You are on page 1of 17

52

07

INJECTOR
The C21 labels including injector characteristics are attached in each injector. These C21 values should be input to
ECU by using Scan-i when replacing the ECU or injectors.
Special cautions:
1. Plug the openings of hoses and pipes with the sealing caps.
2. Replace the copper washer in injector with new one.
3. Tighten the injector holder bolts with the specified tightening torque.
4. Be careful not to drop the injector.

Specifications
Length: Injector body 181.35 mm
Injector nozzle 22.155 mm
Nozzle basic: 5 Holes, 150 Cone
Angle, 890 mm3/min (D20DT)
Nozzle basic: 5 Holes, 146 Cone
Angle, 840 mm3/min (D27DT)
Edge filter
Leak off
nipple

Control: PWM type (solenoid injector)


Tightening: By clamping fork
Fuel return: Nipple

C2I label

Nozzle holder body

Bobbin

Control valve

C2I value
Cap nut

Adaptor plate
Nozzle body

Washer
Nozzle needle

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

Valve

In order to guarantee response time and minimum energy consumption:

3. The effort needed to move the valve must be minimal,


which means that the valve must be in hydraulic equilibrium in the closed position.
Spring pressure ensures contact between the valve and
its seat. To lift the valve, it is therefore required to overcome the force being applied by this spring.

Depressurization grooves
Vo l u m e
under
vacuum

Valve
Spill
orifice

Spacer
The spacer is situated underneath the valve support. It
integrates the control chamber and the three calibrated
orifice which allow operation of the injector. These orifices are:

Contact
making seal

Vo l u m e
under
high
pressure

Spacer

INO inlet
irifice

SPO spill
orifice

1. The injector supply orifice (Nozzle Path Orifice: NPO)


2. The control chamber discharge orifice (Spill Orifice:
SPO)
3. The control chamber filling orifice (Inlet Orifice: INO)

NOP nozzle
path orifice

Control
chamber

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

ASSY
FUEL

2. The valve stroke must be as short as possible.

CONTROL

1. The valve must be as light as possible.

SENSOR

Valve

HOUSING

2. When the needle has to close (at the end of injection): the valve closes again so that pressure is re-established
in the control chamber.

EXHAUST I N T A K E

1. When the needle is required to lift (at the start of injection): the valve is opened in order to discharge the control
chamber into the back leak circuit.

LUB

The maximum injection pressures are approximately 1,600 bar. The forces to be overcome in order to lift the needle
of the injector are therefore very large. Because of this, it is impossible to directly control the injector by using an
electromagnetic actuator, unless very high currents are used, which would be incompatible with the reaction times
required for the multiple injections. The injector is therefore indirectly controlled by means of a valve controlling the
pressurizing or discharging of the control chamber located above the needle:

GENERAL

53

COOLING

07

54

07

Principle of Operation

Ff
Ff= =pressure * space

(Ff
rail * S)
(Ff==PPrail

S)

Fo = pressure * space

Fo ==P rail * S)
(Fo

(Fo = Prail

A)

Valve closed

Valve opens

Valve open

Valve closes

Valve closed

Needle
closed

Needle
closed

Needle opens

Needle open

No injection

End of
injection

Needle
closed

No injection

Start of
injection

No injection

Injector at rest
The valve is closed. The control chamber is subject to
the rail pressure.
The pressure force applied by the fuel onto the needle is:
Ff = S * Prail
The needle is closed and hence there is no fluid circulation through the NPO orifice. While static, the nozzle
produces no pressure drop. The cone of the needle is
therefore subject to the rail pressure. The force applied by the fuel to the needle is:
Fo = A * Prail
Since Ff > Fo, the needle is held in the closed position.
There is no injection.

Solenoid valve control


When the solenoid valve is energized, the valve opens.
The fuel contained in the control chamber is expelled
through the discharge orifice known as the Spill Orifice
(SPO).

* S: The area of the flat upper surface of the injectors needle


* A: The area of the needle surface situated above the section
of contact between the needle and its seat
* Ff: The force applied by the fuel onto section S
* Fo:The force applied by the fuel onto section A

As soon as Ff > Fo, the needle remains held against its


seat and there is no injection.
FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

55
GENERAL

07

Start of injection

When the rail pressure is at its highest (1600 bar), this pressure drop exceeds 100 bar. The pressure applied
to the cone of the needle (the injection pressure) is therefore lower than the rail pressure.

End of injection

(Prail -

P) * S

SENSOR

CONTROL

FUEL

When static, this pressure drop is zero. When the pressure in the control chamber becomes higher than the
pressure applied to the needles cone, the injection stops.

COOLING

Prail * S

LUB

As soon as the solenoid valve is de-energized, the valve closes and the control chamber is filled. Since the
needle is open, the thrust section areas situated on either side of the needle is therefore to apply different
pressures to each of these faces. The pressure in the control chamber cannot exceed the rail pressure, so it is
therefore necessary to limit the pressure applied to the needles cone. This pressure limitation is achieved by
the NPO orifice which produces a pressure drop when fuel is passing through it.

HOUSING

The needle lifts and injection begins. As long as the valve is open, the injectors needle remains lifted. When
injection begins, fuel circulation is established to feed the injector. The passage of the fuel through the inlet
orifice of the injector (similar to a nozzle) leads to a pressure drop which depends on the rail pressure.

EXHAUST I N T A K E

Pcontrol < Prail * A/S

ASSY

As soon as Ff < Fo, or in other words:

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

56

07

Injecting Process

Fuel is delivered to the


injector

Delivered fuel is passed


through supply orifice (1)
and control chamber orifice
(2)

The fuel is delivered to the


volume under high pressure
through the spill orifice (3)

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

57

ASSY

GENERAL

07

LUB

EXHAUST I N T A K E

HOUSING

The fuel is delivered to the


control chamber (4) in
spacer

SENSOR

CONTROL

FUEL

COOLING

The fuel begins to get into


the nozzle needle (5)

The nozzle needle is filled


with fuel and close the valve
(6) by increased pressure

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

58

07

The pressure is delivered to


the spill orifice (3)

The pressure is delivered to


the control chamber (7) and
the nozzle needle (8)

The nozzle needle starts to


open and inject the fuel

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

59
GENERAL

07

LUB

EXHAUST I N T A K E

HOUSING

ASSY

The nozzle needle blocks the


control chamber (9)

SENSOR

CONTROL

FUEL

COOLING

The valve opens due to the


pressure decreases (10)

The pressure is delivered to


control chamber (11)

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

60

07

It pushes the nozzle needle


and the control chamber
opens (12)

The nozzle closes (13)

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

07

61
GENERAL

Fuel Pressure
Fuel pressure

ASSY

1. Minimum operating pressure: start injection over 100 bar


2. Maximum operating pressure: 1,600 bar (max. operating pressure in normal conditions)

HOUSING

3. Operating pressure limit: 2,100 bar

1. Pilot Injection

5 mm3

2. Main Injection

85 mm3 (within 200 ~ 1,600 bar)

EXHAUST I N T A K E

Maximum fuel volume at each injector cycle

Main injection

COOLING

LUB

Pilot injection

CONTROL

Opening Delay Definition

(duration between the end of pilot injection and start


of main injection)
4. Opening Delay
: Delayed time from applying operating voltage to start
of injection
5. Adjustment of feedback injection volume: C2I

10%
signal
amplitude

Injection rate
Injector drive pulse

10%
signal
amplitude

Time (

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

SENSOR

3. Small injection separation: min. 200

FUEL

Small injection
separation

62

07

Injector Control
Current
Peak pull
current = 22.0 A
Through pull
current = 7.5 A

Peak hold
current = 22.0
A
Through hold
current = 7.5 A

Time
Pull-in period

Hold period

The control current of the coil takes the following form:


1. The low current allows the Joule effect losses in the ECU and injector to be reduced. The call current is higher
than the hold current because during the hold phase.
2. The air gap between the valve and the coil is reduced and the electromagnetic force to be applied to the valve can
thus be reduced. It is no longer necessary to overcome the valve inertia.
NOTE
Joule Effect: Heat capacity (H) = 0.24 I 2RT

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

07

63

Pilot injection
Before starting main injection, a small amount of fuel is injected to help proper combustion. This injection is for
reducing the engine noise and vibration.

FUEL

Needle lift (k)

<Characteristic Curve of Discharge with


Pilot Injection>

SENSOR

<Characteristic Curve of Discharge without


Pilot Injection>

Angle of crankshaft
CONTROL

Angle of crankshaft

Cylinder pressure (p)

Needle lift (k)

Cylinder pressure (p)

In other words, it makes the pressure increase in combustion chamber during combustion smooth to reduce the
engine noise and vibration (suppressing the surging). Basic values for pilot injection are adjusted according to
the coolant temperature and intake air pressure.

HOUSING

In above two step injection, the fuel injection volume and injection timing is calibrated according to fuel pressure and
fuel temperature.

EXHAUST I N T A K E

2. Main Injection

LUB

1. Pilot Injection

COOLING

Other than conventional diesel engine, common diesel engine use two steps injection as follows:

ASSY

GENERAL

Fuel Injection

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

64

07

Main injection
Actual output from engine is achieved by main injection.
The main injection determines the pilot injection has been occurred, then calculates the injection volume. Accelerator pedal sensor, engine rpm, coolant temperature, intake air temperature and atmospheric pressure are
basic date to calculate the fuel injection volume in main injection.

Pressure

1. Pilot injection
2. Main injection
1a. Ignition pressure with pilot injection
2a. Ignition pressure without pilot injection

Angle of crankshaft
<Characteristic Curve of Combustion Chamber Pressure During Pilot Injection>

Removal and Installation


Preceding Work: Removal of engine cover
1. Disconnect the injector return hose.
NOTICE
Plug the openings with sealing caps.

2. Remove the relevant connector for the injector.

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

07

65
GENERAL

3. Unscrew the bolts and remove the fuel pipes.


D20DT

Installation Notice
40 4 Nm

ASSY

Tightening torque

NOTICE

HOUSING

Replace the fuel pipes with new ones.

EXHAUST I N T A K E

Plug the openings of the common rail with sealing


caps.

COOLING

LUB

D27DT

FUEL

4. Unscrew the injector holder bolts.


Installation Notice

CONTROL

9 1.0 Nm
Tightening torque

190 + 10

SENSOR

Replace the bolts with new ones.


5. Disconnect the injector holder.

6. Remove the injectors with a special tool.


NOTICE
Plug the openings of the injectors with sealing caps.
Pull the dropped washer out from the engine with
a special tool.

7. Install in the reverse order of removal.


NOTICE
Replace the copper washer, holder bolts and fuel
supply pipes with new ones.

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

66

07

Circuit Diagram

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN

67

SENSOR

CONTROL

FUEL

COOLING

LUB

EXHAUST I N T A K E

HOUSING

ASSY

GENERAL

07

CHANGED BY

FUEL SYSTEM

EFFECTIVE DATE

KYRON SM - 2005.09

AFFECTED VIN

68

07

FUEL SYSTEM

CHANGED BY

KYRON SM - 2005.09

EFFECTIVE DATE
AFFECTED VIN