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KNJ 2463 Electronic Engineering and Microprocessor

Answer Tutorial Transistor and Its application


1.
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2. The transistor in figure 1 is replaced with one having DC of 100. Assume
DC=0.98. Determine IB,IE and IC

3. In figure 2, determine the VCE value and find the Q-point coordinate.

4. Determine each of the dc voltage, VB, VC, and VE with respect to ground in
Figure 3.

5. Describe the characteristic of Collector Curves in BJT class A amplifier.

4 regions
i.
Saturation region-when base-emitter junction and base-collector
junction are forward biased because the base is at approximately 0.7V
while emitter and collector are at 0 V.

ii.

Active region- when VCE exceeds 0.7 V the base-collector junction


becomes reverse biased and the transistor goes into the active region.
Once the base-collector junction is reverse biased, IC levels off and
remains essentially constant for a given value of IB as VCE continues
increase.
iii.
Breakdown Region- when VCE reaches a sufficiently high voltage, the
reverse biased base-collector junction goes into breakdown and the
collector current increase rapidly.
iv.
Cutoff region- when IB=0, the transistor is in cutoff region although there
is a very small collector leakage current as indicated.
6. List two type of amplifier in Class A and explain the function of each capacitor
in every circuit with the aid of illustration.
i.
The Common-Emitter(CE) Amplifier

ii.

C1 and C2 are coupling capacitors used to pass the signal into and out of
the amplifier such that the source or load will not affect the dc bias
voltage
C3 is a bypass capacitor that shorts the emitter signal voltage (ac) to
ground without disturbing the dc emitter voltage.
The Common-Collector(CC) Amplifier

C1 capacitors used to pass the signal into the amplifier such that the
source will not affect the dc bias voltage

7. VDD provide a drain-to-source voltage and supplies current from drain to source.
VGG sets a reverse biased voltage between the gate and the source. The areas
surrounding the p material of the gate represent the depletion region created
by the reverse biased. Greater VGG narrow the channel (between white
channels) which increase the resistance of the channel and decrease ID and
vice versa.
8. In depletion mode, the silicon dioxide insulating layer is the dielectric. With a
negative gate voltage, the negative charges on the gate repel conduction
electron from channel, leaving positive ions in their place. The n-channel is
depleted of some of its electrons, so the channel conductivity decrease and ID
also decrease. Compare to enhancement mode, with a positive gate voltage,
more conduction electron are attracted into the channel, thus increasing the
channel conductivity and same goes to ID
9. a. Push pull operation can be defining as class B amplifier using two emitterfollowers. This is a complementary amplifier because one emitter-follower
uses an npn transistor and the other uses pnp which conduct on opposite
alternation of the input cycle.
b. when the dc base voltage is zero, the input signal voltage must exceed VBE
before a transistor conducts. As a result, there is a time interval between the
positive and negative alternations of the input when neither transistor is
conducting. The resulting distortion in the output waveform is called crossover
distortion.
c. When an amplifier is biased such that it operates in the linear region for 180
of the input cycle and is in cutoff for 180, it is a class B amplifier.