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Fluid Flow

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You are on page 1of 9

Lab # 2 report due next week in lab

Lab # 3 next week

Pre-lab quiz for Lab # 3 due Mon 11:59 pm

R/ R

to create an effective strain for the P3500.

measured effective strain on the P3500? _____________

We also recorded the _____________ from the P3500

tests. The ME department scanner

broke, and Im working on Plan B.

ME 4005

February 27, 2015

to describe pressures

Pressure = Force / Area

P(t=1)

PAbs

PGauge

PVac

psi(g or a) pounds/in2

N/m2 1 N/m2 = 1 pascal

mm Hg column of Hg

inches H2O column of H2O

1 bar = 105 pascal

1 microbar = 1 dyne/cm2

1 dyne = 10-5 N

1 Torr = 1 mm Hg

PAtm

1 atmosphere:

Pressure = force/area

P(t=2)

P=0

________ Pressure = lowest possible is 0 (true vacuum)

1.013x105 pascal

760 mm Hg (Torr)

pressure

29.92 in. Hg

406.7 in. H2O

exceeds the absolute pressure

33.89 ft H2O

3

and vacuum pressures

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is

14.7 _______

P(t=1)

PAbs

Interstellar space

1x10-14 Pa

1x10-7 Pa

P(t=2)

1x10-7 Pa

P=0

Mt. Everest

3x104 Pa

Sea Level

1x105 Pa

1x106 Pa

1x107 Pa

1x108 Pa

3x1011 Pa

3x1016 Pa

PGauge

Pvac

PAtm

absolute (psia), or 65 psi gauge (psig).

A pressure of -10 psi or 10 psi vacuum is 4.7 psia or -10

psig.

Most measurements of pressure in vacuum conditions are

given as absolute pressures.

5

The deeper the point, the higher

the pressure

=specific weight, =g

=fluid density

g=standard acceleration of gravity

Pgauge(h)= h

pressurethe density of air is not constant, though

*accurate up to ~11km

pressure is measured as a column of fluid

Constant diameter, U-shaped tube

Here the pressure is carried by one fluid,

2; the manometer is filled with another

fluid, 1

p2 +

Pabs(h)=P0 + h

BZ

P = P0 1

5.26

at sea level

B=0.0065 K/m

Z=distance above sea level (m)

T=288.16 K

7

1hA

= p1 + 2 h;

A

p1 p2 = h( 1 2 ) ~ h 1 = p

Fluid densities are chosen to provide reasonable

deflection for the pressures being measured

The u-tube can have transient dynamic behavior;

fluid wall friction damps the oscillation

measure low p:

the lower the angle, the

higher the sensitivity

H = L sin

density fluid like mercury

an instrument to level the

gauge: a bubble level

reading for differential expansion between

the Hg and glass

reading the meniscus

well height to account for small volume

changes in well

4006 lab has a least count of

0.1 inches of water.

http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/476/488316/

Instructor_Resources/Chapter_11/FG11_10.JPG

gravity needed for this

instrument

and can be inhaled (mercury spills are dangerous. Contact

Environmental Health & Safety Services (EHSS) for help)

9

10

pressures

transducing pressure to motion

10-9 Pa 0.1 Pa

Elliptical cross-section moves as

the differential pressure changes:

usually gauge pressure

Electrons are attracted to positively

charged grid

Electrons collide with gas molecules

and ionize these molecules

Positive ions are attracted to a

negatively charged collector wire

rotary motionlow dynamic response

frequency

on number of gas molecules present,

i.e. pressure

P=(1/S)(iwire/igrid)

11

12

differentials, another spring element

important, but complicated

pressure difference between the two

ends

has velocity U1 at point 1,

but must stop at point 2

post, or by strain gauges,

or by another fixed flat plate which

transduces x to C (farads)

U4 > U3 from conservation

of mass

________________ equation along the two streamlines

because of high natural frequency of

diaphragm (thin, small mass)

We will use a diaphragm gauge in Lab 3

(cost ~$300)

p1 + U12 / 2 = p2 + U 22 / 2

p3 + U 32 / 2 = p4 + U 42 / 2

Since U2 = 0

13

stagnation pressures

p2 = p1 + U12 / 2

14

probes determines what is measured

If the probe is oriented parallel to a

streamline, the _________ pressure

is measured

p2 = p1 + U12 / 2

So p2 is greater than p1 by

U12/2

________ pressure is measured

p1 = ________pressure

"

record ____________ pressure

p2 = static + dynamic pressure

record __________ pressure

The ________ pressure is the pressure sensed by a fluid particle

as it moves with the same velocity as the local flow

on an airfoil in the wind tunnel (Lab 5)

15

16

impact probes

to flow streamlines

Impact probe

a small hole is aligned with the flow

the flow

Flow

17

18

stagnation pressures

stagnation pressures

4006 next fall (unless they change the lab)

the total pressure and the static pressure

This device is termed a pitotstatic tube

pt = ps +

2( pt ps )

1

U 2 U =

local velocity determination, total flow

determination

19

20

indicate flight variables

airspeed

These tubes use the pitot-static principle to find

the velocity from the difference between static

and stagnation pressures (must have a heater)

Airspeed

Altitude

Vertical velocity

Diaphragm

Ram Air

Pitot

tube

Static

air line

21

22

of change of altitude (vertical airspeed indicator)

________ pressure changes with altitude

Diaphram

Calibrated

leak

Direct static

pressure

Static pressure applied directly to bellows and to a

precision orifice in case

Convention is to calibrate based on local

barometric pressure adjusted to sea level

23

order system,

24

airspeed, vertical speed and altitude

are in charge of cooling the next generation

desktop computer.

Impact port only used for airspeed (static port

needed also)

How is the fan controlled?

What is the flowrate from the fan?

What influence does the heat sink have on fan

performance?

What are the thermal limits on the processor & can the

fan cool the processor effectively?

What are the noise and vibration restrictions on the fan &

can the fan meet these restrictions and cool the chip?

25

26

Modulation (PWM)

1. Questions to answer

How is the fan controlled?

Relationship between power, fan speed, & air flow

Effect of the heat sink on fan performance

modulated resulting in the variation of the

average value of the waveform.

Pressure, fan speed, and flowrate ranges, time response

of pressure sensor, cost, sampling rate, etc.

4. Design experiment to minimize external influences

How to measure flowrate to properly account for heat

sink obstruction?

How can we measure the fanspeed accurately?

6. Are the data realistic?

Compare data with specs from manufacturer

Does the fan obey classical fan laws?

27

the signal is active or high. The duty cycle

here is ~33%.

Note that the period, T, remains the same for

changes in duty cycle (only changes).

28

Ground wire: common ground

Power: +12 V from computer (power supply in lab)

PWM: Control wire for PWM. Input from computer

(myDAQ in our lab).

Output: Speed sensor wire that gives feedback to

the computer (myDAQ in our lab).

We need to examine the output from the fan.

What type of signal does the fan output?

How can we use this signal to determine

fan rotation speed?

Note that the wire colors are,

unfortunately, not identical for all fans

in the lab. See the wiring diagram on

your lab bench.

order to control it

29

30

inches of water (according to the manufacturer)

static pressure after the fan

We can use the specification sheet from the manufacturer to

find the flowrate after measuring the static pressure.

Its always good practice to have a secondary measurement

to verify expected performance.

Can you think of an

easy, albeit crude,

method to estimate

flowrate from the

fan? .

Flow

pressure in the lab (and HW)

31

32

small pressure

There are a variety of pressure measurement schemes

available to examine a wide range of pressures.

Pressure measurements are useful in numerous

applications.

myDAQ) that corresponds to the pressure. The pressure range

of the gauge is 0 to 0.3 inches of water (0 to 7.62 mm), and

the corresponding voltage output range is 1 10 volts. (Note

33

that 0 pressure gives 1 V, not 0 V)

assignment)

Lab # 2 report due next week (hardcopy due at start of lab)

Lab # 2 electronic copy due by end of next week (as .docx)

Pre-lab quiz for Lab # 3 due by 11:59 pm on Monday 3/2

Lab # 3 next week

34

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