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Ray

optics

Lecture 2

Chapter 2

Wave Motion

Introduction to waves

Wave equation

Harmonic waves

One dimensional waves

which moves through space transporting energy and momentum.

Example: sound waves

Longitudinal waves:

the medium is displaced in the

direction of motion

Transverse waves:

the medium is displaced in the

direction perpendicular to motion

Note: disturbance advances, not matter

Human wave

second.

position and time:

x, t f x, t

Shape of disturbance at any instant

represents the profile of the wave:

x, t t 0 f x,0 f ( x )

at time = 0

Special case:

the shape of wave does not change in time

Assume:

- wave moves at speed v

- at time t=0 its profile is f(x)

Gaussian function

f x exp ax 2

along x axis, but its shape is the same:

x , t f x vt

If we have a snapshot of a wave shape at time

zero we can find a full time-dependent

equation of the wave.

What is this?: x, t f x vt

Regardless of shape, variables x and t must

appear as a single unit (xvt)

exp a x vt

Fix time in equation for wave (x,t=const)

- get shape of the wave in space

Fix x in equation for wave (x=const,t)

- get dynamics of disturbance at particular coordinate

Variables x and t are independent, but appear as (xvt)

There should be a connection between the shape in space and

dynamics in time.

To relate the space and time dependencies of (x,t) we will consider

partial derivatives - derivatives of the function in respect to only one

coordinate while the other is fixed

This approach was introduced in 18th century (Jean Le Rond dAlembert)

Wave: x, t f ( x ' ) , where x ' x vt

Partial derivative at fixed time:

f f x '

x x x ' x

f

x x '

v

t

x

x '

1

x

f x '

t x ' t

x'

v

t

f

v

t

x '

equal, to within a multiplicative constant

Second partial derivatives:

2 2 f

2

2

x

x '

2

2

f

2

v

2

t

x '2

2

1 2

2 2

2

x

v t

any integer

- is in every term

- if is solution, then N is also

(energy loss) as the wave propagates - the shape of wave does not

change as it propagates.

For damped system: add term /t

Harmonic waves

Note: any wave can be synthesized as a superposition of harmonic waves

amplitude

propagation

number

x, t A sin k ( x vt )

This is sinusoidal disturbance both in

time and space (the wave is periodic in

space and time)

x, t A sin k ( x vt )

If we increase/decrease x by the disturbance should not change:

A sin k ( x vt )

x, t x , t

A sink ( x vt )

A sink ( x vt ) k

sink ( x vt ) sink ( x vt ) k

Propagation number and

wavelength are connected

k 2

k ( x vt )

Can rewrite:

x, t A sin( )

phase

Example:

consider temporal behavior of disturbance at x=/2

x, t x / 2 f / 2 vt A sin k ( / 2 vt )

period

t

period

Temporal period (): time between appearance of two maxima (minima).

If we increase/decrease t by the disturbance should not change:

A sin k ( x vt )

x, t x, t

A sink x v(t )

A sink x vt kv

sink ( x vt ) sink ( x vt ) kv

Therefore: kv 2

kv 2

k 2

2

v 2

per unit time, since one oscillation

occurs in time :

1

combine

Functional shape:

A sin k ( x vt )

Wave parameters:

- for wave moving right

+ for wave moving left

Alternative forms:

x t

A sin 2

A sin2 x t

A sinkx t

x

A sin 2 t

v

mostly

used

k - propagation number

- wavelength

- period

- frequency

- angular temporal frequency

- wave number

k 2

v

1

2 2

single frequency

Real waves are not infinite and can be described by superposition of harmonic

waves. If frequencies of these waves cluster closely to a single frequency (form

narrow band) the wave is called quasimonochromatic

Periodic waves

Waveform produced by saxophone:

profile-elements - when

repeated can reproduce the

whole waveform

Can use the same parameters to describe:

- wavelength - the length of one profile-element

- period - the duration in time for one profile-element

- wave number - number of profile-elements per unit length

- etc

1. Write an equation of a red light wave that propagates along x

axis (at speed of light c) and has a wavelength 600 nm.

Solution:

A sin k ( x vt )

k 2

2

A sin

( x ct )

7

6 10 m

Solution:

v

3 108 m/s

v c

14

10

Hz

9

600 10 m

Hz1/s

Consider wave x, t A sin kx t

phase: kx t

When written like that it implies that x, t tx00 0

With a single wave we can always chose x axis so that above is true

But in general case x, t x 0 0

t 0

coordinate x by some value a

x, t A sin k x a t

x, t A sin kx t ka

x, t A sin kx t

phase: kx t

- initial phase

A sin kx t

x, t A sin kx t

x, t A coskx t 2

x

equivalent equations

x, t A sin kx t

x, t A sin t kx

x, t A cost kx / 2

but phase-shifted by 180 degrees ().

x, t A sin kx t

Phase: kx t

Partial derivatives:

t x

to angular frequency (=2)

k

x t

equal to propagation number

Phase: kx t

What is the speed of motion of a point with constant phase?

from the theory of partial derivatives

t x

x

v

x t

k

t

In general case, for any wave we can find the phase velocity:

t x

v

x t

always >0

by definition

+ in positive x direction

- in negative x direction

(to be discussed later)

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