methods of operation. The papers of particular interest
were his forged documents, which show his skill for deception. Garbo's hastily taken
picture of an exit visa was used as evidence.
Ryan, Cornelius. The Longest Day: The Classic Epic of D-Day. New York: Simon, 1994. Print.
At the time of the book's original publication in 1959, "The Longest Day: The Classic
Epic of D-Day" was the most detailed description of the events surrounding the Allied
invasion of Normandy, France. The book's credibility came from over one thousand
interviews Ryan conducted with Allied and German soldiers, but also with French
civilians. The book is great to supplement our research with additional points of views.
Spartacus Educational. N.p., Aug. 2014. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://spartacuseducational.com/GERrommel.htm>. This source is an in-depth biography of Erwin
Rommel, containing information about his life as well as primary quotes. It offers
opinions from several different biographers about Rommel and combines them all into a
single narrative. It is reliable due to the many sources referenced and many opinions
placed side by side for comparison.
Talty, Stephan. Agent Garbo the Brilliant, Eccentric Secret Agent Who Tricked Hitler & Saved
D-Day. Boston: Houghton, 2012. Print. Talty offers a comprehensive overview of
Garbo's rise and prime as a double agent for Great Britain. This source provides
insightful details about the importance of Garbo's involvement in Operation
Fortitude. Talty gives the story in third person but also in the perspective of
Garbo. Throughout the book, Talty praises Garbo for his incredible work as a double spy,

meaning the events and facts are true, but he may exaggerate the significance of Garbo's
actual actions.
"This Day in History: Garbo Makes an Appearance." History. A&E Television Networks, 15 July
2012. Web. 14 Dec. 2014. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/garbo-makes-anappearance>. This source is likely one of the most unbiased and accurate sources on
Garbo, as this is a more public, widely-seen website and organization. In fact, this
website even specifies at the bottom of this article how it strives for accuracy and
fairness, and encourages readers to send in corrections. Although more a summary of
Garbo's actions instead of more in-depth information, this article was clearly written and
provided a holistic view of both Garbo's involvement in the war and his influence.
VHeadline. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2014.
<http://web.archive.org/web/20051110221638/http://vheadline.com/readnews.asp?
id=21509>. This is a personal account by Oliver L Campbell on his experiences with
Garbo, along with some background information on Garbo's role in the war. Being a
personal account, this source provides a new aspect of Garbo - describing more than
simply his famous spying, but also who he was as a friend and person. A disadvantage of
this source is that Campbell is likely biased, since he personally knew Garbo and here is
recalling his fond memories with him, instead of writing objectively.
"World War 2 Famous Quotes." WorldWar-2.net. N.p., 2006. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.worldwar-2.net/famous-quotes/famous-quotes-index.htm>. This source
contains a whole mine of World War 2 quotes from all sides of the war, from figures both
famous and unknown, organized chronologically. This source was similar to a database of
WWII quotes. It did not seem very biased due to the relatively similar number of quotes

provided per country - although only countries that were most involved in the conflict
were included.

Picture URLs:
Home
http://www.npr.org/2012/07/07/156189716/agent-garbo-the-spy-who-lied-about-d-day
https://www.behance.net/gallery/747365/%20Pressbook-Garbo-the-documentary
https://images.nationalarchives.gov.uk/assetbank-nationalarchives/action/viewAsset?
id=33307&index=1&total=51&view=viewSearchItem
https://images.nationalarchives.gov.uk/assetbank-nationalarchives/action/viewAsset?
id=26760&index=38&total=51&view=viewSearchItem
http://www.dcmilitary.com/article/20130613/NEWS12/130619991/d-day-deception-operationfortitude
http://www.warchronicle.com/dday/utah/normandy_us_airborne_pics.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-12266109
http://www.timesunion.com/news/article/The-longest-day-Allies-invade-Normandy4583052.php
http://www.lavanguardia.com/hemeroteca/20120214/54252665661/el-esquinazo-de-pujol-ahitler.html
Background
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/september-1/?_r=0
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/Canada/CA/Victory/Victory-22.html
Before Garcia Became Garbo
http://www.npr.org/2012/07/07/156189716/agent-garbo-the-spy-who-lied-about-d-day
The State of World War II
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/nazi-party
http://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/ww2-pictures/
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_World_War_II
Becoming a Spy
http://www.amazon.com/Blue-Guide-England-Twelfth-Edition/dp/0393330087
Maintaining Believability
http://www.nls.k12.mn.us/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Ch27Slides.pdf

Allied Troops in Great Britain


http://www.psywarrior.com/DeceptionH.html
http://elinorflorence.com/blog/d-day-decoys
D-Day Invasion
http://www.globalaviationresource.com/v2/2014/06/04/d-day-70-pt-17-operation-fortitudeallied-deception-tactics/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Normandy
Allied Advantage
http://www.colossus-computer.com/sample.htm
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Encirclement_of_the_Ruhr.jpg
German Conclusions
http://www.echonews.co.uk/news/11277960.Leigh_foster_carers_made_MBEs_in_Queen_s_birthday_honours/?
ref=mr
Conclusion
http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/keitel.htm
http://www.npr.org/2012/07/07/156189716/agent-garbo-the-spy-who-lied-about-d-day