You are on page 1of 19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Cree
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheCree(historicalautonym:nhirawFrench:cri)
areoneofthelargestgroupsofFirstNations/Native
AmericansinNorthAmerica,withover200,000
memberslivinginCanada.Themajorproportionof
CreeinCanadalivenorthandwestofLakeSuperior,
inOntario,Manitoba,Saskatchewan,Albertaandthe
NorthwestTerritories.About38,000liveinQuebec.[1]
IntheUnitedStates,thisAlgonquianspeakingpeople
historicallylivedfromLakeSuperiorwestward.
Today,theylivemostlyinMontana,wheretheyshare
areservationwiththeOjibwe(Chippewa).[2]

Cree
Nhiyaw

NhiyawcampnearVermilion,Alberta,in1871
Totalpopulation

Thedocumentedwestwardmigrationovertimehas
beenstronglyassociatedwiththeirrolesastradersand
huntersintheNorthAmericanFurTrade.[3]

over200,000
Regionswithsignificantpopulations
Canada,UnitedStates

Contents
1Subgroups
2Politicalorganization
2.1Historical
2.2Contemporary

Languages
Cree,English,French
Religion
Anglicanism,Pentecostalism,RomanCatholicism
Relatedethnicgroups
Mtis,OjiCree,Ojibwe,Innu

3Name
4Language
5Identityandethnicity
5.1InCanada
5.2IntheUnitedStates
6FirstNationcommunities
7Notableleaders
8Othernotablepeople
9Seealso
10Notes
11References
12Externallinks

Subgroups
TheCreearegenerallydividedintoeightgroupsbasedondialectandregion:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

1/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Naskapiand
Montagnais(together
knownastheInnu)are
inhabitantsofanarea
theyrefertoas
Nitassinan.Their
territoriescomprise
mostofthepresentday
politicaljurisdictions
ofeasternQuebecand
Labrador.Their
culturesare
differentiated,asthe
Naskapiarestill
caribouhuntersand
morenomadicthanthe

ThelinguisticsubdivisionsoftheCree.

Montagnais,butthe
Montagnaishavemoresettlements.Thetotalpopulationofthetwogroupsin2003wasabout
18,000people,ofwhich15,000livedinQuebec.Theirdialectsandlanguagesarethemostdistinct
fromtheCreespokenbythegroupswestofLakeSuperior.
AttikamekwareinhabitantsoftheareatheyrefertoasNitaskinan(OurLand),intheupperSt.
MauriceRivervalleyofQuebec(about300kmnorthofMontreal).Theirpopulationisaround
4,500.
JamesBayCreeGrandCounciloftheCreesapproximately18,000Cree(IyyuinCoastalDialect
/IynuinInlandDialect)ofEeyouIstcheeandNunavikregionsofNorthernQuebec.
MooseCreeMooseFactory[4]intheCochraneDistrict,OntariothisgrouplivesonMoose
FactoryIsland,nearthemouthoftheMooseRiver,atthesouthernendofJamesBay.
SwampyCreethisgrouplivesinnorthernManitobaalongtheHudsonBaycoastandadjacent
inlandareastothesouthandwest,andinOntarioalongthecoastofHudsonBayandJamesBay.
SomealsoineasternSaskatchewanaroundCumberlandHouse.Ithas4,500speakers.
WoodsCreegroupinnorthernAlbertaandSaskatchewan.
PlainsCree34,000peopleinManitoba,Saskatchewan,Alberta,andMontana.
CollectivelytheCreeusedtheautonymNhilaw(thosewhospeakourlanguage).[5]Theyused"Cree"
torefertotheirpeopleonlywhenspeakingthelanguagesoftheEuropeancolonists,Frenchor
English.[6]TheCreeoftheJamesBayregionofQuebecrefertothemselvesas"Eeyou"or"ThePeople."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

2/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Politicalorganization
Historical
Ashuntergatherers,thebasicunitoforganizationforCreepeopleswerethelodge,agroupofperhaps
eightoradozenpeople,usuallythefamiliesoftwoseparatebutrelatedmarriedcouples,wholived
togetherinthesamewigwam(domedtent)orteepee(conicaltent),andtheband,agroupoflodgeswho
movedandhuntedtogether.Inthecaseofdisagreementlodgescouldleavebands,andbandscouldbe
formedanddissolvedwithrelativeease,butasthereissafetyinnumbers,allfamilieswouldwanttobe
partofsomeband,andbanishmentwasconsideredaveryseriouspunishment.Bandswouldusually
havestrongtiestotheirneighboursthroughintermarriageandwouldassembletogetheratdifferentparts
oftheyeartohuntandsocializetogether.Besidestheseregionalgatherings,therewasnohigherlevel
formalstructure,anddecisionsofwarandpeaceweremadebyconsensuswithalliedbandsmeeting
togetherincouncil.Peoplecouldbeidentifiedbytheirclan,whichisagroupofpeopleclaimingdescent
fromthesamecommonancestoreachclanwouldhavearepresentativeandavoteinallimportant
councilsheldbytheband(compare:Anishinaabeclansystem).[7]
Eachbandremainedindependentofeachotherhowever,Creespeakingbandstendedtoworktogether
andwiththeirneighboursagainstoutsideenemies.ThoseCreewhomovedontotheGreatPlainsand
adoptedbisonhunting,calledthePlainsCree,werealliedwiththeAssiniboineandtheSaulteauxin
whatwasknownasthe"IronConfederacy"whichwasamajorforceintheNorthAmericanfurtrade
fromthe1730stothe1870s.
Whenabandwenttowar,theywouldnominateatemporarymilitarycommander,calledaokimahkan,
looselytranslatedas"warchief."Thisofficewasdifferentfromthatofthe"peacechief",aleaderwho
hadarolemorelikethatofdiplomat.Intherunuptothe1885NorthWestRebellion,BigBearwasthe
leaderofhisband,butoncethefightingstartedWanderingSpiritbecamewarleader.

Contemporary
TherehavebeenseveralattemptstocreateanationalpoliticalorganizationthatwouldrepresentallCree
peoples,atleastasfarbackasa1994gatheringattheOpaskwayakCreeFirstNationreserve.[8]

Name
Thename"Cree"isderivedfromtheAlgonkianlanguageexonymKiritino,whichtheOjibwausedfor
tribesaroundHudsonBay.TheFrenchcolonistsandexplorers,whospelledthetermKilistinon,
Kiristinon,Knisteneaux,[9]Cristenaux,andCristinaux,usedthetermfornumeroustribeswhichthey
encounterednorthofLakeSuperior,inManitoba,andwestofthere.[10]TheFrenchusedthesetermsto
refertovariousgroupsofpeoplesinCanada,someofwhicharenowbetterdistinguishedasSevern
Anishinaabe(Ojibwa),whospeaklanguagesdifferentfromtheAlgonquin.[11]
Dependingonthecommunity,theCreemaycallthemselvesbythefollowingnames:thenhiyawak,
nhithaw,nhilaw,andnhinaworininiw,ililiw,iynu(innu),oriyyu.Thesenamesarederivedfromthe
historicalautonymnhiraw(uncertainmeaning)orfromthehistoricalautonymiriniw(meaning
"person").CreeusingthelatterautonymtendtobethoselivingintheterritoriesofQuebecand
Labrador.[12]

Language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

3/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheCreelanguage(alsoknowninthemostbroadclassificationasCreeMontagnais,CreeMontagnais
Naskapi,toshowthegroupsincludedwithinit)isthenameforagroupofcloselyrelatedAlgonquian
languagesspokenbyapproximately117,000peopleacrossCanada,fromtheNorthwestTerritoriesto
Labrador.ItisthemostwidelyspokenaboriginallanguageinCanada.[13]TheonlyregionwhereCree
hasofficialstatusisintheNorthwestTerritories,togetherwitheightotheraboriginallanguages.[14][15]
Thetwomajorgroups:NehiyawandInnu,speakamutuallyintellligibleCreedialectcontinuum,which
canbedividedbymanycriteria.Inadialectcontinuum,"Itisnotsomuchalanguage,asachainof
dialects,wherespeakersfromonecommunitycanveryeasilyunderstandtheirneighbours,butaPlains
CreespeakerfromAlbertawouldfindaQuebecCreespeakerdifficulttospeaktowithoutpractice."[16]
OnemajordivisionbetweenthegroupsisthattheEasterngrouppalatalizesthesound/k/toeither/ts/(c)
orto/t/()whenitprecedesfrontvowels.Thereisalsoamajordifferenceingrammaticalvocabulary
(particles)betweenthegroups.Withinbothgroups,anothersetofvariationshasarisenaroundthe
pronunciationoftheProtoAlgonquianphoneme*l,whichcanberealizedas/l/,/r/,/y/,/n/,or//(th)by
differentgroups.Yetinotherdialects,thedistinctionbetween/e/()and/i/()hasbeenlost,merging
tothelatter.Inmorewesterndialects,thedistinctionbetween/s/and//()hasbeenlost,bothmerging
totheformer.
VictorGollumlistsCreeintheEncyclopediaoftheWorld'sEndangeredLanguagesasoneoffiftyfive
languagesthathavemorethan1,000speakerswhicharebeingactivelyacquiredbychildren.[17]

Identityandethnicity
InCanada
TheCreearethelargestgroupofFirstNationsinCanada,with
over200,000membersand135registeredbands.[18]Thislarge
populationmaybearesultoftheCrees'traditionalopennessto
intertribalmarriage.Together,theirreservelandsarethelargest
ofanyFirstNationsgroupinthecountry.[18]ThelargestCree
bandandthesecondlargestFirstNationsBandinCanadaafter
theSixNationsIroquoisistheLacLaRongeBandinnorthern
Saskatchewan.
GiventhetraditionalCreeopeningtomixedmarriages,itis
acknowledgedbyacademicsthatallbandsareultimatelyof
mixedheritageandmultilingualismandmulticulturalismwasthe
norm.IntheWestmixedbandsofCree,Saulteauxand
Assiniboine,allpartnersintheIronConfederacy,arethenorm.
Howeverinrecentyears,asindigenouslanguageshavedeclined
acrosswesternCanadawheretherewereoncethreelanguages
CreeIndian,takenbyG.E.Fleming,
spokenonagivenreserve,theremaynowonlybeone.Thishas
1903
ledtoasimplificationofidentity,andithasbecome
"fashionable"forbandsinmanypartsofSaskatchewanto
identifyas"PlainsCree"attheexpenseofamixedCreeSalteauxhistory.Thereisalsoatendencyfor
bandstorecategorizethemselvesas"PlainsCree"insteadofWoodsCreeorSwampyCree.Neal
McLeodarguesthisispartlyduetothedominantculture'sfascinationwithPlainsIndiancultureaswell
asthegreaterdegreeofwrittenstandardizationandprestigePlainsCreeenjoysoverotherCree
dialects.[8]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

4/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheMtis(fromtheFrench,Mtisofmixedancestry)arepeopleofmixedancestry,suchasNehiyaw
(orAnishinaabe)andFrench,English,orScottishheritage.AccordingtoAboriginalAffairsand
NorthernDevelopmentCanada,theMtiswerehistoricallythechildrenofFrenchfurtradersand
Nehiyawwomenor,fromunionsofEnglishorScottishtradersandnorthernDenewomen(Anglo
Mtis).Generallyinacademiccircles,thetermmtiscanbeusedtorefertoanycombinationofpersons
ofmixedNativeAmericanandEuropeanheritage,althoughhistorical
definitionsforMtisremain.Canada'sIndianandNorthernAffairs
broadlydefineMtisasthosepersonsofmixedFirstNationand
Europeanancestry,whileTheMtisNationalCouncildefinesaMtisas
"apersonwhoselfidentifiesasMtis,isdistinctfromotherAboriginal
peoples,isofhistoricMtisNationAncestryandwhoisacceptedbythe
MtisNation".[19]

Nehiyawgirl(1928).

"GroupofCrees"

"CreeIndian"

"ChiefKingofthe
Wind"

"ChiefThundercloud"

"ChiefDuckhunter"

"IndianTeepee"

IntheUnitedStates
AtonetimetheCreewerelocatedinnorthernMinnesota,NorthDakotaandMontana.Todaymajority
liveaspartofthefederallyrecognizedChippewaCreetribe,locatedontheRockyBoyIndian
Reservation,andinminorityas"LandlessCree"ontheFortPeckIndianReservationandas"Landless
Cree"and"RockyBoyCree"ontheFortBelknapIndianReservation,allinMontana.TheChippewa
CreesharethereservationwiththePembinaBandofChippewaIndians,whoformthe"Chippewa"
(Ojibwa)halfoftheChippewaCreetribe.OntheotherReservations,theCreeminoritysharethe
ReservationwiththeAssiniboine,GrosVentreandSiouxtribes.Traditionally,thesouthernlimitsofthe
CreeterritoryinMontanaweretheMissouriRiverandtheMilkRiver.

FirstNationcommunities
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

5/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

IllustrationofaSnakewoman(left)anda
Nehiyawwoman(right),c.18401843,
KarlBodmer

1Naskapi(IyiyiwandInnu)

bWoodsCree(Sakwithiniwak/nhithawak)

Kawawachikamach

BigstoneCreeNation

Natuashish

CanoeLakeFirstNation(alsoBushCree)

2Montagnais
aEasternMontagnais(Innu)

DriftpileFirstNation
Duncan'sFirstNation
FortMcMurrayFirstNation(also

Mingan

Chipewyan)

UashatMaliotenam

HeartLakeFirstNation

Matimekosh

Kapawe'noFirstNation

Natashquan

LittleRedRiverCreeNation

PakuaShipi

LoonRiverFirstNation

LaRomaine

LubiconLakeIndianNation

Sheshatshiu

MikisewCreeFirstNation

CanoeLakeFirstNations

RedEarthCreeNation(alsoSwampyCree)

bWesternMontagnais(NehilawandIlniw)

SawridgeFirstNation
ShoalLakeCreeNation(alsoSwampyCree)

Mashteuiatsh

SturgeonLakeCreeNation

Betsiamites

SuckerCreekFirstNation

Essipit

SwanRiverFirstNation

3Atikamekw(Nehiraw)
Atikamekwd'Opitciwan
LesAtikamekwdeManawan
ConseildesAtikamekwdeWemotaci

WhitefishLakeFirstNation128
8PlainsCree(Paskwwiyiniwak/nhiyawak)
aDownstreamPeople(Mmihkiyiniwak)
CowessessFirstNation
LittleBlackBearFirstNation
MuscowpetungFirstNation(alsoSaulteaux)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

6/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

4JamesBayCree
IyiyiwandIyiniwEeyouIstchee/BaieJames
Territory

NekaneetFirstNation
OchapowaceFirstNation
OneArrowFirstNation

Chisasibi

PeepeekisisFirstNation

Eastmain

StarBlanketFirstNation

Mistissini
Nemaska
OujBougoumou

iCallingRiver/Qu'AppelleCree(Ktpwwi
spwiyiniwak)

WashawSibiEeyou

OceanManFirstNation(alsoAssiniboine

Waskaganish

andSaulteaux)

Waswanipi

PheasantRumpNakotaNation(alsoNakoda

Wemindji

andSaulteaux)

Whapmagoostui

WhitebearFirstNation

5MooseCree(Mson/ilil)

iiRabbitskins(Wpowaynak)

BrunswickHouseFirstNation(alsoOjibwa)

KahkewistahawFirstNation

ChapleauCreeFirstNation

OkaneseFirstNation(alsoSaulteaux)

ConstanceLakeFirstNation(alsoOjibwa)

PasquaFirstNation(alsoSaulteaux)

KashechewanFirstNation(alsoSwampy

SakimayFirstNation(alsoSaulteaux)

Cree)
MatachewanFirstNation(alsoOjibwa)
MissanabieCreeFirstNation
MooseCreeFirstNationMooseFactory,
Ontario[4]
TaykwaTagamouNation(formerlyknown
asNewPostFirstNation)
6SwampyCree(Makkowak/nhinawak)
AttawapiskatFirstNationAttawapiskat,
Ontario

iiiTouchwoodHillsCree(Paskanacwiyiniwak)
(alsoSaulteaux)Punnichy,Saskatchewan
DaystarFirstNation(formerly:DayStar's
BandofCree)
GordonFirstNation(formerly:George
Gordon'sBandofCree)(alsoSaulteauxand
Metis)
Poorman'sBandofCree(historical)
KawacatooseFirstNation
MuskowekwanFirstNation

ChemawawinCreeNation(alsoRockyCree) ivCreeAssiniboine/YoungDogs(Nhiyawi
pwtak)(alsoAssiniboine)
CumberlandHouseCreeNation
FisherRiverCreeNation
FortAlbanyFirstNation(alsoknownas
AlbanyFirstNation)FortAlbany,Ontario
FortSevernFirstNation
FoxLakeCreeNation

LandlessCreeFortPeck,Montana
LandlessCreeandRockyBoyCreeFort
BelknapAgency,Montana
PiapotFirstNation

KashechewanFirstNation(alsoMooseCree) bUpstreamPeople(Natimiyininiwak)
MisipawistikCreeNation(formerlyknown
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

7/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

asGrandRapidsFirstNation)(alsoRocky

BeaverLakeCreeNationLacLaBiche,

Cree)

Alberta

MosakahikenCreeNation(Also'Cree'name

BigIslandLakeFirstNation(alsoknownas

forMooseLakeFirstNation)

JosephBigheadFirstNation)

OpaskwayakCreeNation(alsoRockyCree)

ChippewaCreeIndiansoftheRockyBoys

ThePas,Manitoba

Reservation,Montana(alsoOjibwa)

RedEarthCreeNation(alsoWoodsCree)

FrogLakeFirstNation

SapotaweyakCreeNation

KehewinCreeNationAlberta

ShamattawaCreeNation

LuckyManFirstNation

ShoalLakeCreeNation(alsoWoodsCree)

MoosominFirstNation

TataskweyakCreeNation

MosquitoGrizzlyBear'sHeadLeanMan

WarLakeFirstNation

(alsoNakoda)

WeenuskFirstNation

MuskegLakeFirstNation

WuskwiSipihkFirstNation

PelicanLakeFirstNation

YorkFactoryFirstNation

Saulteaux

7WoodlandCree
aRockyCree(Asinskwiyiniwak)

St.Peter'sBandofCreeandSaulteaux
(Historical)
MuskodayFirstNation(formerly:

BarrenLandsFirstNation

JohnSmithFirstNation)Muskoday,

BunibonibeeCreeNation(formerlyknown

Saskatchewan

asOxfordHouseFirstNation)

PeguisFirstNation

ChemawawinCreeNation(alsoSwampy

SturgeonLakeFirstNation

Cree)

ThunderchildFirstNation

GodsLakeFirstNation

WaterhenLakeFirstNation

GreenLakeBandofCree(historical)

WitchekanLakeFirstNation

LacLaRongeFirstNation(formerly
knownasLacLaRongeIndianBand) iBeaverHillsCree(Amiskwacwiyiniwak)
LaRonge&StanleyMission

AlexanderFirstNation(alsoWapski

BandofCreeIndians

MahikanSociety)(formerly:Alexander's

(Historical),whichdividedand

BandofCree)Morinville,Alberta

thenreamalgamated:

AlexisNakotaFirstNation(formerly:

JamesRobertsBandof

Joseph'sBandofIndians)(alsoNakoda)

CreeIndians(Historical)

EnochCreeNation(formerly:Enoch'sBand

AmosCharlesBandof

ofCree)Winterburn,Alberta

CreeIndians(Historical)

ErmineskinCreeNation(formerly:

MontrealLakeFirstNation

Ermineskin'sBandofCree)(alsoNakoda)

PeterBallantyneCreeNation

Maskwacis,Alberta

MantoSipiCreeNation

LouisBullFirstNation(formerly:Louis

MarcelColombFirstNation

Bull'sBandofCree)Maskwacis,Alberta

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

8/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

BlackSturgeonFirstNation

Michel'sBandofCree(Historical)(also

MathiasColombFirstNation

Iroquois)

MisipawistikCreeNation(formerlyknown

MontanaFirstNationMaskwacis,Alberta

asGrandRapidsFirstNation)(alsoSwampy

O'ChieseFirstNation(alsoSaulteaux)

Cree)

OnionLakeCreeNation

MooseLakeFirstNation

PapaschaseFirstNation

NelsonHouseBandofCree(Historical)

PaulFirstNation(formerly:Paul'sBandof

NisichawayasihkCreeNation

Cree)(alsoNakoda)Duffield,Alberta

OPiponNaPiwinCreeNation

SaddleLakeCreeNation

NorwayHouseCreeNation

BlueQuill'sBandofCree(Historical)

OpaskwayakCreeNation(alsoSwampy

JamesSeenum'sBandofCree

Cree)

(Historical)

Pimicikamak
CrossLakeFirstNation

Whitefish(Goodfish)LakeFirst
Nation

TataskweyakCreeNation(IRSplitLake

LittleHunter'sBandofCree(a.k.a.

171)

SaddleLakeBandofCree)(Historical)
WahsatenawBandofCree(a.k.a.
WasatnowBandofCree,BearEars'
BandofCree)(Historical)
SamsonCreeNation(formerly:Samson's
BandofCree)Maskwacis,Alberta
SunchildFirstNation
iiHouseCree(wskahikaniwiyiniwak)
AhtahkakoopFirstNation
MistawasisFirstNation
iiiParklandsCree/WillowCree
(Paskokopwiyiniwak)
Beardy'sandOkemasisFirstNations
JamesSmithFirstNation
PeterChapmanCreeNation(incorporated
intoJamesSmithFirstNation,butwithsome
legalstatusasaseparateentity).[20]
ivRiverCree(Spwininiwak)
LittlePineFirstNation
PoundmakerFirstNation
RedPheasantFirstNation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

9/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

SweetgrassFirstNation
vNorthernPlainsCree/WesternWoodland
Cree/BushCree(Sakwiyiniwak)
BigRiverFirstNation
CanoeLakeFirstNation(alsoWoodsCree)
FlyingDustFirstNation
IslandLakeFirstNation
MakwaSahgaiehcanFirstNation

Notableleaders
Mistwasis("BigChild",alsoknownasPierreBelanger),ChiefoftheParklands/WillowCree
(Paskokopwiyiniwak),bornabout1813.HewasoneoftheinfluentialleadersoftheHouseCree
orWskahikaniwiyiniwak,suppliedbetween18521854FortCarltonwithbisonmeatand
pemmican,acquiredinhisyouthbyconstantmilitaryconflictstherespectofCrowfoot,leaderof
theSiksika,theBlackfootcalledMistwasisrespectfully"TheIronBuffaloofthePlains")[21]
Ahtahkakoop(Athkakohp,"Starblanket"),ChiefoftheHouseCree(Wskahikaniwiyiniwak).He
wasbornabout181516,signedtogetherwithhiscousin,Mistwasisin1876theTreaty6atFort
Carlton,whereheagreedthathisgroupweresettledintoareservenearthepresentdayPrince
Albert,died4December1896attheageof81years.[22]
AhchuchhwahauhhatohapitorAhchacoosacootacoopits(Achkosakotakohpit,"[Onewho
has]Star[sfora]blanket",[23])ChiefofabandofCallingRiverCree(Ktpwwispwiyiniwak),
bornabout1845inthelowerQuAppelleValley,sonofWpiymstsis("WhiteCalf"),histribal
groupwascloselyassociatedwiththeKaKichiWiWiniwakundertheleadershipofKakeesheway
(LoudVoice),andacloseallyofPayipwt("Piapot"),leaderoftheCreeAssiniboineor"Young
Dogs",1879afterthedisappearanceofthebisonAhchuchhwahauhhatohapitsettledonareserve
intheFileHillsofthelowerQu'AppelleValley,died1917intheStarBlanketreserve,
Saskatchewan)[24]
Payipwt(orPiapot:"[OnewhoKnowsthe]SecretsoftheSioux"),alsoknownas"Holeinthe
Sioux"orKisikawasanFlashintheSky,ChiefoftheCreeAssiniboineortheYoungDogs
withgreatinfluenceonneighboringAssiniboine,DownstreamPeople,southerngroupsofthe
UpstreamPeopleandSaulteaux(PlainsOjibwa),born1816,kidnappedasachildbytheSioux,[25]
hewasfreedabout1830byPlainsCree,significantShaman,[26]mostinfluentialchiefofthe
fearedYoungDogs,[27]convincedthePlainsCreetoexpandwestintheCypressHills,thelast
refugeeforbisongroups,thereforedisputedborderareabetweenSioux,Assiniboine,Siksika
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

10/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

KainaiandCree,refusedtoparticipateintheraidonaKainaicampnearthepresentLethbridge,
Alberta,thentheYoungDogsandtheirallieswerecontentwiththeeasternCypressHillstothe
MilkRiver,Montana,doesnotparticipateatthenegotiationsontheTreaty4of1874,heand
Cheekuk,themostimportantleadersofthePlainsOjibwaintheQu'Appellearea,signedon9
September1875thetreatyonlyaspreliminarycontract,triedwithMinahikosis("LittlePine")and
Mistahimaskwa("BigBear")toerectakindofIndianTerritoryforallthePlainsCree,Plains
OjibwaandAssiniboineasOttawarefused,heasked187980alongwithKiwisnce(cowessess
'LittleChild')[28]andtheAssiniboineforadjacentreservesintheCypressHills,Payipwtsettled
inareserveabout37milesnortheastofFortWalsh,Minahikosis("LittlePine")andPapewes
(LuckyMan)askedsuccessfullyforreservesneartheAssiniboineorPayipwtthisallowedthe
CreeandAssiniboinetopreservetheirautonomybecausetheywent1881inMontanaonbison
hunting,stoleAbsarokeehorsesandallegedcattlekilled,arrestedtheU.S.ArmytheCree
Assiniboinegroup,disarmedandescortedthembacktoCanadanowunarmed,deniedrations
untiltheCreeandAssiniboinegaveuptheirclaimstotheCypressHillsandwentnorthinthe
followingyearsthereserveschangedseveraltimesandthetribesweretryingrepeateduntiltothe
NorthwestRebellionin1885tobuildanIndianTerritory,Payipwtremainedunderheavyguard,
untilhisdeathhewasagreatspiritualleader,thereforeOttawadeposedPayipwton15April
1902aschief,diedinApril1908onPiapotReserve,Saskatchewan)[29]
Keeakeekasacooway(TheManWhogivestheWarWhoop),ChiefofthePlainsCree,was
inthemiddleofthe19thcenturytheleadingchiefofthePlainsCree,hadalsoalargefollowing
amongthePlainsOjibwaaroundFortPitt,hissubchiefwasMukitou(BlackPowder),thefather
ofMistahimaskwa.
Mistahimaskwa(recordedasMistihui'muskwaorasMistahimusquabetterknownasBigBear
inEnglishandasGrosOursinFrench),ChiefofthePlainsCree,bornabout1825,sonofthe
OjibwaleaderMukitou(BlackPowder),masteredhisnativelanguage,theCreelanguage,aswell
asOjibwelanguage,ledthelastresistancetothedispersaloftheCreeonmanyreservationsand
askedforabigtotalreserve,arevoltoftheyoungwarriorsundertheleadershipofoneofhissons
in1885destroyedtheseplans,died17January1888onthePoundmakerreservationinNorth
BattlefordinSaskatchewan.
Kapapamahchakwew(Kpapmahcahkww,KapapaMachatiwe,Papamahchakwayo,French:
EspritErrant,betterknownasWanderingSpirit,warchiefofthePlainsCreeunder
Mistahimaskwa,born1845nearJackfishLake,Saskatchewan,committedon2April1885,theso
calledFrogLakemassacre,killedtheIndianAgentThomasQuinnandeightwhitesandone
Mtis,surrenderedinJulyatFortPitt,washangedon27November1885inBattleford,
Saskatchewan)[30]
Kamiokisihkwew(MiyoKisikawFineDay,[31]ChiefofthePlainsCree,born1850intheBattle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

11/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Riverregion,died193[?],wasashamanandwarchiefunderPitikwahanapiwiyin'sRiverCree,
duringtheNorthWestRebellionBattlefordwassackedbyRiverCree,subsequentlyFineDay
wastheleaderoftheuprising,defeatedtheCanadianarmyintheBattleofCutKnife,laterjoined
agroupofPlainsCreeundertheleadershipofWhkaskokisyin(SweetGrass)
Pitikwahanapiwiyin(PhtokahnapiwiyinPoundmaker,[32][33]ChiefoftheRiverCree,born
about1842intheNorthBattlefordRegioninSaskatchewansonofSikakwayan(SkunkSkin),a
shamanoftheAssiniboineandaFrancoCanadianMtiswomanwhowasthesisterofMistwasis
("BigChild").PitikwahanapiwiyinwaschiefofabandconsistingofPlainsRiverCree
(Spwininiwakpaskwwiyiniwak),WoodsRiverCree(Spwininiwaksakwiyiniwak),Western
WoodlandCree(Sakwiyiniwak)andNakoda(Stoney),wasadoptedin1873bytheSiksikachief
Crowfootasson,livedseveralyearsbytheBlackfeetnameMakoyikohkin(WolfThinLegs)
undertheSiksika,returnedtotheCree,becamecounselortoPihewkamihkosit(RedPheasant),
wasinvolvedinthenegotiationsfortheTreaty6in1876andwentin1879inthePoundmaker
reservation,laterheparticipatedinthesiegeofBattlefordandtheBattleofCutKnife,died4July
1886inBlackfootCrossing,Alberta)[34]
Whkaskokisyin(Weekaskookeeseyyin,betterknownasChiefSweetGrass,leaderofthe
PlainsCree,hismotherwasacapturedAbsaroke,ashegrewuphewasalsocalledApisciokimas
'LittleChief',signedtheTreaty6on9September1876atFortPitt,alongwithbandsofWoodland
Cree,Chipewyan,someSaulteaux,onlyaquarteroftheparticipatinggroupswerePlainsCree,
whilehissuccessoraschiefWahweeookahtahmahhote('Strikehimontheback')signedthe
Treaty6atFortCarltonon28August1876togetherwiththeWillowCree,died11January1877
inashootoutaccidentonthePlains,probablyatSaintPauldesCris,Alberta)[35]
Peechee(PesewMountainLion,alsoknownasLouisPiche),ChiefoftheAsiniWachi
Nehiyawakandlatertheheadchiefofthe'Rocky/MountainCree'orAsiniWachiWiIniwak,born
about1821,introducedundertheAsiniWachiWiIniwaktotheCatholicrite,histhreesons,
PiyesewChak,Keskayiwew('Bobtail')andErmineskinwerealsosignificantleaders,Pesewandhis
eldersonChakPiyesewwerekilledduringagamblingdisputein1843,amonghissonsinlaw
wereSamson,Chiniki,Bearspaw,CapoteBlankandJacquesCardinal)[36]
Ermineskin(Onewithskinlikeanermine,[37]Sehkosowayanew,SikosewInew,alsoknownas
BaptistePiche,ChiefoftheBearHillsCree(MaskwaWachiisIniniwak),sonofPesew
(MountainLion),brotherinlawofPitikwahanapiwiyin)[38]
Keskayiwew(Kiskiyew,KiskiyoBobtail,alsoknownasAlexisPiche,ChiefoftheBearHills
Cree(MaskwawachiisIniniwak),sonofPesew(MountainLion),brotherofErmineskin,
becamechiefafterthedeathofhisolderbrother,waselectedinsteadofMaskepetoon('Broken
Arm')tothechieftainshipoftheRockyCreeandlaterbecameheadchiefoftheWestern
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

12/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Cree(PakisimotanWiIniwak)andsoonafterbecametheheadchiefofallthegroupsofthe
UpstreamPeople)
Kamdyistowesit(Kanaweyihimitowin,[39]Beardy,French:Barbu,ChiefoftheParklandsor
WillowCree,born1828nearDuckLake,becamealeaderinthe1870s,marriedYaskuttsus,[40]
thehalfsisterofKpeyakwskonam(OneArrow),amongthemembersofhistribalgroupwere
manyMtisdescendantsoftheHudson'sBayCompanyemployeeGeorgeSutherland)[41]
Kpeyakwskonam(Kupeyakwuskonam,KahpahyakastocumOneArrow,French:Une
Flche,ChiefoftheParklandsorWillowCree,born1815intheSaskatchewanRiverValley,son
ofGeorgeSutherland(Okayasiw)andhissecondwifePaskus(Rising),triedtopreventin1876
negotiationsontheTreaty6atFortCarltonalongwithKamdyistowesit('Beardy')andSaswaypew
('CutNose'),butfinallysignedonAugust28thetreaty,inAugust1884heattendedameeting
withMistahimaskwa('BigBear')andPapewes(Papaway'LuckyMan'),histribalgroupjoined
firsttheMtisin1885,diedon25April1886intheprison)[42]
Minahikosis(LittlePine,French:PetitPin,ChiefofthePlainsCree,bornabout1830inthe
vicinityofFortPitt,Saskatchewan,hismotherwasaBlackfeet,becamefamousinthe1860s,as
armedPlainsCreetofindthelastremainingbison,penetratedmoreandmoreintotheterritoryof
theBlackfootConfederacy,ledthreeyearsbitterresistance,signedhowever,inviewofhis
starvingpeoplein1879theTreaty6,andmovedintoareserveatthefootofBlueHillalongthe
BattleRiver,hisreputationwascomparabletothatofMistahimaskwa'('BigBear'))[43]
Papewes(PapawayLuckyMan,ChiefofthePlainsRiverCree(Spwininiwak
paskwwiyiniwak),borninthelate1830snearFortPitt,wasinthe1870saleaderof
MistahimaskwasPlainsRiverCree,asthebisondisappeared,signedalongwithLittlePineon2
July1879forthe470membersofhistribalgroupanannextotheAgreementNo.6atFortWalsh,
invainheaskedforareserveintheCypressHillsandtheBuffaloLake,somanymemberswent
backtoMistahimaskwa("BigBear")orjoinedMinahikosis("LittlePine"),Papewesasked1884in
vainareserveadjacenttothereservesofPitikwahanapiwiyin('Poundmaker'),Minahikosisand
Mistahimaskwa,duringtherebellionof1885werethetwogroupsofPapewesandMinahikosis
scatteredandsomeoftheirmembersfledintheU.S.,1886settledtheremainingmembersofthe
twogroupsintheLittlePine'sreserve[44]died1901naheFortAssiniboine,Montana)[45]
Saswaypew(Sayswaypus,SeswepiuCutNose,ChiefoftheParklandsorWillowCree,sonof
Wimtchik,aFrancoCanadianMtis,marriedOneArrowssisterNawapukayus,hissistersAyamis
andMinuskipuihatwerebothmarriedtoOneArrow,Kamdyistowesit(Beardy)andhewere
brotherinlaw,becausebothweremarriedtodaughtersofGeorgeSutherland)
Maskepetoon(MaskiPitonewBrokenArm,CrookedArm,latercalledPeacemaker,Chiefof
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

13/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

agroupofRocky/MountainCreeorAsiniWachiWiIniwak,bornabout1807intheSaskatchewan
Riverregion,becauseofhisbraveryhewascalledbythehostileBlackfootMonebaguhnowor
Manikapina(YoungManChief),turnedlatertotheMethodistmissionaries,whathimandhis
followersbroughtintoconflictwiththeCatholicfreeRockyCreeundertheleadershipofPesew,
movedtothereserveandwassoonknownasthePeacemaker,waskilledin1869inaBlackfoot
campinAlbertabyBigSwan,inanattempttomakepeacebetweenthetwopeoplesunarmed.[46]
Pihewkamihkosit(Peeyahnkahnihkoosit,betterknownasRedPheasant,ChiefofthePlains
RiverCree,brotherandcounselortoWuttunee(Porcupine),signedon23August1876onbehalf
ofhisbrotherWuttuneetheTreaty6,hewasthenregardedasa"TreatyChief"bytheCanadian
government,movedwithhistribalgroup1878ontothepresentRedPheasantReserve,about
33kmsouthofNorthBattleford,Saskatchewan)[47]
Peayasis(betterknownasFranoisDesjarlais,ChiefoftheBeaverRiverCreeorAmiskSipiWi
Iniwak,asubgroupoftheWoodlandCree(Sakwithiniwak),born1824attheBeaverRiver,sonof
LadoucoeurditDesjarlaisandJosephteSuzetteCardinal,signedon8August1876theTreaty6,
participatedinbattleofBattleRiver)
Kahkewistahaw,ChiefoftheRabbitSkinCree(Wpowaynak)andSaulteaux,signedin15
September1874theTreaty4,histribalgroupwashuntingintheareaaroundWoodMountainand
theCypressHillsandwentbacktotheQu'AppelleValleyonceayeartogettheirpaymentsand
giftsuntilareservewasestablishedin1881)[48][49]
Paskww(Paskwa,Pisqua,usuallycalledPasquahThePlainFrench:LesPrairies),Chiefof
thePlainsCree,born1828,sonofMahkaysis,1874histribalgroupweremakingtheirlivingwith
bisonhuntinginthevicinityoftoday'sLeechLake,Saskatchewan,theyhadalsocreatedgardens
andraisedasmallherdofcattle,inSeptember1874Pasquatookpartinthenegotiationsonthe
Treaty4inQu'AppelleValley,heaskedtheCanadiangovernmentforthepaymentof300,000to
thetribes,whichtheHudson'sBayCompanyhadreceivedforthesaleofRupert'slandtoCanada,
despitetherefusalofCanadahefinallysignedthetreatyandmovedtoareservefivemileswestof
FortQu'Appelle,stayedoutwithhistribalgroupfromtheNorthwestRebellionof1885,diedin
March1889hesuccumbedtothetuberculosis)[50]
Petequakey(ComestoUsWiththeSoundofWings,betterknownasIsidoreCayendit
Boudreau,ChiefoftheParklandsorWillowCreeatMuskegLake,borninSt.Boniface,
Manitoba,assonofPierreNarcisseCayenditBoudreauandAdelaideCatherineArcand
(Kaseweetin),thoughhewasaMtishebecamechiefoftheWillowCreeandtheMtis,who
werelivingwiththeCree,brotherandcounselortoKeetoowayhow(a.k.a.AlexanderCayendit
Boudreau),afterKeetoowayhowhadleftthereserveontheMuskegLaketolivearound
Batoche,becamePetequakeychief(18801889)oftheremainingCreeandMtislivinginthe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

14/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

reserve,heparticipatedon26March1885alongwiththeMtisleaderGabrielDumontatthe
battleatDuckLake,thereafterheledhistribalgrouptoSt.Laurenttoparticipateinthedefenseof
Batoche,oneofthelargestMtissettlementsandtheseatoftheSaskatchewan'sprovisional
governmentduringtherebellion)[51]
Keetoowayhow(SoundingWithFlyingWings,betterknownasAlexanderCayendit
Boudreau,ChiefoftheParklandsorWillowCreeatMuskegLake,born1834St.Boniface,
Manitoba,sonofPierreNarcisseCayenditBoudreauandAdelaideCatherineArcand
(Kaseweetin),thoughhewasofMtisdescenthebecamechiefoftheWillowCreeandthe
Mtis,whowerelivingwiththeCree,brotherofPetequakey(IsidoreCayenditBoudreau),lived
alongDuckLake,signed1876Treaty6andsettledinareserveatMuskegLakethatwaslater
namedafterhisbrotherPetequakeybutleftthereservein1880andlivedagaininthefollowing
yearsclosetoSt.LaurentdeGrandinmission,playedaprominentroleduringtheNorthwest
Rebellionof1885inwhichheparticipatedineverybattle,servedalsoasanemissaryoftheMtis
leaderGabrielDumonttoasktheAssiniboineforsupport,on23May1885healsosubmittedthe
declarationofsurrenderofPitikwahanapiwiyin('Poundmaker')toGeneralMiddleton,was
capturedon1June1885,inthesubsequenttrialofKeetoowayhowatRegina,LouisCochin
testifiedthatheandthecartersinthecampofPitikwahanapiwiyinsurvivedonlythankstothe
intercessionbyKeewaytoohowanditspeople,despitethepositivetestimony,hewason14
August1885sentencedtoimprisonmentforsevenyearsforhisinvolvementintheMtis
rebellion,died1886).

Othernotablepeople
JaniceAcoose,author,ofSakimay(Saulteaux)andNinankaweMarivalMtisancestry
NathanielArcand,actor
IreneBedard,actress
MaryKatherineCampbell,formerMissAmericapageanttitleholder
HaroldCardinal,writer,politicalleader,teacher,andlawyer
LorneCardinal,actor
TantooCardinal,actor
JonathanCheechoo,NHLandKHLhockeyplayer
TheorenFleury,retiredNHLhockeyplayer,humanitarian,spokesperson,andauthor
EdwardGamblin,musician
MichaelGreyeyes,actor
TomsonHighway,playwright,librettistofthefirstCreelanguageopera
TysonHouseman,actor
CodyLightning,actor
WiltonLittlechild,lawyer,formerMemberofParliament
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

15/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

DeliaOpekokew,lawyerandactivist
BronsonPelletier,actor
RomeoSaganash,MemberofParliamentforAbitibi
BaieJamesNunavikEeyou,Quebec
BuffySainteMarie,singer
CreeSummer,singer/actress
RoseanneSupernault,actress
RichardThrossel(18821933),photographer
MichelleThrush,actor
GordonTootoosis,actor
ShaniaTwain,singer
AlfredYoungMan(b.1948),educator,writer,
curator,artist
ShaneYellowbird,Countrysinger

Seealso

MhsetteKuiuab,chiefoftheCreeca.
18401843,KarlBodmer

Creelanguage
Creesyllabics
Iynu
JamesBayCreehydroelectricconflict
Mtis
Michif
OjiCree
Okichitaw
PoliticsofSaskatchewan
RunTotheHills

Notes
1. ^"CultureAreasIndex"(http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/etb0170e.shtml).the
CanadianMuseumofCivilization.
2. ^"GatewaytoAboriginalHeritage"(http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/etb0000e.shtml).
CanadianMuseumofCivilizationCorporation.
3. ^AlexanderMackenzie,[1](http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/35658)VoyagesfromMontrealThroughthe
ContinentofNorthAmericatotheFrozenandPacificOceansin1789and1793.
4. ^abMooseCreeFirstNationcommunityprofile(http://www.moosecree.com/community
profile/services.html)
5. ^"[T]heirnativename",DavidThompson,TravelsinWesternNorthAmerica17841812,VictorG.
Hopwood,ed.,Toronto:MacmillanofCanada,1971
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

16/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

6. ^DavidPentland,"Synonymy",inHandbookofNorthAmericanIndians,vol.6,JuneHelm,ed.,
Washington,DC:SmithsonianInstitution,1981,p.227
7. ^http://johncochrane.ca/drupal/node/84
8. ^abhttp://www2.brandonu.ca/library/CJNS/20.2/cjnsv20no1_pg437454.pdf
9. ^MacKenzie,Alexander.(1793)JournalofaVoyagefromFortChipewyantothePacificOceanin1793.
10. ^DavidThompsonnoted,"TheFrenchCanadians...callthem'Krees',anamewhichnoneoftheIndianscan
pronounce...","LifewiththeNahathaways",inDavidThompson:TravelsinWesternNorthAmerica1784
1812,VictorG.Hopwood,ed.,Toronto:MacmillanofCanada,1971,p.109.
11. ^AdolphM.Greeberg,JamesMorrison,"GroupIdentitiesintheBorealForest:TheOriginoftheNorthern
Ojibwa",Ethnohistory29(2):75102(1982)
12. ^DavidH.Pentland,"Synonymy",in"WestMainCree",inHandbookofNorthAmericanIndians,v.6,June
Helm,ed.,SmithsonianInstitution,Washington,D.C.,1981,p.227.
13. ^Canada:2006Census(http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/topics/RetrieveProductTable.cfm?
ALEVEL=3&APATH=3&CATNO=&DETAIL=0&DIM=&DS=99&FL=0&FREE=0&GAL=0&GC=99&GK
=NA&GRP=1&IPS=&METH=0&ORDER=1&PID=89189&PTYPE=88971&RL=0&S=1&ShowAll=No&Sta
rtRow=1&SUB=705&Temporal=2006&Theme=70&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=Statistics)
14. ^NorthwestTerritoriesOfficialLanguagesAct,1988
(http://www.justice.gov.nt.ca/PDF/ACTS/Official_Languages.pdf)(asamended1988,19911992,2003)
15. ^"LanguagesofCanada"(http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=canada),Ethnologue:
LanguagesoftheWorld.Note:ThewesterngroupoflanguagesincludesSwampyCree,WoodsCreeand
PlainsCree.TheeasternlanguageiscalledMooseCree.Retrieved21September2008.
16. ^"Cree"(http://www.languagegeek.com/algon/cree/nehiyawewin.html),LanguageGeek.Retrieved21
September2008.
17. ^C.Moseley(April23,2007),EncyclopediaoftheWorld'sEndangeredLanguages(CurzonLanguage
FamilySeries)
(http://openlibrary.org/books/OL7763711M/Encyclopedia_of_the_World's_Endangered_Languages_(Curzon_
Language_Family_Series)),Routledge,pp.34,ISBN9780700711970,070071197X
18. ^abSource:(http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/ND05/indepth/justthefacts.asp)Canadian
Geographic
19. ^"Citizenship:TheMtisNation"(http://www.metisnation.ca/index.php/whoarethemetis/citizenship).
MtisNationalCouncil.
20. ^http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/peter_chapman_first_nation.html
21. ^MistawasisFirstNation(http://www.mistawasis.ca/)
22. ^AHTAHKAKOOPFIRSTNATION(http://www.ahtahkakoop.ca/history.html)
23. ^nottoconfusedwiththeAhtahkakoop(Starblanket),oftheHouseCree(Wskahikaniwiyiniwak)
24. ^Ahchuchhwahauhhatohapit(http://www.biographi.ca/009004119.01e.php?
&id_nbr=7169&&PHPSESSID=p3rikjnr7pvg4lsfpl3hfvfs24)
25. ^NehiyawakLeadership(http://scaa.sk.ca/ourlegacy/exhibit_nehiyawak_leadership)
26. ^byhisknowledgeofSiouxspiritualityandmedicinetheCreecalledhimPayipwt'Onewhoknowsthe
secretsoftheSioux'
27. ^theyhadmorethananyotherCreegroupadaptedtothelifeonthePlains,wereknownashorsethievesand
warriors,andastheydrovelittletrade,theywerefearedbytheHudson'sBayCompanyastroublemakers
28. ^KIWISNCE(http://www.biographi.ca/009004119.01e.php?
&id_nbr=5628&interval=25&&PHPSESSID=9p5n7vbg9t3ur9fk36ua20enq7)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

17/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

29. ^PAYIPWAT(http://www.biographi.ca/009004119.01e.php?
&id_nbr=6989&&PHPSESSID=9p5n7vbg9t3ur9fk36ua20enq7)
30. ^CreeNation(http://www.galafilm.com/chiefs/htmlen/cree/sp_wandering.html)
31. ^nottobeconfusedwiththeOjibweleaderMinogiizhig("FineDay")
32. ^PoundmakerwasgivenhisnamebecausehehadaspecialskillintheconstructionofBuffaloPoundsfor
slayingofgrazingbison.
33. ^BacktoBatoche
(http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Batoche/html/resources/proof_poundmaker.php)
34. ^Pitikwahanapiwiyin(http://library2.usask.ca/northwest/background/pound.htm)
35. ^Treaty6TheSigning(http://www.albertasource.ca/treaty6/making_of_treaty6/the_signing.html)
36. ^Peechee'sBand(http://genforum.genealogy.com/dumont/messages/351.html)
37. ^cluetohisMtisdescent,astheerminefuriswhiteinwinterandbrowninsummeraswellastheskinof
aMtis
38. ^ThePeopleWhoOwnThemselves(http://people.ucalgary.ca/~hdevine/naming.htm#11)
39. ^Beardy'sOkemasisFirstNation(http://www.sicc.sk.ca/bands/bbeard.html)
40. ^wasthedaughterofGeorgeSutherlandsfirstwifePapamikiwis(Swinger)
41. ^IndiansWhoFoughtinthe1885Resistance(http://www.scribd.com/doc/24761954/IndiansWhoFoughtin
the1885Resistance)
42. ^OneArrow(http://www.biographi.ca/009004119.01e.php?
&id_nbr=5630&&PHPSESSID=p3rikjnr7pvg4lsfpl3hfvfs24)
43. ^LittlePineFirstNation(http://www.saskbiz.ca/communityprofiles/communityprofile.asp?
CommunityID=2068)
44. ^LuckyManCreeNation(http://www.sicc.sk.ca/bands/blucky.html)
45. ^PAPEWES(http://www.biographi.ca/009004119.01e.php?BioId=41104)
46. ^Maskepetoon(http://www.biographi.ca/009004119.01e.php?
&id_nbr=4570&&PHPSESSID=p3rikjnr7pvg4lsfpl3hfvfs24)
47. ^RedPheasantFirstNation(http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/red_pheasant_first_nation.html)
48. ^KahkewistahawFirstNation(http://www.kahkewistahaw.com/about.php)
49. ^Kahkewistahawband(http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/kahkewistahaw_band.html)
50. ^PASKWW(http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/pasqua_182889.html)
51. ^MtisWhoWithdrewFromTreaty(http://www.scribd.com/doc/38533941/MetisWhoWithdrewFrom
Treaty)

References
Grant,Bruce(2000).TheConciseEncyclopediaoftheAmericanIndian.NewYork:Wings
Books.ISBN0517693100.
Stevens,JamesR.(1971).SacredLegendsoftheSandyLakeCree.McClellandandStewartLtd.

Externallinks
Creeculturalsite(http://www.creeculture.ca/)
TheEastCreelanguageweb(http://www.eastcree.org/)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoCree.
18/19

01/02/2015

CreeWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheCreeInnulinguisticatlas(http://www.atlasling.ca/)
GrandCounciloftheCrees(GCC)website(http://www.gcc.ca/)
ThePlainsCreeEthnographic,HistoricalandComparativeStudybyDavidMandelbaum
(http://www.schoolnet.ca/ABORIGINAL/Plains_Cree)
LacLaRongeBandwebsite(http://www.llrib.ca/)
LittleRedRiverCreeNationwebsite(http://lrrcn.ab.ca/)
BriefhistoryofCree(http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/nd05/indepth/history.asp)
fromCanadianGeographic
CBCDigitalArchivesJamesBayProjectandtheCree(http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD169
94/life_society/james_bay/)
Pimooteewin,afirstCreelanguageopera(http://www.cbc.ca/arts/theatre/highway.html)
FisherRiverCreeNationOfficialWebsite(http://www.fisherriver.com/)
TheGiftofLanguageandCulturewebsite(http://www.giftoflanguageandculture.ca/)
CBCDigitalArchivesEeyouIstchee:LandoftheCree
(http://archives.cbc.ca/society/native_issues/topics/2473/)
OnthePathoftheElders(http://pathoftheelders.com)
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cree&oldid=644610682"
Categories: Cree FirstNationsintheNorthwestTerritories FirstNationsinAlberta
FirstNationsinSaskatchewan FirstNationsinManitoba FirstNationsinOntario
FirstNationsinQuebec GreatLakestribes Plainstribes FirstNationsinBritishColumbia
Algonquianpeoples
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon28January2015,at21:43.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionalterms
mayapply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree

19/19