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Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) Interpretation

Blood gases is a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in your blood. It also determines the
acidity (pH) of your blood.

Normal Arterial Blood Gas Values

pH 7.35-7.45

PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg

PaO2 75-100 mm Hg

HCO3 22-26 mEq/L

O2 Saturation 95-99%

BE +/- 1

pH

PaCO2

HCO3

Respiratory
Acidosis
Acute
Partly
Compensate
d
Compensated
Respiratory
Alkalosis
Acute
Partly
Compensate
d
Compensated

<
7.35
<
7.35

> 45
> 45

Norma
l
> 26

Norma
l

> 45

> 26

>
7.45
>
7.45

< 35
< 35

Norma
l
< 22

Norma
l

< 35

< 22

Metabolic
Acidosis
Acute
Partly
Compensate

Causes

Intervention

Not releasing enough CO2, too


much carbonic acid in body,
Hypoventilation (asphyxia,
respiratory depression, CNS
depression)

Administer O2, provide


hydration, HOB
up, suction if needed.

Releasing too much CO2,


Hyperventilation, Anxiety

Calm anxious person, breath


slowly, monitor ABG's and
electrolyte levels

Causes are severe diarrhea, starvation,


shock, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure,
salicylate overdose

<
7.35
<
7.35

Norma
l
< 35

< 22
< 22

Initiate IV fluid replacementas


ordered, assess for signs and
symptoms of hypocalcemia,
hypokalemia, alkalosis, monitor
ABG's & urine pH

d
Compensated

Norma
l

< 35

< 22

Metabolic
Alkalosis
Acute
Partly
Compensate
d
Compensated

Causes are severe vomiting, diuretic


therapy, potassium deficit, excess gastric
suctioning , overdose of an alkaline
substance, hypercalcemia

>
7.45
>
7.45

Norma
l
> 45

> 26

Norma
l

> 45

> 26

> 26

Initiate parenteral fluids as ordered,


assess hepatic function, monitor
ABG's, urine, pH, and BUN