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Optics

Ray
optics

Lecture 2

Chapter 2
Wave Motion
Introduction to waves
Wave equation
Harmonic waves

One dimensional wave


One dimensional waves

Classical traveling wave: self-sustaining disturbance of a medium,


which moves through space transporting energy and momentum.
Example: sound waves
Longitudinal waves:
the medium is displaced in the
direction of motion

Transverse waves:
the medium is displaced in the
direction perpendicular to motion
Note: disturbance advances, not matter

Human wave

A typical human wave has a phase velocity of about 20 seats per


second.

One dimensional wave: math

Disturbance must be a function of


position and time:

x, t f x, t
Shape of disturbance at any instant
represents the profile of the wave:

x, t t 0 f x,0 f ( x )
at time = 0

One dimensional wave: math


Special case:
the shape of wave does not change in time
Assume:
- wave moves at speed v
- at time t=0 its profile is f(x)

Gaussian function
f x exp ax 2

At time t the disturbance moved distance vt


along x axis, but its shape is the same:

x , t f x vt
If we have a snapshot of a wave shape at time
zero we can find a full time-dependent
equation of the wave.
What is this?: x, t f x vt
Regardless of shape, variables x and t must
appear as a single unit (xvt)

exp a x vt

Differential wave equation


Fix time in equation for wave (x,t=const)
- get shape of the wave in space
Fix x in equation for wave (x=const,t)
- get dynamics of disturbance at particular coordinate
Variables x and t are independent, but appear as (xvt)
There should be a connection between the shape in space and
dynamics in time.
To relate the space and time dependencies of (x,t) we will consider
partial derivatives - derivatives of the function in respect to only one
coordinate while the other is fixed
This approach was introduced in 18th century (Jean Le Rond dAlembert)

Differential wave equation


Wave: x, t f ( x ' ) , where x ' x vt
Partial derivative at fixed time:
f f x '

x x x ' x
f

x x '

v
t
x

x '
1
x

Partial derivative at fixed x:


f x '

t x ' t

x'
v
t

f
v
t
x '

The rate of change of with t and with x are


equal, to within a multiplicative constant

Differential wave equation


Second partial derivatives:
2 2 f
2
2
x
x '

2
2

f
2
v
2
t
x '2

Differential wave equation


2
1 2
2 2
2
x
v t

homogeneous, linear, secondorder differential equation


any integer
- is in every term
- if is solution, then N is also

This describes undamped system, i.e. it has no sources of damping


(energy loss) as the wave propagates - the shape of wave does not
change as it propagates.
For damped system: add term /t

Harmonic waves

One dimensional waves

(sinusoidal waves: described by sin or cos)


Note: any wave can be synthesized as a superposition of harmonic waves
amplitude
propagation
number

Chose profile at time zero: x, t t 0 x A sin(kx ) f ( x )

Replace x x-vt to get progressive wave traveling right at speed v:

x, t A sin k ( x vt )
This is sinusoidal disturbance both in
time and space (the wave is periodic in
space and time)

Harmonic waves: wavelength

x, t A sin k ( x vt )

Space period (wavelength): distance between two maxima (minima).


If we increase/decrease x by the disturbance should not change:
A sin k ( x vt )

x, t x , t

A sink ( x vt )

A sink ( x vt ) k

sink ( x vt ) sink ( x vt ) k

That is only true if k 2


Propagation number and
wavelength are connected

k 2

k ( x vt )
Can rewrite:
x, t A sin( )
phase

Harmonic waves: temporal shape


Example:
consider temporal behavior of disturbance at x=/2

x, t x / 2 f / 2 vt A sin k ( / 2 vt )
period

t
period

Harmonic waves: period, frequency


Temporal period (): time between appearance of two maxima (minima).
If we increase/decrease t by the disturbance should not change:
A sin k ( x vt )

x, t x, t

A sink x v(t )

A sink x vt kv

sink ( x vt ) sink ( x vt ) kv

Therefore: kv 2
kv 2
k 2
2
v 2

Frequency is number of oscillations


per unit time, since one oscillation
occurs in time :
1
combine

angular temporal frequency: 2 2

wave number (spatial frequency): 1

Harmonic waves: summary


Functional shape:

A sin k ( x vt )

Wave parameters:
- for wave moving right
+ for wave moving left

Alternative forms:
x t
A sin 2

A sin2 x t
A sinkx t

x
A sin 2 t
v

mostly
used

k - propagation number
- wavelength
- period
- frequency
- angular temporal frequency
- wave number

k 2

v
1

2 2

single frequency

These eq-ns describe an infinite monochromatic (monoenergetic) wave.


Real waves are not infinite and can be described by superposition of harmonic
waves. If frequencies of these waves cluster closely to a single frequency (form
narrow band) the wave is called quasimonochromatic

Periodic waves
Waveform produced by saxophone:

profile-elements - when
repeated can reproduce the
whole waveform
Can use the same parameters to describe:
- wavelength - the length of one profile-element
- period - the duration in time for one profile-element
- wave number - number of profile-elements per unit length
- etc

Harmonic waves: example


1. Write an equation of a red light wave that propagates along x
axis (at speed of light c) and has a wavelength 600 nm.
Solution:

A sin k ( x vt )

k 2

2
A sin
( x ct )
7
6 10 m

2. What is the frequency of this light?


Solution:

v
3 108 m/s
v c
14

10
Hz

9
600 10 m

Hz1/s

Harmonic wave: Initial phase


Consider wave x, t A sin kx t
phase: kx t
When written like that it implies that x, t tx00 0
With a single wave we can always chose x axis so that above is true
But in general case x, t x 0 0

t 0

This is equivalent to the shift of


coordinate x by some value a

x, t A sin k x a t
x, t A sin kx t ka
x, t A sin kx t
phase: kx t

- initial phase

Harmonic wave: Phase


A sin kx t

Can use cos():

x, t A sin kx t
x, t A coskx t 2

x
equivalent equations

Special case: = = 180o phase shift

x, t A sin kx t
x, t A sin t kx
x, t A cost kx / 2

Note: sin(kx-t) and sin(t-kx) both describe wave moving right,


but phase-shifted by 180 degrees ().

Harmonic wave: Phase derivatives


x, t A sin kx t
Phase: kx t
Partial derivatives:


t x

rate of change of phase with time is equal


to angular frequency (=2)

k
x t

rate of change of phase with distance is


equal to propagation number

Harmonic wave: Phase velocity


Phase: kx t
What is the speed of motion of a point with constant phase?
from the theory of partial derivatives

t x

x
v

x t
k
t

sign gives direction

phase velocity of a wave


In general case, for any wave we can find the phase velocity:
t x
v
x t
always >0
by definition

Add sign to give direction:


+ in positive x direction
- in negative x direction

Phase (red) vs. group (green) velocity


(to be discussed later)