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— 1 – Consultancy Unit GIS/REMOTE SENSING WORKSHOP 2012 Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012
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Consultancy Unit
GIS/REMOTE SENSING WORKSHOP 2012
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012
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1. Introduction • Remote Sensing • Geographic Information System • Geology 2. Why Use RS/GIS 3.
1. Introduction • Remote Sensing • Geographic Information System • Geology 2. Why Use RS/GIS 3.
1. Introduction • Remote Sensing • Geographic Information System • Geology 2. Why Use RS/GIS 3.
1. Introduction • Remote Sensing • Geographic Information System • Geology 2. Why Use RS/GIS 3.

1.

Introduction

Remote Sensing

Geographic Information System

Geology

2.

Why Use RS/GIS

3.

Areas of Application

4.

Photo-geology

5.

Imageries

6.

Surface Mapping

7.

Subsurface Mapping

Is the science and technology by which the characteristics of objects of interest can be identified,
Is the science and technology by which the characteristics of objects of interest can be identified,
Is the science and technology by which the characteristics of objects of interest can be identified,

Is the science and technology by which the characteristics of objects of interest can be identified, measured or analyzed without direct contact.

  • ˜ A device to detect the electromagnetic radiation reflected or emitted from an object is called a "remote sensor" or "sensor". Cameras or scanners are examples of remote sensors.

  • ˜ A vehicle to carry the sensor is called a "platform". Aircraft or satellites are used as platforms

This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying
This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying
This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying

This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying that information

A. Energy Source B. Atmosphere C. Target D. Sensor E. Transmission, reception and processing F. Interpretation/Analysis
A.
Energy Source
B.
Atmosphere
C.
Target
D.
Sensor
E.
Transmission, reception
and processing
F.
Interpretation/Analysis
G.
Application
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 6
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 6
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 6
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 6
˜ Remote Sensing is classified into three types in respect regions to the EM wavelength §
˜ Remote Sensing is classified into three types in respect regions to the EM wavelength §
˜ Remote Sensing is classified into three types in respect regions to the EM wavelength §
  • ˜ Remote Sensing is classified into three

types

in respect

regions

to

the

EM

wavelength

  • § Visible (VIS) and Reflective Infrared (IR) Remote Sensing.

  • § Thermal Infrared (TIR) Remote Sensing.

  • § Microwave Remote Sensing.

Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 8
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 8
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 8
Consultancy Unit GIS/Remote Sensing Workshop 2012 8
˜ An integrated set of computer hardware and software for spatial data: o Collection o Storage
˜ An integrated set of computer hardware and software for spatial data: o Collection o Storage
˜ An integrated set of computer hardware and software for spatial data: o Collection o Storage
  • ˜ An integrated set of computer hardware and software for spatial data:

o Collection o Storage o Structuring o Manipulation o Analysis o Visualisation

  • ˜ Referenced by geographic co-ordinates

  • ˜ X, Y, Z coordinates can be used to represent different parameters, ie longitude, latitude, elevation

  • ˜ Data is stored in raster images (pixels) and vectors using dots, lines and polygons

˜ Means study processes, etc) of the Earth (structure, composition, ˜ Geological mapping entails the representation
˜ Means study processes, etc) of the Earth (structure, composition, ˜ Geological mapping entails the representation
˜ Means study processes, etc) of the Earth (structure, composition, ˜ Geological mapping entails the representation
  • ˜ Means

study

processes, etc)

of the Earth (structure, composition,

  • ˜ Geological mapping entails the representation of geological features on maps

  • ˜ Features can be represented by points, lines and polygons – the so-called GIS primitives

  • ˜ Geological features may include rock units, bedding planes, folds, faults, lineation, foliation, etc

  • ˜ Geologic mapping may be done on the surface and/or the subsurface

˜ Traditional mapping techniques slow and expensive. Earth scientists increasingly searching for cost-effective and rapid techniques
˜ Traditional mapping techniques slow and expensive. Earth scientists increasingly searching for cost-effective and rapid techniques
˜ Traditional mapping techniques slow and expensive. Earth scientists increasingly searching for cost-effective and rapid techniques
  • ˜ Traditional mapping techniques slow and expensive. Earth scientists increasingly searching for cost-effective and rapid techniques of geological data gathering

  • ˜ Remotely sensed imageries show spatial relationships of minerals and structures

  • ˜ Enables continues acquisition of data – temporal resolution

  • ˜ Offers a wide regional coverage (synoptic view) with good spectral resolution

  • ˜ Allows the mapping of inaccessible and difficult terrains, eg the Mambila plateau, Oban massifs, etc

˜ With GIS, maps can now be updated easily, interpreted and compared ˜ There is a
˜ With GIS, maps can now be updated easily, interpreted and compared ˜ There is a
˜ With GIS, maps can now be updated easily, interpreted and compared ˜ There is a
  • ˜ With GIS, maps can now be updated easily, interpreted and compared

  • ˜ There is a faster access to data

  • ˜ Maps can now be combined in layers, eg topography, minerals, hydrology, etc

  • ˜ Geologists can now provide information in map form that is easily interpreted by non-geologists

  • ˜ Provides capability for the integration, visualization, enhancement, and interpretation of multiple geo-data sets in a GIS environment

˜ Mapping of major geologic units ˜ Recognition of certain rock types ˜ Mapping landforms (geomorphology)
˜ Mapping of major geologic units ˜ Recognition of certain rock types ˜ Mapping landforms (geomorphology)
˜ Mapping of major geologic units ˜ Recognition of certain rock types ˜ Mapping landforms (geomorphology)
  • ˜ Mapping of major geologic units

  • ˜ Recognition of certain rock types

  • ˜ Mapping landforms (geomorphology)

  • ˜ Search for surface guides to mineralization

  • ˜ Determination of regional structures

  • ˜ Geo-hazard mapping, eg flood mapping/monitoring

  • ˜ Sedimentation mapping and monitoring

  • ˜ Structural mapping

  • ˜ Planetary mapping

  • ˜ Environmental geology eg oil spill extent and drift

  • ˜ Lithological mapping and geo-botany

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˜ Picking out rock units ˜ Studying geo-morphology (the expression and modes of the origin of
˜ Picking out rock units ˜ Studying geo-morphology (the expression and modes of the origin of
˜ Picking out rock units ˜ Studying geo-morphology (the expression and modes of the origin of
˜ Picking out rock units ˜ Studying geo-morphology (the expression and modes of the origin of
  • ˜ Picking out rock units

  • ˜ Studying geo-morphology (the expression and modes of the origin of landforms)

  • ˜ Determining the structural arrangements of disturbed rock strata (folds and faults) in structural geology.

  • ˜ Evaluation of dynamic changes from natural events, ie, geologic hazards (eg Earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc)

  • ˜ Seeking surface clues (such as alteration and other signs of mineralization) to subsurface deposits of ore bodies, hydrocarbon explorations, and hydro-geologic interests.

  • ˜ Functions as a base on which a geologic map is drawn

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˜ The advantage of large area or synoptic coverage permits the assessment in single scenes (or
˜ The advantage of large area or synoptic coverage permits the assessment in single scenes (or
˜ The advantage of large area or synoptic coverage permits the assessment in single scenes (or
  • ˜ The advantage of large area or synoptic coverage permits the assessment in single scenes (or in mosaics) the geological representation of Earth on a regional basis

  • ˜ The ability to analyze multispectral bands quantitatively in terms of numbers (DNs) allows for processing routines that discern and enhance certain compositional properties of Earth resources

  • ˜ Tool for recognizing faults and other known structural trends, eg lineaments and folds

  • ˜ They reveal regional geologic settings and are easily enhanced by digital processing

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˜ Interpretation of surface geology using RS images allows inference of what may lie below Imaging
˜ Interpretation of surface geology using RS images allows inference of what may lie below Imaging
˜ Interpretation of surface geology using RS images allows inference of what may lie below Imaging
  • ˜ Interpretation of surface geology using RS images allows inference of what may lie below

Imaging Spectrometry

They acquire images in a large number of spectral bands (more than 100)

These bands are narrow and contiguous (adjacent)

Therefore they enable the extraction of reflectance spectra at pixel level

Can be used in surface mineralogy mapping to aid in ore exploration, lithologic mapping, structural mapping, environmental geology eg acid mine drainage and mine waste monitoring, etc

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˜ Geologic phenomena are typically spread over wider scenes, so that the ability to see the
˜ Geologic phenomena are typically spread over wider scenes, so that the ability to see the
˜ Geologic phenomena are typically spread over wider scenes, so that the ability to see the
  • ˜ Geologic phenomena are typically spread over wider scenes, so that the ability to see the “regional picture” is a powerful attribute of space imagery

  • ˜ However, this view

is

somewhat

hindered

by

the

“interference” of soil and vegetative cover

  • ˜ Other methods are required that can probe more deeply into the ground by making use of the physical or chemical properties of the buried rocks

  • ˜ These properties – or changes in properties from one rock type to the another – are detected by carrying out geophysical surveys with sensors such as gravimeters, magnetometers and seismometers

˜ Gamma radiation (electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength) arises from the spontaneous radioactive decay of
˜ Gamma radiation (electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength) arises from the spontaneous radioactive decay of
˜ Gamma radiation (electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength) arises from the spontaneous radioactive decay of
  • ˜ Gamma radiation (electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength) arises from the spontaneous radioactive decay of certain naturally occurring isotopes

  • ˜ They have enough energy to penetrate a few hundred meters of air, hence may be detected conveniently from a low-flying aircraft

  • ˜ Only 3 isotopes lead to the emission of gamma rays when they undergo their radioactive decay: Thorium (Th), Uranium (U) and Potassium (K)

  • ˜ Each rock unit has a relative abundance of Th, U, and K that is distinct from that of adjacent rock units

  • ˜ If the abundance of each of these elements is imaged as a primary colour and combined in a visual display, each rock unit appears with its own characteristic hue

  • ˜ The changes boundaries

in the hue in such an image correspond to geologic

˜ The Earth has a gravity field and a magnetic field. ˜ Rocks that have abnormal
˜ The Earth has a gravity field and a magnetic field. ˜ Rocks that have abnormal
˜ The Earth has a gravity field and a magnetic field. ˜ Rocks that have abnormal
  • ˜ The Earth has a gravity field and a magnetic field.

  • ˜ Rocks that have abnormal density or magnetic properties distort the gravity and magnetic field of the Earth, producing local gravity and magnetic ‘anomalies’.

  • ˜ Careful and detailed mapping of these anomalies over any area reveals patterns that are related to the structure and composition of the bedrock geology

  • ˜ Satellites equipped with GPS gravimeters allow for efficient and cost- effective way to map gravity

  • ˜ Mapping of magnetic anomalies (called aeromagnetic surveys) from low-flying aircraft (equipped with magnetometers) has been widely used in commercial exploration for ore.

  • ˜ Both methods provide “windows” on the geology even when concealed by cover formations such as soil, water, sediments and vegetation

˜ Ground-based electrical sounding and profiling permit mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity ˜ Where the ground
˜ Ground-based electrical sounding and profiling permit mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity ˜ Where the ground
˜ Ground-based electrical sounding and profiling permit mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity ˜ Where the ground
  • ˜ Ground-based electrical sounding and profiling permit mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity

  • ˜ Where the ground is stratified an ‘electrical sounding’ can be interpreted to reveal the layering in terms of the resistivity or conductivity of each layer

  • ˜ Electromagnetic (EM) methods, however, require no electrical contact

with the ground

and can

therefore be operated from an aircraft,

increasing the speed of survey and the uniformity of the data coverage

  • ˜ Current is

induced

to

flow

in

the

ground

by

the

passage

of

an

alternating current through a transmitter coil on board

  • ˜ EM surveys developed largely by the mineral exploration community since many important ore bodies, eg sulphide ores, are highly conductive and stand out clearly from their host rocks through electrical imaging

˜ When RS is used for mapping, knowledge beforehand of particular minerals likely in the sensed
˜ When RS is used for mapping, knowledge beforehand of particular minerals likely in the sensed
˜ When RS is used for mapping, knowledge beforehand of particular minerals likely in the sensed
  • ˜ When RS is used for mapping, knowledge beforehand of particular minerals likely in the sensed scene is beneficial

  • ˜ Thus when an area is being surveyed for specific mineral content (as in exploration for ore minerals), this information aids in identifying the mineral species being mapped

  • ˜ Some imageries used in geologic mapping include:

    • 1. Radar image – penetrates thick clouds and vegetation to about 10cm of the subsurface

    • 2. Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI) – detects both shallow and deep-seated structures such as lineaments

    • 3. Radiometric – airborne survey that detect radiation from sources

    • 4. Landsat TM – multispectral images at 30m resolution that extracts surface lineaments and topographic features