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INTRODUCTION TO MANGALYAAN

CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) also called Mangalyaan (Mars-craft from Sanskrit mangala,
Mars and Yana, craft, vehicle), is a spacecraft orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. It was
launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) under the
guidance of the Project Director Mylswamy Annadurai.
The mission is a "technology demonstrator project to develop the technologies for design,
planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission. It carries five instruments
that will help advance knowledge about Mars to achieve its secondary, scientific, objective.
The Mars Orbiter Mission probe lifted-off from the First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space
Centre (Sriharikota Range SHAR), Andhra Pradesh, using a Polar Satellite Launch
Vehicle (PSLV) rocket C25 at 09:08 UTC (14:38 IST) on 5 November 2013. The launch
window was approximately 20 days long and started on 28 October 2013. The MOM probe spent
about a month in geocentric, low-Earth orbit, where it made a series of seven altituderaising orbital maneuvers before trans-Mars injection on 30 November 2013 (UTC). After a 298day transit to Mars, it was successfully inserted into Mars orbit on 24 September 2014.
It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has become the fourth space agency to reach
Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency. It is also the first
nation to reach Mars orbit on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.
The spacecraft is currently being monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre at ISRO
Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in Bangalore with support from Indian
Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennae at Byalalu.

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Fig 1.1 Artists Rendering of MOM orbiting MARS


1.2HISTORY
The MOM mission concept began with a feasibility study in 2010, after the launch of lunar
satellite Chandrayaan-1in 2008. The government of India approved the project on 3 August
2012, after the Indian Space Research Organization completed
125 crore (US$20 million) of
required studies for the orbiter. The total project cost may be 454 crore (US$74 million). The
satellite costs 153 crore (US$25 million) and the rest of the budget has been attributed to ground
stations and relay upgrades that will be used for other ISRO projects.
The space agency had planned the launch on 28 October 2013 but was postponed to 5 November
2013 following the delay in ISRO's spacecraft tracking ships to take up pre-determined positions
due to poor weather in the Pacific Ocean. Launch opportunities for a fuel-saving Hohmann
transfer orbit occur every 26 months, in this case, 2016 and 2018. The Mars Orbiter's on-orbit
mission life is six-to-ten months.
Assembly of the PSLV-XL launch vehicle, designated C25, started on 5 August 2013. The
mounting of the five scientific instruments was completed at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore,
and the finished spacecraft was shipped to Sriharikota on 2 October 2013 for integration to the
PSLV-XL launch vehicle. The satellite's development was fast-tracked and completed in a record
15 months. Despite the US federal government shutdown, NASA reaffirmed on 5 October 2013
it would provide communications and navigation support to the mission. During a meeting in 30
September 2014, NASA and ISRO officials signed an agreement to establish a pathway for
future joint missions to explore Mars. One of the working group's objectives will be to explore
potential coordinated observations and science analysis between MAVEN orbiter and MOM, as
well as other current and future Mars missions.

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The ISRO plans to send a follow-up mission with a greater scientific payload to Mars in the
20172020 timeframe; it would include an orbiter and a stationary lander.
1.3 COST
The total cost of the mission was approximately

450 Crore (US$73 million), making it the

least-expensive Mars mission to date. The low cost of the mission was ascribed by Kopillil
Radhakrishnan, the chairman of ISRO, to various factors, including a "modular approach", a
small number of ground tests and long (18-20 hour) working days for scientists. BBC's Jonathan
Amos mentioned lower worker costs, home-grown technologies, simpler design, and
significantly less complicated payload than NASA's MAVEN. An opinion piece in The
Hindu pointed out that the cost was equivalent to less than a single bus ride for each of India's
population of 1.2 billion.

1.4 OBJECTIVES
The primary objective of the Mars Orbiter Mission is to showcase India's rocket launch systems,
spacecraft-building and operations capabilities. Specifically, the primary objective is to develop
the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary
mission, comprising the following major tasks:

design and realization of a Mars orbiter with a capability to perform Earth-bound


maneuvers, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase
around Mars;

deep-space communication, navigation, mission planning and management;

Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.

The secondary objective is to explore Mars Surface features, morphology, mineralogy and
Martian atmosphere using indigenous scientific instruments.
1.5 SPAECRAFT SPECIFICATION

Mass: The lift-off mass was 1,350 kg (2,980 lb), including 852 kg (1,878 lb) of
propellant.
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Bus: The spacecraft's bus is a modified I-1 K structure and propulsion hardware
configuration, similar to Chandrayaan 1, India's lunar orbiter that operated from 2008 to
2009, with specific improvements and upgrades needed for a Mars mission. The satellite
structure is constructed of aluminium and composite fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP)
sandwich construction.

Power: Electric power is generated by three solar array panels of 1.8 m 1.4 m (5 ft 11 in
4 ft 7 in) each (7.56 m2 (81.4 sq ft) total), for a maximum of 840 watts of power
generation in Mars orbit. Electricity is stored in a 36 Ah Li-ion battery.

Propulsion: A liquid fuel engine with a thrust of 440 Newton is used for orbit raising and
insertion into Mars orbit. The orbiter also has eight 22-newton thrusters for attitude
control. Its propellant mass is 852 kg.

1.6 PAYLOADS
The 15 kg (33 lb) scientific payload consists of five instruments: Mars Orbiter Mission carries
five scientific payloads to observe Martian surface, atmosphere and exosphere extending up to
80,000 km for a detailed understanding of the evolution of that planet, especially the related
geologic and the possible biogenic processes on that interesting planet. These payloads consist of
a camera, two spectrometers, a radiometer and a photometer. Together, they have a weight of
about 15 kg.

Payload

Primary Objective

Weight
(Kg)

Mars Colour Camera (MCC)

Optical imaging

1.27

Thermal Infrared Imaging


Spectrometer(TIS)

Map surface composition and mineralogy

3.2

Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM)

Detection of Methane presence

2.94

Mars Enospheric Neutral


Composition Analyzer (MENCA)

Study of the neutral composition of Martian


upper atmosphere

3.56

Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP)

Study of Escape processes of Martian upper


atmosphere through Deuterium/Hydrogen

1.97

Table 1.1: Different types of payload

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Figure 1.6: Design of MOM Spacecraft showing payloads at their respective mounting locations

1.7 TELEMETRY AND COMMAND


The Indian Space Research Organization Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network performed
navigation and tracking operations for the launch with ground stations at Sriharikota, Port
Blair, Brunei and Biak in Indonesia, and after the spacecraft's apogee became more than
100,000 km, an 18-metre (59 ft) and an 32 m (105 ft) diameter antenna of the Indian Deep Space
Network were utilized. The 18-metre (59 ft) dish-antenna was used for communication with the
craft until April 2014, after which the larger 32 m (105 ft) antenna was used. NASA's Deep
Space Network is providing position data through its three stations located in Canberra,
Madrid and Goldstone on the US West Coast during the non-visible period of ISRO's network.
The South African National Space Agency's (SANSA) Hartebeesthoek (HBK) ground station is
also providing satellite tracking, telemetry and command services.

1.8 COMMUNICATION

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Communications are handled by two 230-watt TWTAs and two coherent transponders. The
antenna array consists of a low-gain antenna, a medium-gain antenna and a high-gain antenna.
The high-gain antenna system is based on a single 2.2-metre (7 ft 3 in) reflector illuminated by a
feed at S-band. It is used to transmit and receive the telemetry, tracking, commanding and data to
and from the Indian Deep Space Network.

Phase

Geocentric
phase

Date

Event

Detail

Result

5 November
2013 09:08 Launch
UTC

Burn time:
15:35 min in 5
stages

Apogee: 23,550 km

6 November
Orbit raising
2013 19:47
maneuvers
UTC

Burn time: 416


sec

Apogee: 23,550 km to
28,825 km

7 November
Orbit raising
2013 20:48
maneuver
UTC

Burn time:
570.6 sec

Apogee: 28,825 km to
40,186 km

8 November
Orbit raising
2013 20:40
maneuvers
UTC

Burn time: 707


sec

Apogee: 40,186 km to
71,636 km

10
November
2013 20:36
UTC

Orbit raising
maneuver

Incomplete burn

Apogee: 71,636 km to
78,276 km

11
November

Orbit raising
maneuvers

Burn time:

Apogee: 78,276 km to

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2013 23:33
UTC

(supplementary)

303.8 sec

118,642 km

15
November
2013 19:57
UTC

Orbit raising
maneuver

Burn time:
243.5 sec

Apogee: 118,642 km to
192,874 km

Burn time:
1328.89 sec

Successful heliocentric
insertion

30
Trans-Mars
November
injection
2013, 19:19
UTC

Heliocentric December
phase
2013
September
2014

En route to Mars The probe travelled a distance of 780,000,000


kilometers (480,000,000 mi) in a parabolic trajectory around the
Sun to reach Mars. This phase plan included up to four trajectory
corrections if needed.

11
December
2013 01:00
UTC

1st Trajectory
correction

Burn time: 40.5


Success
sec

9 April 2014

2nd Trajectory
correction (planned)

Not required

Rescheduled for 11 June


2014

11 June
2014 11:00
UTC

2nd Trajectory
correction

Burn time: 16
sec

Success

August 2014 3rd Trajectory

Not required

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correction (planned)

22
September
2014

24
Aero centic
September
phase
2014

3rd Trajectory
correction

Burn time: 4 sec Success

Mars orbit insertion

Burn time:
1388.67 sec

Success

Table 1.2 Different phases of a satellite mission


1.9 LAUNCH
As originally conceived, ISRO would have launched MOM on its Geosynchronous Satellite
Launch Vehicle (GSLV), but as the GSLV failed twice in 2010 and ISRO was continuing to sort
out issues with its cryogenic engine, it was not advisable to wait for the new batch of rockets as
that would have delayed the MOM project for at least three years. ISRO opted to switch to the
less-powerful Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). There is no way to launch on a direct-toMars trajectory with the PSLV as it does not have the thrust required. Instead, ISRO would first
launch it into Earth orbit and slowly boost toward an interplanetary trajectory using multiple
perigee burns to maximize the Oberth effect.
On 19 October 2013, ISRO chairman K. Radhakrishnan announced that the
launch had to be postponed by a week as a result of a delay of a crucial
telemetry ship reaching Fiji. The launch was rescheduled for 5 November
2013. ISRO's PSLV-XL placed the satellite into Earth orbit at 09:50 UTC on 5
November 2013, with a perigee of 264.1 km (164.1 mi), an apogee of
23,903.6 km (14,853.0 mi), and inclination of 19.20 degrees, with both the
antenna and all three sections of the solar panel arrays deployed. During the
first three orbit raising operations, ISRO progressively tested the spacecraft
systems.

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The orbiter's dry mass is 500 kg (1,100 lb), and it carries 852 kg (1,878 lb) of
fuel and oxidizer. Its main engine, which is a derivative of the system used
on
India's
communications
satellites,
uses
the
bipropellant
combination monomethyl hydrazine and dinitrogen tetroxide to achieve the
thrust necessary for escape velocity from Earth. It was also used to slow
down the probe for Mars orbit insertion and, subsequently, for orbit
corrections.
1.10 OBJECT RAISING MANOEUVRES
Several orbit raising operations were conducted from the Spacecraft Control Centre (SCC) at
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) at Peenya, Bangalore on 6, 7, 8,
10, 12 and 16 November by using the spacecraft's on-board propulsion system and a series of
perigee burns. The aim was to gradually build up the necessary escape velocity (11.2 km/s) to
break free from Earth's gravitational pull while minimizing propellant use. The first three of the
five planned orbit raising maneuvers were completed with nominal results, while the fourth was
only partially successful. However, a subsequent supplementary maneuvers raised the orbit to the
intended altitude aimed for in the original fourth maneuver. A total of six burns were completed
while the spacecraft remained in Earth orbit, with a seventh burn conducted on 30 November to
insert MOM into a heliocentric orbit for its transit to Mars.
The first orbit-raising maneuver was performed on 6 November 2013 at
19:47 UTC when the 440 newtons (99 lbf) liquid engine of the spacecraft was
fired for 416 seconds. With this engine firing, the spacecraft's apogee was
raised to 28,825 km, with a perigee of 252 km. The second orbit raising
maneuver was performed on 7 November 2013 at 20:48 UTC, with a burn
time of 570.6 seconds resulting in an apogee of 40,186 km. The third orbit
raising manoeuvre was performed on 8 November 2013 at 20:40 UTC, with a
burn time of 707 seconds resulting in an apogee of 71,636 km.
The fourth orbit raising maneuvers, starting at 20:36 UTC on 10 November
2013, imparted an incremental velocity of 35 m/s to the spacecraft instead of
the planned 135 m/s as a result of under burn by the motor. Because of this,
the apogee was boosted to 78,276 km instead of the planned
100,000 km. When testing the redundancies built-in for the propulsion
system, the flow to the liquid engine stopped, with consequent reduction in
incremental velocity. During the fourth orbit burn, the primary and redundant
coils of the solenoid flow control valve of 440 newton liquid engine and logic
for thrust augmentation by the attitude control thrusters were being tested.
When both primary and redundant coils were energized together during the
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planned modes, the flow to the liquid engine stopped. Operating both the
coils simultaneously is not possible for future operations, however they could
be operated independently of each other, in sequence. As a result of the
fourth planned burn coming up short, an additional unscheduled burn was
performed on 12 November 2013 that increased the apogee to
118,642 km, a slightly higher altitude than originally intended in the fourth
maneuver. The apogee was raised to 192,874 km on 15 November 2013,
19:57 UTC in the final orbit raising maneuver.

Figure 1.8: Orbit Trajectory Diagram (not to scale)

1.11 TRANS MARS INJECTION


On 30 November 2013 at 19:19 UTC, a 23-minute engine firing initiated
the transfer of MOM away from Earth orbit and on heliocentric trajectory
toward Mars. The probe travelled a distance of 780,000,000 kilometers
(480,000,000 mi) to reach Mars.

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1.12 TRAJECTORY CORRECTION MANEUVERS


Four trajectory corrections were originally planned, but only three were carried out. The first
trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) was carried out on 11 December 2013, 01:00 UTC, by
firing the 22 newtons (4.9 lbf) thrusters for a duration of 40.5 seconds. As observed in April
2014, MOM is following the designed trajectory so closely that the trajectory correction
maneuver planned in April 2014 was not required. The second trajectory correction maneuver
was performed on 11 June 2014, at 16:30 hrs IST by firing the spacecraft's 22 newton thrusters
for a duration of 16 seconds. The third planned trajectory correction maneuver was postponed,
due to the orbiter's trajectory closely matching the planned trajectory. The third trajectory
correction was also a deceleration test 3.9 seconds long on 22 September 2014.

1.13 MARS ORBIT INSERTION


The plan was for an insertion into Mars orbit on 24 September
2014, approximately 2 days after the arrival of NASA's MAVEN orbiter. The
440N liquid apogee motor was successfully test fired at 09:00 UTC (14:30
IST) on 22 September for 3.968 seconds, about 41 hours before actual orbit
insertion.
On 24 September 2014, at IST 04:17:32 satellite communication changed
over to the medium gain antenna. At IST 06:56:32 forward rotation started
and locked the position to fire, at IST 07:14:32 an attitude control maneuver
took place with the help of thrusters after eclipse started at IST 07:12:19 and
LAM (Liquid Apogee Motor) started burning at IST 07:17:32 and ended at IST
07:41:46. After that reverse maneuver took place, the spacecraft
successfully entered Martian orbit

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Fig 1.9: Simulated view of MARS Orbiter along with Mars, Earth, Mercury and sun on 3rd
October 2014 at 17:00 UTC. The MARS Orbiter Mission satellite is an altitude of about 1300
miles from Mars

ISRO (INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION)

CHAPTER 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION

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The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, /sro/; Hindi:


Bhratya Antariks ha Anusandhn Sangat han) is the primaryspace agency of India. ISRO
is among the largest government space agencies in the world. Its primary objective is to
advance space technology and use its applications for national benefit.
Established in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space
Research (INCOSPAR). Headquartered in Bangalore, ISRO is under the administrative control
of the Department of Space of the Government of India.
ISRO built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April
in 1975. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch
vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch
Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite
Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have
launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites. Satellite
navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO
successfully used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.
On 22 October 2008, ISRO sent its first mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1. On 5 November
2013, ISRO launched its Mars Orbiter Mission, which successfully entered the Mars orbit on 24
September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its maiden attempt, and ISRO
the first Asian space agency to reach Mars orbit.[6] Future plans include development of GSLV
Mk III (for launch of heavier satellites), development of a reusable launch vehicle, human
spaceflight, further lunar exploration, interplanetary probes, a satellite to study the Sun, etc.
Over the years, ISRO has also conducted a variety of operations for both Indian and foreign
clients. ISRO has several field installations as assets, and cooperates with the international
community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreements. In June 2014, it launched
five foreign satellites by the PSLV. There are plans for the development and launch of a satellite
which will be collectively used by the eight SAARC nations.

2.2 LAUNCH VEHICLE FLEET


During the 1960s and 1970s, India initiated its own launch vehicle programme owing to
geopolitical and economic considerations. In the 1960s1970s, the country successfully
developed a sounding rockets programme, and by the 1980s, research had yielded the Satellite
Launch Vehicle-3 and the more advanced Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV),
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complete with operational supporting infrastructure. ISRO further applied its energies to the
advancement of launch vehicle technology resulting in the creation of PSLV and GSLV
technologies.
2.3 SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (SLV)
The Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation SLV or SLV-3 was a 4-stage
solid-propellant light launcher. It was intended to reach a height of 500 km and carry a payload
of 40 kg.[18] Its first launch took place in 1979 with 2 more in each subsequent year, and the
final launch in 1983. Only two of its four test flights were successful.

2.3.1 AUGMENTED SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (ASLV)


The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable
launch system developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites
into Sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially
viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small satellites into geostationary transfer
orbit (GTO). The reliability and versatility of the PSLV is proven by the fact that it has launched
70 satellites / spacecraft ( 30 Indian and 40 Foreign Satellites) into a variety of orbits so far. In
April 2008, it successfully launched 10 satellites at once, breaking a world record held by Russia.
On 30 June 2014, the PSLV flew its 25th consecutive successful launch mission, delivering a
payload of five foreign satellites into orbit. Its only failure in 26 flights was its maiden voyage in
September 1993, providing the rocket with a 96 percent success rate.

2.3.2 GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)


The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation GSLV, is an
expendable launch system developed to enable India to launch its INSAT-type satellites into
geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets. At present, it is ISRO's
heaviest satellite launch vehicle and is capable of putting a total payload of up to 5 tons to Low
Earth Orbit. The vehicle is built by India with the cryogenic engine purchased from Russia while
the ISRO develops its own engine programme.
In a setback for ISRO, the attempt to launch the GSLV, GSLV-F07 carrying GSAT-5P, failed on
25 December 2010. The initial evaluation implies that loss of control for the strap-on boosters
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caused the rocket to veer from its intended flight path, forcing a programmed detonation. Sixtyfour seconds into the first stage of flight, the rocket began to break up due to the acute angle of
attack. The body housing the 3rd stage, the cryogenic stage, incurred structural damage, forcing
the range safety team to initiate a programmed detonation of the rocket.
On 5 January 2014, GSLV-D5 successfully launched GSAT-14 into intended orbit. This also
marked first successful flight using indigenous cryogenic engine, making India sixth country in
the world to have this technology.
2.3.3 GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE MARK-III
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III is a launch vehicle currently under
development by the Indian Space Research Organization. It is intended to launch heavy satellites
into geostationary orbit, and will allow India to become less dependent on foreign rockets for
heavy lifting. The rocket, though the technological successor to the GSLV, however is not
derived from its predecessor.
A GSLV III is planned to launch on a suborbital test flight in the third quarter of 2014/15. This
suborbital test flight will demonstrate the performance of the GSLV Mk.3 in the atmosphere.
This launch has been delayed from May, June, July and August of 2014.

2.4 EARTH OBSERVATION AND SATELLITE


India's first satellite, the Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975
from Kapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3Mlaunch vehicle. This was followed by the Rohini series of
experimental satellites which were built and launched indigenously. At present, ISRO operates a
large number of earth observation satellites.

2.4.1 THE INSAT SERIES


INSAT (Indian National Satellite System) is a series of multipurpose geostationary satellites
launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search-andrescue needs of India. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic communication
system in the Asia-Pacific Region. It is a joint venture of the Department of Space, Department
of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department, All India Radio and Doordarshan.
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The overall coordination and management of INSAT system rests with the Secretary-level
INSAT Coordination Committee

2.4.2 THE IRS SERIES


Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of earth observation satellites, built, launched
and maintained by ISRO. The IRS series provides remote sensing services to the country. The
Indian Remote Sensing Satellite system is the largest constellation of remote sensing satellites
for civilian use in operation today in the world. All the satellites are placed in polar Sunsynchronous orbit and provide data in a variety of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to
enable several programmes to be undertaken relevant to national development. The initial
versions are composed of the 1 (A,B, C, D) nomenclature. The later versions are named based on
their area of application including OceanSat, CartoSat, Resource

2.4.3 RADAR IMAGING SATELLITES


ISRO currently operates two Radar Imaging Satellites. RISAT-1 was launched from Sriharikota
Spaceport on 26 April 2012 on board a PSLV.RISAT-1 carries a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar
(SAR) payload, operating in a multi-polarisation and multi-resolution mode and can provide
images with coarse, fine and high spatial resolutions. India also operates RISAT-2 which was
launched in 2009 and acquired from Israel at a cost $110 million

1.4.4 OTHER SATELLITES


ISRO has also launched a set of experimental geostationary satellites known as
the GSAT series. Kalpana-1, ISRO's first dedicated meteorological satellite, was launched by
the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on 12 September 2002.[33] The satellite was originally known
as MetSat-1. In February 2003 it was renamed to Kalpana-1 by the Indian Prime Minister Atal
Bihari Vajpayee in memory of Kalpana Chawla a NASA astronaut of Indian origin who
perished in Space Shuttle Columbia.

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Figure 2.1 Saral satellite model

ISRO has also successfully launched the Indo-French satellite SARAL on 25 February 2013,
12:31 UTC. SARAL (or "Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa") is a cooperative altimetry
technology mission. It is being used for monitoring the oceans surface and sea-levels. AltiKa will
measure ocean surface topography with an accuracy of 8 mm, against 2.5 cm on average using
current-generation altimeters, and with a spatial resolution of 2 km.
In June 2014, ISRO launched French Earth Observation Satellite SPOT-7 (mass 714 kg) along
with Singapore's first nano satellite VELOX-I, Canada's satellite CAN-X5, Germany's satellite
AISAT, via the PSLV-C23 launch vehicle. It was ISRO's 4th commercial launch

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ATMOSPHERE OF MARS
CHAPTER 3

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The atmosphere of Mars is, like that of Venus, composed mostly
of carbon dioxide though far thinner. There has been renewed
interest in its composition since the detection of traces
of methane that may indicate life but may also be produced by
a geochemical process, volcanic or hydrothermal activity.

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Figure 3.1: MARS this atmosphere, visible on the horizon in this loworbit image
The atmospheric pressure on the Martian surface averages
600 pascals (0.087 psi), about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level
pressure of 101.3 kilopascals (14.69 psi) and only 0.0065% that
of Venus's 9.2 mega pascals (1,330 psi). It ranges from a low of 30
pascals (0.0044 psi) on Olympus Mons's peak to over 1,155 pascals
(0.1675 psi) in the depths of Hellas Planitia. This pressure is well
below the Armstrong limit for the unprotected human body. Mars's
atmospheric mass of 25 teratonnes compares to Earth's 5148 tera
tonnes with a scale height of about 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) versus
Earth's 7 kilometers (4.3 mi).
The Martian atmosphere consists of approximately 96% carbon
dioxide,
2.1% argon,
1.9% nitrogen,
and
traces
of
free oxygen, carbon monoxide, water and methane, among other
gases, for a mean molar mass of 43.34 g/mol. The atmosphere is
quite dusty, giving the Martian sky a light brown or orange-red color
when seen from the surface; data from the Mars Exploration
Rovers indicate that suspended dust particles within the
atmosphere are roughly 1.5 micro-meters across.

3.2 STRUCTURE
Pressure comparison
Where

Pressure

Olympus Mons summit

0.03 kilopascals (0.0044 psi)

Mars average

0.6 kilopascals (0.087 psi)

Hellas Planitia bottom

1.16 kilopascals (0.168 psi)

Armstrong limit

6.25 kilopascals (0.906 psi)

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Mount Everest summit

33.7 kilopascals (4.89 psi)

Earth sea level

101.3 kilopascals (14.69 psi)

Mars's atmosphere is composed of the following layers:


Lower atmosphere: A warm region affected by heat from
airborne dust and from the ground.
Middle atmosphere: The region in which Mars's jet stream flows
Upper atmosphere, or thermosphere: A region with very high
temperatures, caused by heating from the Sun. Atmospheric gases
start to separate from each other at these altitudes, rather than
forming the even mix found in the lower atmospheric layers.
Exosphere: Typically stated to start at 200 km (120 mi) and higher,
this region is where the last wisps of atmosphere merge into the
vacuum of space. There is no distinct boundary where the
atmosphere ends; it just tapers away. There is also a complicated
ionosphere, and a seasonal ozone layer over the south pole.
Observations and measurement from Earth
In 1864, William Rutter Dawes observed "that the ruddy tint of the
planet does not arise from any peculiarity of its atmosphere seems
to be fully proved by the fact that the redness is always deepest
near the centre, where the atmosphere is thinnest." Spectroscopic
observations in the 1860s and 1870s led many to think the
atmosphere of Mars is similar to Earth's. In 1894, though, spectral
analysis and other qualitative observations by William Wallace
Campbell suggested Mars resembles the Moon, which has no
appreciable atmosphere, in many respects. In 1926, photographic
observations
by William
Hammond
Wright at
the Lick
Observatory allowed Donald Howard Menzel to discover quantitative
evidence of Mars's atmosphere.

3.2 COMPOSITION
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The composition of the abundant gases which are present on the


mars are shown in the figure 3.2

Figure 3.2: Planet MARS most abundant gases

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PAYLOAD

CHAPTER 4

4.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD


The 15 kg (33 lb) scientific payload consists of five instruments:
Atmospheric studies:

Lyman-Alpha Photometer (LAP) a photometer that measures the relative abundance


of deuterium andhydrogen from Lyman-alpha emissions in the upper atmosphere.
Measuring the deuterium/hydrogen ratio will allow an estimation of the amount of water
loss to outer space.
Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) will measure methane in the atmosphere of Mars, if
any, and map its sources.

Particle environment studies:

Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) is a quadrupole mass


analyser capable of analysing the neutral composition of particles in the exosphere.

Surface imaging studies:

Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS) will measure the temperature and
emissivity of the Martian surface, allowing for the mapping of surface composition and
mineralogy of Mars.
Mars Colour Camera (MCC) will provide images in the visual spectrum, providing
context for the other instruments

4.2 EXPLANATION OF VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS IN MARS ORBITER:


4.2.1 MARS COLOUR CAMERA (MCC)
Mangalyaan carries a camera payload that acquires color images of planet Mars. MCC covers a
spectral range of 400 to 700 nanometers the visible spectrum. This tri-color Mars color camera
gives images & information about the surface features and composition of Martian surface. They
are useful to monitor the dynamic events and weather of Mars. MCC will also be used for
probing the two satellites of Mars-Phobos & Deimos. It also provides the context information for
other science payloads

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Figure 4.1: Mars color camera on-board Mangalyaan

4.2.1.1 COMPONENTS OF MCC


Multi element lens assembly
Pixel array detector with RBG Bayer filter

4.2.1.2 MULTI-ELEMENT LENS


Multi element lenses are used when a singlet lens cannot fulfill the needed optical function due
to aberration or wave front distortion, or when more complex optical transformation is required

Figure 4.2: Multi element lens in flow chart diagram


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4.2.1.3 PIXEL ARRAY DETECTOR WITH BAYER FILTER


The PAD detector is a 2-dimensional imager capable of storing subsequent frames in less than
0.5 microsecond. It will be used for time resolved experiments where speed is a critical factor.

Figure 4.3.1: Color filter array 3D view


A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square
grid of photo sensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip
digital image sensors used in digital cameras, camcorders, and scanners to create a color image.
The filter pattern is 50% green, 25% red and 25% blue.

Figure 4.3.2: Working of CFA


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4.2.1.4 SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES

To image the surface feature of Mars (mountains, valleys, sedimentary features, various
volcanic features).
The geological setting of the area of interest around methane source would be mapped.
Expected results from the MOM sensor would be co-analyzed with MCC for determining the
nature of source.
To study Martian polar ice caps and its seasonal variations.
Mapping dynamic events like dust storms and dust devils.
To image the natural satellite of Mars (Phobos) and other asteroids encountering the orbit.
MOM has uniqueness in terms of its highly elliptical orbit. Earth orbit imaging experiments
using MCChas yielded good quality images and it is expected that MCC will return very good
quality images from Mars as well.
On November 19, 2013, from a 70,000 kilometers above Earth, the Mars Orbiter Mission took
this photo of the Indian subcontinent.

Figure 4.4: Indias First mars Mission

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4.2.2 METHANE SENSOR FOR MARS


Methane is an organic molecule present in gaseous form in the Earths atmosphere. More than
90% of Methane on our home planet is produced by living organisms. The recent detection of
plumes of Methane in the northern hemisphere of Mars is of great interest because of its potential
biological origin.

Figure 4.5: Methane sensor for MARS


Methane sensor for Mars is one of the scientific instruments of the payload on MOM spacecraft,
MSM payload weighing 2.94 kg is designed to measure amount of Methane of the order of parts
per billion (ppbs) in martian atmosphere. MSM is a differential radiometer (radiometer is a
device used to measure temperature of cosmic background) based on Fabry Perot Etalon (FPE)
filters. MSM maps the source and sinks of Methane by scanning the full Martian disc from
apogee position of Mars Orbiter.
4.2.2.1 DIFFERENTIAL MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

Figure 4.6: Differential microwave radiometer


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4.2.2.2 SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS


By correlating the temporal and spatial variation of methane with other geophysical parameters,
it may be possible to find out more about the processes, biotic or abiotic which determine the
dynamics of Methane cycle within the Martian atmosphere and ultimately solve some of the
interesting things about the existence of life forms in Mars.

Figure 4.7: Methane variation in MARS

4.2.2.3SENSORCONFIGURATION
Fabry-perot Etalon sensor consists of two channels - Methane channel, reference channel. Foreoptics collects radiance from the sense and focuses it onto a field-Stop. Diverging beam from the
field stop is collimated and then divided into two parts by a beam filter. One part of the beam
transmits through FPE filter of methane channel whereas the other part transmits through FPE
filter of reference channel and then focused onto respective focal planes. In GaAS photo divider
are used as photo detectors. In GaAs or indium gallium arsenide is an alloy of gallium arsenide
and indium arsenide. As gallium and indium belong to Group III of the Periodic Table, and
arsenic and phosphorous belong to Group V, these binary materials and their alloys are all III-V
compound semiconductors (In GaAS Photo detectors are sensitive to wavelength over a wide
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spectral range and are available as image sensors, and has applications in optoelectronic
technology.)

Figure 4.8: Geological maps of MARS

4.2.2.3.1 FABRY-PEROT ETALON SENSOR OPTICAL CONFIGURATION


An FPE filter transmit optical radiation at regular intervals of frequency. FPE filter used in methane
channel and reference channels are exactly similar. But FPE filter of reference channel is tilted by about 1
degree with respect to the optical axis so that its transmission peaks are slightly shifted. Transmission
bands of first Etalon exactly coincide with the absorption lines of methane where as transmission peaks
of reference Etalon are positioned in between the gaseous absorption lines where absorption is nil.

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Figure 4.8.1: Functioning of fabry-perot etalon sensor

Figure 4.8.2: Working of FPE filter


TECHNIQUE USED TO DETERMINE CONCENTRATION OF METHANE:
Radiance measured in methane channel varies with Methane concentration in the atmosphere
where as that of reference level is insensitive to it. So, the differential signal gives a Measure of
methane in the atmosphere. Based on this technique, Methane concentration on Martian
atmosphere is determined.

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4.2.2.4:IN GAAS PHOTO DETECTOR

Figure 4.9: In GAAS Photo detector


4.2.2.5CONCLUSION
The previous rover missions to Mars reported that the Red Planets atmosphere contained
Methane and that its concentrations depend on seasonal fluctuations. NASAs rover has come up
empty-handed in its search for Methane in the atmosphere of Mars, during 8 months of data
collection, the rover detected average Methane concentrations of 0.18 parts per billion. The
researches say that, because of the measurements margin of error, the finding translates to
essentially no methane in Martian atmosphere.
Let us hope for the success of Mangalyaan , MSM, through which we can ultimately determine
the dynamics of Methane cycle within the Martian atmosphere and ultimately solve some of the
interesting things about the existence of life forms in Mars.
4.2.3 Lyman Alpha Photometer
Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) is one of the scientific instruments of the payload on MOM
spacecraft, which is Indias maiden mission to the red planet, Mars.

Figure 4.10: Lyman alpha photometer


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Why is it called Lyman Alpha Photometer?


When electron in a hydrogen atom makes transition from n=2 energy level to n=1 energy level, a
photon is released and this type of emission of photon is known as Lyman Alpha emission.
Photometer is an instrument for measuring intensity of light. Lyman Alpha Photometer is an
absorption cell photometer.

4.2.3.1 LYMAN ALPHA EMISSION

Figure 4.11: Lyman Alpha emission


What is an absorption cell photometer?
An absorption photometer for measuring the absorption by conducting the light to a thin flow
cell in which a liquid sample flows, wherein the sample light for measuring the absorption peak
is superimposed on the reference light selected from the transparent(window) range of the liquid
and the absorbance is detected by separating the sample light and reference light after
transmission of the flow cell changes in the light path conditions can be mentioned accurately
and therefore high accuracy measurement immune to noises is made possible even using an
elongated flow cell.
4.2.3.1 ABSORPTION CELL PHOTOMETER
LAP measures the relative abundance of deuterium and hydrogen from Lyman-alpha emission in
the Martian upper atmosphere .Measurement of D/H (Deuterium to Hydrogen abundance ratio)
will improve our understanding of the process involved in the loss of water from the planet. The
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estimated D/H ratio will be used in MG CM (Mars General Circulation Model) algorithms to the
present Water escape rate from Martian Exosphere.

Figure 4.12: Absorption cell photometer a) atomic absorption meter b) mass spectrometer
.
4.2.3.2 FUNDAMENTALS AND PRINCIPLE OF WORKING OF THE INSTRUMENT
When the planet has no or little intrinsic magnetic field, direct interaction between the solar wind
and the atmosphere occurs and causes the escape of atmosphere through thermal and nonthermal heating process.

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4.2.3.3 ESCAPE OF ATMOSPHERE ON MARS


In upper atmosphere hydrogen and deuterium atoms are produced by photo dissociation from
H2O and HDO molecules. In the escape of these atoms, the D/H ratio in the atmosphere
increases with time because escaping ratio of H atoms is expected to be greater than that of D
atoms because of the mass difference.

Figure 4.13: Escape of atmosphere on mars

LAP operates on the principle of resonant scattering and absorption at Lyman alpha wavelengths
of H and D i.e., 121.56 nm, 121.53 nm respectively. Thermally dissociated H2 and D2 molecules
in the cells absorb the incoming H2/D2 Lyman alpha incident on the cell.
4.2.3.4 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF LAP
The fore-optics comprising of a plano-convex lens collects the input radiation and transmits to
the gas cells. Gas filled cells of the instrument works as an effective narrow band-pass rejection
filter at hydrogen and deuterium alpha wavelengths. Tungstun filament is used to thermally
dissociate the gases in to atoms. There atoms will resonantly absorb the incoming
hydrogen/deuterium lyman alpha radiation at their wavelengths. A 15 nm bandwidth lyman alpha
filter placed in the front of the detector cuts-off the undesirable radiation that lies outside the
wavelength range of interest and a solar-blind side-on type photo multiplier tube(PMT) is
selected for photon detection.

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Figure 4.14: Photo multiplier tube (pmt)


Range of operation : 3000 km-periapsis-3000 km
Size (cubic meter) : 27.6 X 138 X 100.5
Mass (kg)
: 1.97
Total power (watt) : 8

4.2.4 MARTIAN EXOSPHERIC NEUTRAL COMPOSITION ANALYSER


MENCA payload weighing 3.56 kg, is a quadrupole mass spectrometer based scientific payload
on MOM, capable of measuring relative abundances of neutral constituents, in the mass range of

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Figure 4.15: Martian exospheric neutral composition


MENCA payload weighing 3.56 kg, is a quadrupole mass spectrometer based scientific payload
on MOM, capable of measuring relative abundances of neutral constituents, in the mass range of
1-300 amu .The core objective of MENCA is to study the exospheric neutral density and
composition at altitudes as low as 372 kilometers above the Martian surface. The instrument
examines radial, diurnal and seasonal variations in the Martian exosphere with Mangalyaan in its
operational orbit, MENCA is to estimate the upper limits of the neutral density distribution and
composition around mars. Studying Martian exosphere will provide valuable data on the present
conditions.
4.2.4.1 SCIENCE GOAL
MENCA would provide the first ever institute measurement of the neutral composition and
density distribution of the Martian exosphere (atmosphere ~ 500 km and beyond from the
Martian surface).
Explanation on what happens in a mass spectrometer
Atoms can be deflected by magnetic fields-provided the atom is first turned into an ion.
Electrically charged particles are affected by a magnetic field although electrically neutral ones
arent. The atom is ionized by knocking one or more electrons off to give a positive ion. This is
true for things which you would normally expect to form negative ions(chlorine for example) or
never form ions at all( ex: argon). The ions are accelerated so that they all have the same kinetic
energy. The ions are then deflected by a magnetic field according to their masses. The lighter
they are, the more they are deflected. The more the ion is charged, the more it gets deflected. The
beam of ions passing through the machine is detected electrically.

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. Figure 4.16: Mass spectrometer


4.2.4.2 Principle of working
4.2.4.2.1 Quadrupole rods
It consists of four parallel metal rods with opposing rods being connected electrically. A radio
frequency voltage is applied between the two pairs of rods and a direct current voltage is applied
between the two pairs of rods and a direct current voltage is then superimposed on the RF
voltage. Ions entering the instrument travel down the quadrupole between the rods. Depending
on their mass-to-charge ratio, ions either enter unstable trajectories and collide with the rods or
make it through to the detector (detectors being used in MENCA are channel electron multiplier
(CEM) and Faraday Cup (FC)

Figure 4.17: Quadrupole mass spectrometer


4.2.4.2.2 Electron multiplier
The m/z of ions reaching the detector is a function of the voltage setting which allows the
operator to select an ion with a particular mass-to-charge ratio to measure its abundance or run
the instrument through a range of voltages to scan for a number of species that might be present.
Ions are generated via electron ionization

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Figure 4.18: Electron multiplier

Electrons are produced through thermionic emission. The electrons are accelerated in an electric
field and focused into a beam by a trap electrode. The atoms and molecules enter the ion source
perpendicular to the electron beam. As high-energy electrons pass by and collide with the
particles, large fluctuations in the electric field around the neutral molecules are caused leading
to ionization and fragmentation.

Figure 4.19: Working of electron multiplier

The MENCA instrument operates at an m/z range of 1 to 300 amu (atomic mass unit) with a
mass resolution of 0.5u which allows detailed detection of species. The instrument can operate at
the low partial pressure found in the upper Martian atmosphere.

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4.2.4.3 Additional instruments in MENCA payload


MENCA has an in-built pressure gauge for the measurement of total pressure. The instrument
has a provision to study the time-evolution of a set of selectable species in the mode of
operation. The primary science goal of MENCA is the in-situ measurement of neutral
composition and distribution of the martian upper atmosphere and exosphere and to examine its
radial, diurnal and possibly seasonal variations. The instrument has tele command, telemetry and
data interface to the space craft optical combination of operating parameters which can be chosen
through tele commands will be used to control the instrument at different observation phases so
that best possible scientific data could be derived.
4.2.4.4 Tele-command architecture

Figure 4.20.1: Satellite telemetry structure


4.2.4.5 CONCLUSION
Due to various thermal and non-thermal processes, Mars lost its atmosphere deserting it in its
present form. Study of the composition and the distribution of the Martian Exosphere by
MENCA may help in understanding the thermal escape of the Martian atmosphere.
4.2.5 THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING SPECTROMETER
Mars is a terrestrial planet which means that its bulk composition, like Earth consists of silicates,
is metals and other elements that typically make up rock. Also like Earth, Mars is a differentiated
planet, meaning that it has a central core made up of metallic iron and nickel surrounded by a

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less dense silicate mantle and crust. The planets distinctive red colour is due to oxidation of iron
on its surface.
The knowledge on type of minerals present in any planetary system provides the information on
the conditions under which minerals are formed and process by which they are weathered. Much
of what we know about the elemental composition of Mars comes from orbiting spacecraft and
landers. Most of these spacecraft carry spectrometers (A spectrometer is an instrument used to
measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically
used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials) and other instruments to measure the surface
composition of Mars.

Figure 4.21: Thermal Infrared Spectrometer payload on MOM

Thermal Infrared Spectrometer is one of the five instruments on MOM. TIS weighing 3.2 kg
can measure the thermal emissions and can be operated during both day and night. Temperature
and emissivity are the two basic physical parameters estimated from thermal emission
measurement. The TIS instrument measures thermal emissions from the Martian surface to
deduce surface composition and mineralogy.
4.2.5.1 Science goals of TIS are

To estimate ground temperature of Mars surface.


To map surface composition and mineralogy of Mars.
To detect and study the variability of aerosol/dust in Martian atmosphere.
To detect hot spots, which indicate underground hydrothermal systems.

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TIS will be useful in mapping mineral compositions and surface temperature during perigee
imaging (The perigee is the point in a satellite's elliptical path around the earth at which it is
closest to the center of the earth)and it will be used for assessment of global temperature
distribution and aerosol turbidity in Martian atmosphere during apogee viewing(apogee is the
point in the orbit of an artificial satellite most distant from the center of the earth).

Figure 4.22:3D Image of TIS

The TIS instrument consists of a spectrometer that features a typical infrared grating
spectrometer design. TIS consists of fore-optics, slit, collimating optics, grating and re-imaging
optics. A 120X160 element bolometer array is placed at the focal plane of the re-imaging optics
4.2.5.2 Fiber-port lens positions for collimating

Figure 4.23.1: Sketch of multi wavelength re-imaging optics

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Figure 4.23.2 Working of TIS

In the common design, radiation is directed through an entrance slit (available light energy
depends on light intensity of the source as well as the dimensions of the slit and acceptance
angle( acceptance angle refer to the angle in an optical fiber below which rays are guided rays)
of the system. The slit is placed at the effective focus of a collimator (A collimator is a device
that narrows a beam of particles or waves, which means either to cause the directions of motion
to become more aligned in a specific direction (i.e., collimated or parallel) or to cause the spatial
cross section of the beam to become smaller.) that directs collimated radiation (focused at
infinity) to a diffraction grating that acts as dispersive element. Another mirror refocuses the
dispersed radiation onto a detector.
TIS uses a 120 by 160 element bolometer array detector. A bolometer is a device for measuring
the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperaturedependent electrical resistance
4.2.5.3 Principle of operation of a bolometer
Power P from an incident signal is absorbed by the bolometer and heats up a thermal mass with
heat capacity C and temperature T. The thermal mass is connected to a reservoir of constant
temperature through a link with thermal conductance G. The temperature increase is T = P/G.
The change in temperature is read out with a resistive thermometer. The intrinsic thermal time is
T=c/g.

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Figure 4.24: Bolometer

A bolometer consists of an absorptive element, such as a thin layer of metal, connected to a


thermal reservoir (a body of constant temperature) through a thermal link. The result is that any
radiation impinging on the absorptive element raises its temperature above that of the reservoir
the greater the absorbed power, the higher the temperature. The intrinsic thermal time constant,
which sets the speed of the detector, is equal to the ratio of the heat capacity of the absorptive
element to the thermal conductance between the absorptive element and the reservoir. The
temperature change can be measured directly with an attached resistive thermometer, or the
resistance of the absorptive element itself can be used as a thermometer. Bolometer receivers
measure the energy of incoming photons. TIS is sensitive for an infrared wavelength range of 7
to 13 microns.
4.2.5.3.1 Micro bolometer
The micro bolometer array does not require cooling. Each pixel on the array consists of several
layers including an infrared absorbing material and a reflector underneath it that directs IR
radiation that passes through the absorber back to the absorbing layer to ensure a near complete
absorption. As IR radiation strikes the detector, the absorbing material is heated and changes its
electrical resistance which can be measured via electrodes connected to each micro bolometer
and processed into an intensity read-out in order to create an IR spectrum.

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Figure 4.25: Internal structure of bolometer a) side view b) top view

4.2.5.3.2 IR spectrum image

Figure 4.26: IR Spectrum table

4.2.5.4Conclusion
The analysis of TIS data would involve estimation of brightness temperature from observed and
calibrated thermal radiance data. The retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity spectra for
different regions would be carried out. The estimated emissivity spectra would be compared with
Mars analog mineral emissivity spectra. It is proposed to generate the emissivity spectra between
7-13 microns for minerals reported to exist in Martian surface. In this way, spectral library will
be used to know the mineral composition on Mars using TIS data.

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GROUND SEGMENT

CHAPTER 5

5.1 TELEMETRY AND TELECOMMAND


The Indian Space Research Organisation Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network performed
navigation and tracking operations for the launch with ground stations at Sriharikota, Port Blair,
Brunei and Biak in Indonesia, and after the spacecraft's apogee became more than 100,000 km,
two large 18-metre and 32-metre diameter antennas of the Indian Deep Space Network started to
be utilised. The 18-metre diameter dish-antenna will be used for communication with craft till
April 2014, after which the larger 32-metre antenna will be used.
NASA's Deep Space Network is providing position data through its three stations located in
Canberra, Madrid and Goldstone on the US West Coast during the non-visible period of ISRO's
network. The South African National Space Agency's (SANSA) Hartebeesthoek (HBK) ground
station is also providing satellite tracking, telemetry and command services. Additional
monitoring is provided by technicians on board two leased ships from the Shipping Corporation
of India, SCI Nalanda and SCI Yamuna which are currently in position in the South Pacific near
Fiji.
5.1.1 ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) will be providing
support of the TTC ground stations, communications network between ground stations and
control center, Control center including computers, storage, data network and control room
facilities, and the support of Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC) for the mission. The
ground segment systems form an integrated system supporting both launch phase, and orbital
phase of the mission.

Table 5.1: Ground segment features and specification


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Figure 5.1: Stations for tracking and command for ISRO in the world
5.2 TRACKING AT DIFFERENT PHASES
5.2.1 LAUNCH PHASE

The launch vehicle is tracked during its flight from lift-off till spacecraft separation by a
network of ground stations, which receive the telemetry data from the launch vehicle and
transmit it in real time to the mission computer systems at Sriharikota, where it is
processed.

The ground stations at Sriharikota, Port Blair, Brunei provide continuous tracking of the
PSLV-C25 from liftoff till burnout of third stage of PSLV-C25.

Two ships carrying Ship Borne Terminals (SBT) are being deployed at suitable locations
in the South Pacific Ocean, to support the tracking of the launch vehicle from PS4
ignition till spacecraft separation.

5.2.2 ORBITAL PHASE

After satellite separation from the launch vehicle, the Spacecraft operations are
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controlled from the Spacecraft Control Centre in Bangalore.

To ensure the required coverage for carrying out the mission operations, the ground
stations of ISTRAC at Bangalore, Mauritius, Brunei, and Biak are being supplemented
by Al cantara and Cuiaba TTC stations of INPE.

5.3 MAIN FRAME ELEMENTS


The spacecraft configuration is a balanced mix of design from flight proven IRS/INSAT/
Chandrayaan 1 bus. Improvisations required for Mars mission are in the areas of
communication, power, propulsion (for liquid engine restart after nearly a year) Systems and
Onboard Autonomy.
The 390 liters capacity propellant tanks accommodate a maximum of 852 kg of propellant is
adequate with sufficient margins. A liquid engine of 440 N thrust is used for orbit raising and
Martian Orbit Insertion (MOI).Additional flow lines and valves have been incorporated to
ensure LE 440 N engine restart after 300 days of Martian Transfer Trajectory cruise and to take
care of fuel migration tissues.

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Figure 5.2: Different views of mainframe elements

Eight numbers of 22N thrusters are used for wheel de saturation and attitude control during
maneuvers. Accelerometers are used for measuring the precise incremental velocity and for
precise burn termination. Star sensors and gyros provide the attitude control signals inputs in all
phases of mission.
To compensate for the lower solar irradiance (50% to 35% compared to earth), the mars orbiter
requires three solar panels of size 1800x 1400 mm. Single 36 AH Li-Ion battery is sufficient to
take care of eclipses encountered during earth bound phase and in mars orbit. The
communication dish antenna is fixed to spacecraft body. The antenna diameter is 2.2 m is arrived
after the trade off study between antenna diameter and accommodation within the PSLV-XL
envelope. On-board autonomy functions are incorporated as the large earth-mars distance does
not permit real time interventions. This will also take care of on-board contingencies.

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TABLE 5.2: Salient features of space segment

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