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PART II MATH24 Apllications

V.

Continuous Compound Interest


Let P = amount of money at any time
r = annual rate of interest
t = time

Rate Equation:
General Solution:

dP
dt

or

dP
dt

= rP

rt

P=C e

Example: Solve the following:


1. An annual interest of 4% is given on an account . What is the
accumulated amount of Php 100,000 after 5 years?
2. If Php 50,000 is borrowed at an interest of 12% per year compounded
continuously, and the loan is to be repaid in one payment at the end of 2
years, how much must the borrower repay?
3. If an amount of money doubles itself in 10 years at an interest
compounded continuously, how long will it take for the original amount to
triple itself?
VI.

FLOW PROBLEMS

The rate at which the amount of a substance changes is equal to the rate at
which the substance is entering minus the rate at which it is going out.
Let

x = amount of substance present at any time (lbs or a unit mass)


qi = volumetric flow rate of the solution coming in
(gal/min, unit of volume/time)
qo = volumetric flow rate of the solution going out
ci= concentration of the solution coming in (lb/gal, mass/volume)
co = concentration of the solution going out
t = time
dx
dt
= rate of change (lb/min, mass/time)

Rate Equation :

dx

dt
dx
dt

rate coming in - rate going out

= qi ci qo co

qc= (gal/min) (lb/gal) = lb/min


entering rate = qi ci = be
f ( x / VO (e f )t )
leaving rate = qo co =
dx
f

x be
dt VO e f t

Mathematical Model:

e, gal/min (contains b lb/gal of salt)


brine solution
Vo
(contains a lb of salt)

f, gal/min

Where Q denotes amount of salt in the tank at any time t


dQ/dt is the time rate of change of Q

VO ( e f)t.
Total Volume at any time t is
The concentration of salt in the tank at any time t is

x / VO (e f )t
1. A tank initially holds 100 gal of
. brine solution containing 20 lb of salt. At t = 0,
fresh water is poured into the tank at the rate of 5 gal/min, while well-stirred
mixture leaves the tank at the same rate. Find the amount of salt in lbs after 2
minutes.
A. 16
B. 17
C. 18
D. 19
2. A 50-gal tank initially contains 10 gal of fresh water. At t = 0, a brine solution
containing 1 lb of salt per gallon is poured into the tank at the rate of 4 gal/min,
while the well-stirred mixture leaves the tank at the rate of 2 gal/min. Find the
amount of time in minutes required for overflow to occur.
A. 15
B. 20
C. 25
D. 30

3. Find the amount (lbs) of salt in the tank of problem #2 at the moment of overflow.
A. 29
B. 32
C. 37
D. 48
4. A tank initially holds 80 gal of a brine solution containing 1/8 lb of salt per gallon.
At t=0, another brine solution containing 1 lb of salt per gallon of solution is
poured into the tank at the rate of 4 gal/min, while well-stirred mixture leaves the
tank at the rate of 8 gal/min. Determine when the tank will be empty. Find the
amount of salt at t=10 min.
ANS. t=20min, x=22.5 lb.
Solve the following:
a. A tank contains 100 liters of fresh water and brine containing 2 kg of salt
per liter, flows into the tank at the rate of 3 liters per min and the mixture,
kept uniform by stirring, flows out at the same rate. How many kg of salt
are there in the tank at the end of 30 minutes?
a. Into a 100 - gal tank initially filled with brine containing 50 lb of salt flow 3
gal/min of brine containing 2 lb/gal of salt and the solution, kept uniform by
stirring, flows out at the rate of 2 gal/min. How much salt is in the tank at
the end of 100 minutes?
c. A sewage disposal plant has a big holding tank of 100,000-gal capacity. It
is filled with liquid to start with and contains 60,000 lb of organic
material in suspension. Fresh water runs into the tank at the rate of 20,000
gal/hr and the well-stirred mixture leaves at the rate of 15,000 gal/hr. How
much organic material is in the tank at the end of 3 hours?
d. A tank initially holds 80 gal of brine containing 1/8 lb of salt per
gallon. Another brine solution, containing 1 lb/gal of salt, is poured into the
tank at the rate of 4 gal/min and the well-stirred mixture leaves at the rate
of 8 gal/min. Find the amount of salt in the tank a) at any time, b) after 3
minutes and c) the time when the tank will hold 40 gallons of solution.
VII.

Simple Electric Circuits


Only simple electric circuits containing a resistor and an inductor or a
capacitor in series with an electromotive force is considered in this
section. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law will be used to solve the problems.
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law:
Around any closed path the sum of the instantaneous voltage drops
in a specified direction is zero.

Let

t (seconds) =
Q (coulombs) =
i (amperes) =
E
(volts) =
R
(ohms) =
L
(henrys) =
C
(farads) =

time
quantity of electricity; e.g. charge on a capacitor
current, time rate of flow of electricity
electromotive force or voltage
resistance
inductance
capacitance

Thus,
1. If the circuit contains resistance and inductance only (R-L circuit), the
differential equation will be

di
dt

+ Ri = E(t )

2. If the circuit contains resistance and capacitance ( R C cicuit ), the


differential equation will be

dQ
dt

1
C

Q = E(t ).

Examples: Solve the following:


1. A resistance and inductance are connected in series in a circuit containing an
impressed voltage of 100 V. If R = 10 ohms, L = 2 henries and i = 0 when t = 0, find i
when t = .02second.
2. A resistance of 3 ohms and an inductance of 2 henries are connected in series with
an electromotive force of 8e-.0001t volts. When will the current be 0.8 amperes if no
current flows initially?

4
t 10

3. An inductance of 2 henries and a variable resistance r =


ohms are connected
in series with a constant emf of E volts. If i = 0 when t =0 and i = 50 amp when t = 5
seconds, find the emf , E .
4. When a simple electric circuit, containing no condensers but having inductance and
resistance, has the electromotive force removed, the rate of decrease of the current is
proportional to the current. The current is i amperes t seconds after the cut-off, and i =
40 amperes when t = 0. If the current dies down to 15 amperes in 0.01 sec, find i in
terms of t.

VIII.

Motion Problems (Newtons Second Law)


Force = mass x acceleration
W
g

where :

m (mass)

a (acceleration) =

dv
dt

Thus,

F = m

dv
dt

Where: F = force
m = mass
v = velocity

t = time
g = acceleration due to
gravity

Example: Solve the following:


1. A body falls from rest against a resistance that varies directly as the velocity. If
the limiting speed or terminal velocity is 160 ft/sec, find the speed after 5
ft
sec 2
seconds. Assume g = 32
.

2. A weight, W lb, slides down an inclined plane that makes an angle


with the
horizontal. Assume that no force other than gravity is acting on the body, that is, there is
no friction, no air resistance, etc. At time t = 0, let the distance traveled x be x 0 and let

the initial velocity be v0. Determine x for t 0.


3. A body weighing 1960 N is pulled by a constant force of 492 N along a
horizontal plane where the coefficient of friction between the body and the plane
is 0.20. There is a wind resistance equal to twice the instantaneous