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NOSS DEVELOPMENT

GUIDELINE
FLEXIBLE, DYNAMIC & RESPONSIVE
Department of Skills Development (DSD)
MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES (MOHR)

1st Edition, April 2012

Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................................................... iii


LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................................................ iv
LIST OF TABLES & FLOWCHART ................................................................................................................................. iv
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................................ v - vii
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................................... viii - ix
1.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................1 - 3

2.

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY.....................4 - 5

3.

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ..............................6 - 23

4.

NOSS DOCUMENT STRUCTURE ...................................................................................................................24

INDEX 1: TYPES OF TRAINING MODE DELIVERY ................................................................................................25 - 26


INDEX 2: LIST OF CORE ABILITIES ......................................................................................................................27 - 29
INDEX 3: LIST OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS PRESENTING- CRITERIA AND RESPONSIBILITIES ....................................30
INDEX 4: APPRECIATING ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR ...............................................................................................31
INDEX 5: TIPS FOR PROOFREADING .........................................................................................................................32
INDEX 6: LIST OF NOSS GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT MEMBERS ...............................................................................33
INDEX 7: NOSS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FLOWCHART ....................................................................................34 - 35
INDEX 8: SAMPLE OF STANDARD PRACTICE ......................................................................................................36 - 45
INDEX 9: COMPETENCY PROFILE CHART (CPC) ........................................................................................................46
INDEX 10: COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP) .............................................................................................................47 - 48
INDEX 11: CURRICULUM of COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)..........................................................................................47

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
As custodians to the development of NOSS, the NOSS division would like to extend its wish to
thank the EWG Group for efforts they have exerted in working out the designs of the new NOSS
format. For without the initiation, all of this has not been possible.
This division would like to express sincere appreciation to the team of experts invited during
development of this guideline for their contribution, perseverance and support until completion.
Their experience and technical assistance has enhanced the capabilities of the guideline in hopes
of alleviating the methodology and process of NOSS development.
Great deals appreciated go to our beloved families and friends whose kindness and understanding
kept the guideline development team spirited and aspired.
Not forget, great appreciation go to the rest of DSDs staff that help, shared their experience and
concern from time to time during the guideline development. The whole program really brought
us together to appreciate the true value of friendship and respect of each other.
Above all, the authors are very much thankful to the Great God Almighty for carrying them
through all the difficulties in the completion and preparation of this guideline.

iii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: NOSS Development Process Flowchart ......................................................................................6
Figure 2: Identify tasks, levelling and segregate the task according to level ..............................................9
Figure 3: Tasks clustering and naming CU title ........................................................................................10
Figure 4: Sequencing the CUs from top left to bottom right in the CPC .................................................11
Figure 5: Tasks clustered and arrange in form of work activity ...............................................................12
Figure 6: Identifying related skills and related knowledge examples .......................................................17
Figure 7: Identifying attitude, safety and environment example...............................................................18
Figure 8: TEC Validation Session arrangement ........................................................................................23
Figure 11: NOSS Development Process Flowchart .......................................................................... 34 - 35
Figure 12: Sample of a Competency Profile Chart ...................................................................................46

LIST OF TABLES & FLOWCHART


Table 1: Example OS for Front office .........................................................................................................7
Table 2: Example OAS for Front office ......................................................................................................8
Table 3: Developing performance criteria .................................................................................................13
Table 4: Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor...........................................................................14
Table 5: List of Standard Practice Contents ...................................................................................... 15 - 15
Table 6: Minimum total training program hours based on level ...............................................................19
Table 7: References Criteria ......................................................................................................................20
Table 8: Training hour summary ...............................................................................................................22

iv

GLOSSARY
i)

National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS)


National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) is defined as a specification of the
competencies expected of a skilled worker who is gainfully employed in Malaysia for an
occupational area, level and the pathway to achieve the competencies.

ii)

NOSS Document
The NOSS document covers the Standard Practice (SP) and the Standard Content (SC)
a) Standard Practice (SP)
The SP provides an occupational overview for a particular profession.
b) Standard Content (SC)
The SC specifies the competencies of the occupation which consist of the Competency
Profile Chart (CPC) and Competency Profile (CP).
i. CPC consist of core and elective competency units. A Competency Unit (CU)
is an independent meaningful unit of work, which contains several activities
to complete a work cycle.
-

Core Competency Unit


Core Competency unit is classified as generic and essential
competencies required for a particular occupation.

Elective Competency Unit


Elective Competency unit is classified as related additional
competencies and relevant to the particular occupation.

ii. CP consists of the CU descriptor, work activities and performance criteria


-

CU Descriptor
The CU Descriptor describes the synopsis of the competency unit on
the outcomes/ objectives; process; condition/ range; standards;
and/or regulation; and/or manual; pre-requisite; etc in order to carry
out the competency successfully.

Work Activities
Work Activities represents a complete cycle of work activities to
produce an outcome with its starting point and ending point which
result in a product; service; or decision.

Performance Criteria
Performance Criteria tells someone how well he/she must perform the
work activities with regard to process criteria and product criteria that
meet the standard quality requirement.

iii)

NOSS Package
The NOSS Package consists of the NOSS document and Curriculum of Competency Unit
(CoCU).
Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU)
The CoCU is the training curriculum for the competency unit for the purpose of learning
and teaching.

iv)

Developing A Curriculum (DACUM)


DACUM is an acronym for Developing A Curriculum. It is a job analysis approach to
develop an occupational standard using brainstorming techniques conducted by a
facilitator with participation from subject matter experts of the occupational area.

v)

Developing a Standard and Curriculum (DESCUM)


DESCUM is an acronym for Developing a Standard and Curriculum. It is a job analysis
approach to develop a NOSS document and CoCU using brainstorming techniques
conducted by a facilitator with participation from subject matter experts of the
occupational area.

vi)

Occupational Analysis (OA)


OA is a process of identifying the Sector, Sub-sector, Job Area, Job Title and Level of an
occupation based on information gathered from needs analysis or industries input. The
product of this process is an Occupational Structure (OS) and Occupational Definition.

vii)

Occupational Area Analysis (OAA)


OAA is a process of reviewing the OS in identifying the occupation, level and career path
to produce Occupational Area Structure (OAS).

viii)

Job Analysis (JA)


JA is a process of identifying the duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an
occupation.

ix)

Competency
Competency is a combination of necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and safety which
is required for an individual in order to perform a job successfully and efficiently based
on performance criteria set in the Standard.

x)

Competency Profile Analysis (CPA)


CPA is a process of identifying work activities, performance criteria and constructing CU
descriptor statement. The product of this process is the Competency Profile (CP).

xi)

Learning Outcomes
Learning Outcomes describe what students are able to demonstrate in term of
knowledge, skills and values upon completion of a course, a span of several courses, or
a program. Clear articulation of learning outcomes serve as the foundation to evaluate
the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process.

xii)

Related Knowledge
Related Knowledge refer to the information that is needed to perform the Work
Activities (what do you need to know in order to perform the Work Activities?).
vi

xiii)

Related Skills
Related Skills refer to the abilities of workers which are required to complete the Work
Activities (what skills do you need to perform the Work Activities?).

xiv)

Attitude / Safety

Attitude
Attitude involves how people react to certain situation and how they behave in
general. Its should include awareness on environmental issue, government
policies, etc.
Example: being able to get along with other people, being optimistic, concern on
environmental friendly issues

Safety
Safety includes behaviour and safety precautions to be complied with when
performing the CU.
Example: handle hazardous materials with caution, display safety signage during
repairing works

xv)

Assessment Criteria
Assessment criteria describe how well a student has to be able to achieve the learning
outcome.

xvi)

Training hour(s)
Training Hour(s) is the number of hours required for an average person to achieve a
complete learning outcome by guided training (such as lecture, workshop training,
laboratory training or field work), self learning (such as self reading, individual
assignment, report writing) and assessment (theory and practical module assessment).

xvii)

Credit Value(s)
The amount of credit received for completing a specific Competency Unit (CU).
Generally the number of training hours determines its worth in credit hours. It may
include theory, practical, self-learning and assessment contact hours for each CU which
stated in Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU). The ratio for training hours to credit
hours is 10 to 1 (10:1).

xviii)

Tools, Equipment and Materials (TEM)


TEM refers to a listing of tools, equipment and materials required to complete the CU
successfully. It should include materials/supplies, special tools, equipment, safety gear,
safety apparatus, SOP, Companies and Government Policies and regulations, manual,
log and reports, etc.

xix)

Core Abilities
Core abilities are essential workplace skills that cut across occupational and academic
titles. They are broad, common abilities that trainees must possess to be prepared for
the working environment.

vii

ABSTRACT
In the late Eighties Malaysia experienced a rapid economic growth which was propelled by its
expanding manufacturing sector. However, the increased demand for skilled labour was not being
met by the supply side neither in the public nor the private training sector. As a result of this
increasing skill shortage, a report of the Malaysian Cabinet Committee on Training was prepared in
1991. Based on these recommendations, the Malaysian Vocational Training System began to change
dramatically in the early Nineties.
The newly restructured National Vocational Training Council (NVTC) established under the Ministry
of Human Resources was given the task to implement the necessary changes. The role and
achievements of the NVTC put forward for the development of a more flexible and industry-driven
system for vocational training and education and to the approach in the development of National
Occupational Skill Standards (NOSS).
In response to the recommendations of the Cabinet Committee, a task force was established to
revise the NOSS and to further the development of a more flexible Skill Certification System. 71
National Trade Standards (NTS) had been developed from 1971 until 1991. The old format focused
mostly on the knowledge-based approach adopted from Europe.
In 1991 the format and the procedures were changed to reflect the needs of industry and to meet
the requirements of Competency-based Training and Education (CBTE/ CBT). During that time, NVTC
studied the vocational training systems of Japan, Germany, UK, Canada, USA and Australia.
The decision was made to adopt a modular system, suitable for both the private and public training
sector, which followed the trends in the USA and Canada for Competency Based Training and
Education (CBTE). CBTE is concentrated on the end product (What people can do as a result of
training?)
By 1993, the first NOSS was published to the public. At its height of implementation, in 2006, NOSS
an occupational standard was established under Part IV of the National Skills Development Act 2006
[Act 652].
In a strategy to attract broaden industry involvement in the skills development sector and heighten
the development of NOSS, in 2007, outsourcing of NOSS development is established. At 2010 a total
1585 NOSS was published with 1291 NOSS declared active in the NOSS directory.
NVTC has adopted the DACUM, a process of Occupational and Job Analysis as the most appropriate
tool to identify Workplace Competencies. The DACUM process for occupational analysis involves
local men and women with reputations for being the "top performers" at their jobs, working on a

viii

committee assignment with a qualified DACUM facilitator. These workers / professionals are
recruited directly from business and industry and become the panel of experts who collectively and
cooperatively describe the occupation in the language of the occupation.
On contemporary, the Department of Skills Development (DSD, formerly known as NVTC) have
introduced new formatting and development process to NOSS as a bid to attract industry and
training sectors towards a flexible, dynamic and responsive skills accreditation system.
Revolutionising the NOSS philosophy and development, in 2010, the DESCUM approach was
formulated by NOSS Expert Work Group (NOSS EWG) as to complement the new NOSS formatting.
DESCUM is modified from DACUM approach to develop the NOSS and curriculum.
By 2011, the new NOSS structure was introduced and pilot tested. Starting the year 2012, the NOSS
division has taken the overall responsibility in fine-tuning the new NOSS structure in hopes of
perfecting the system of a new flexible, dynamic and responsive skills accreditation system.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

The National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) is a Standard established under Part IV of
the National Skills Development Act 2006 [Act 652]. NOSS is a performance specification
expected of competent personnel who are qualified for the profession in an occupational
area. It reflects the occupational structure for each level and the career path of the
occupation. NOSS consists of competency units identified by industrial experts and
practitioners, comprising of knowledge, skills, attitude, and employability skills required in
the related occupation. The National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) outlines the
minimum requirement of knowledge and ability in terms of competencies to perform roles
and functions of an expert worker according to their profession.
Role of Skill Standards
In general, skill standards are performance specifications that identify the knowledge, skills
and attitude an individual needs to succeed in the workplace. They are critical to improving
workforce skills, raising living standards, and improving the competitiveness of the
Malaysian economy. To be effective, skill standards must reflect the consensus of any skills
professional. Skill standards provide measurable benchmarks of skill and performance
achievement. They answer two critical questions:
What do workers need to know and be able to do to succeed in todays workplace?
How do we know when workers are performing well?
With Skills Standard: Employers know whom to hire or where to focus their limited training dollars;
Employees and new entrants to the workforce know what they need to do to
improve their performance;
Educators/ trainers know how to prepare students for the challenge of the
workplace.
Importance of Skill Standards

In todays workplaces, the only constant is change. Jobs that once were relatively
simple now require high performance work processes and enhanced skills.
Because skill standards reflect changing workplace realities, they are a tool that can
be used by applicants and employees to access greater career opportunities.
Updating skills and knowledge is now a lifelong endeavour, causing many employers
and employees to spend more effort, time, and money on education and training.
Skill standards provide benchmarks for making education and training decisions,
shaping curricula, and directing funds toward highest value education and training
investments.

The Benefits and Uses of Skills Standards


Skill standards benefit all the stakeholders. The success of a skill standards development
project and its usefulness to the community is dependent on the full participation and
commitment of all stakeholders.
These benefits can be used as a benchmark for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative
efforts.
Benefit of Skill Standards to Employers
i. Employers can use skill standards to establish personnel qualification requirements.
ii. Interviews, performance reviews, and productivity can be evaluated and assessed to

a higher degree of accuracy and efficacy.


iii. Employers are also able to identify core competencies and workers abilities to
demonstrate competencies.
iv. By matching competencies to critical work functions and key activities, employers
can significantly improve efficiencies and productivity.
v. Performance-based skill standards also provide a vehicle for varying degrees of job
certainty and the structure for establishing competency-based pay scales.
vi. Align personnel qualification requirements with nationally adopted certificates of
competence (SKM, DKM,DLKM).
vii. Modify employee training.
viii. Simplify measurement of employee training effectiveness.
ix. Assess employee skill levels based on industry standards.
x. Match employee skills to the work needed.
xi. Align personnel qualification requirements with nationally adopted certificates of
competence.
xii. Modify employee training.
xiii. Simplify measurement of employee training effectiveness.
xiv. Assess employee skill levels based on industry standards.
xv. Match employee skills to the work needed.
Benefit of Skill Standards to Workers
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.

Skill standards assist workers in making career choices by providing industry


expectations for success in the workplace.
In addition, standards-based curriculum and assessments provide workers with
credentials that certify work-readiness.
Workers can accurately assess their skills against those required for career
advancement and plan effectively for their career pathways.
They can determine the skills and abilities needed for advancement or transfer
within industries, and determine the continuous learning and training they need to
upgrade their skills.
Achieve clarity regarding what they are expected to learn and how to prepare for
work.

vi. Enter and re-enter the workforce with better control of their choices of high paying

jobs requiring high skills.


vii. Accurately assess business expectations of the skills needed for positions and careers
of their choice.
viii. Improve mobility and portability of their credentials.
ix. Enhance their performance and achievement by self-evaluation against known
standards.
x. Be active contributors to the activities that make their organizations successful.
Benefit of Skill Standards to Trainers
Trainers can identify core competencies and assessments based on the skill
standards and implement them in their curricula.
ii. Students can then be required to demonstrate competency throughout their
coursework.
iii. Academia and industry can build a cohesive relationship through a like-minded
expectation of student competencies and work readiness.
iv. This enhances a trainers ability to teach information consistent with industry's entry
level expectations and needs.
v. Partner with business and labour in developing school-to-work initiatives.
vi. Provide effective, targeted instruction.
vii. Communicate what companies expect of employees.
viii. Develop new and evaluate existing curriculum and programs based on industry
needs.
ix. Develop assessments to evaluate skills, knowledge, and abilities in classrooms and
practical.
x. Develop a common language on workforce preparation with business and labour.
xi. Improve relationships with local businesses, labour unions, other educators and
agencies.
xii. Provide students with relevant career education and counselling.
i.

2.

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY


DESCUM approach allows the facilitator to obtain and solicit information using various
sources and methodology. The facilitator is to understand their part in the NOSS
development.

2.1 Review of the Occupational Area


DESCUM approach starts with an occupational area review on the industry to gain
insight on scope, policy, program and activities in the context of the Malaysian job
market scenario. The scope covered under this activity includes definitions, review of
current Occupational Analysis (OA) structure of the industrial sector/sub sector,
current trend of the industry, skilled workers supply and demand in the local sector
and the industrial competitiveness at international level. In order to complete an
occupational review several information gathering method can be used. Literature
report must be produced for each of the occupational review activity.
2.2 Developing the Content Statement
a.

The Competency Unit (CU) title is formulated according to the following:


Qualifier + Object
A Qualifier, as defined in the Oxford Dictionary, is an adjective or adverb that
describes another word in a particular way.
An Object, as defined in the Oxford Dictionary, is a noun, noun phrase or
pronoun that refers to a person or thing that is affected.
For example: Battery System (Qualifier) + Installation (Object)
CU Title
: Battery System Installation
In order to avoid redundancy of the identified Competency Units (CU), the
availability of the CU is checked in the existing Department of Skills
Development NOSS database.

b.

The CUs Work Activity statement in Competency Profile (CP) and Related
Knowledge, Related Skill in The Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU) is
developed using the composition of Verb, Object and Qualifier. To describe
clearly, the statement must consist of a Verb, Object and Qualifier. Below is
an explanation of each element:

i.

Object
Firstly, the object is determined before the other two (2) attributes. The
object of any job is the main determinant of distinguishing one job to
the other.

ii.

Verb
The Verb is then determined based on the level of competency.
Hence, the final Work Activity statement will be as below:

Prepare standalone photovoltaic + (qualifier)

Analyse standalone photovoltaic + (qualifier)

Evaluate standalone photovoltaic + (qualifier)

Based on the nature of work, the Verbs selected can either be generic
verbs such as Execute, Carry Out or Prepare or more specific verbs by
trade such as Cook, Sew, Install and etc.
iii.

Qualifier
Based on the example above, the statement is not clear as there is no
qualifier for the object, therefore a qualifier must be added to further
clarify it.

3.

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT PROCESS


The NOSS Development activities are shown in Figure 1 below. The details of the flowchart can
be referred in Index 7.
Process

Product

Start
Occupational Analysis (OA)

Occupational Structure
(OS)

Activity B:

Occupational Area Analysis


(OAA)

Occupational Area
Structure (OAS)

Activity C:

Job Analysis (JA) +


Competency Analysis

Competency Profile
Chart (CPC)

Activity D:

Competency Profile
Analysis (CPA)

Competency Profile (CP)

SP Development

Standard Practice (SP)

Activity A:

Activity E:
Activity F:

Proofread and validation

Activity G:

Develop CoCU

Activity H:

Proofread and validation

Activity I:

CoCU

MPKK Approval
End

Figure 1: NOSS Development Process Flowchart

3.1 Activity A Occupational Analysis (OA)


OA is a process of identifying the Industry Sector, Sub-sector, Job Area, Job Title and
Level of an occupation based on information gathered from needs analysis or
industries input. The product of this process is an Occupational Structure (OS) and
Occupational Definition.
Table 1 show the outcome of the OA activity which will be used for review in Standard
development.
Table 1: Example OS for Front office
SECTOR

HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM

SUB SECTOR

FRONT OFFICE

JOB AREA
LEVEL

GUEST
SERVICE

LEVEL 5
LEVEL 4
LEVEL 3

LEVEL 2
LEVEL 1

TELEPHONE
OPERATION

FRONT OFFICE
SERVICE

CONCIERGE

RESERVATION

FRONT OFFICE MANAGER (FOM)


ASSISTANT FRONT OFFICE MANAGER (AFOM)
GUEST
SERVICE
OFFICER
GUEST
SERVICE
ASSISTANT
NO LEVEL

CONCIERGE
MANAGER

RESERVATION
MANAGER

TELEPHONIST
SUPERVISOR

FRONT OFFICE
SUPERVISOR

BELL
SUPERVISOR

RESERVATION
OFFICER

TELEPHONIST

FRONT OFFICE
ASSISTANT

BELL CAPTAIN

RESERVATION
CLERK

NO LEVEL

NO LEVEL

DOORMAN

NO LEVEL

3.2 Activity B Occupational Area Analysis (OAA)


OAA is a process of reviewing the Occupational Area from the OS to produce
Occupational Area Structure (OAS) as illustrated in Table 2. The objective of OAA is to
confirm the area which have similar in the competencys among the Job titles. The
outcome of the OAA is the merging of areas (horizontally) and levels (vertically) within
the sector as shown in Table 2. This eventually results an effect of multi-skilling and
multi-tasking due to sharing of competencies between areas and levels. Nevertheless
in certain cases, due to requirement of industry or regulation, merging is not
necessarily required.
The following are example frequently ask questions that should be confirmed during
the OAA session:1. For each job title identified, how the jobs can be clustered within the job area?
2. Determine the scope and parameter of each job area competencies.
During OAA, job functions from related job title are being clustered base on the
following factors;1. Current industry needs
2. Regulatory/ statutory body
3. Industry recognition
4. Relevancy between job area
5. Employability opportunity
Table 2: Example OAS for Front office
SECTOR

HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM

SUB SECTOR

FRONT OFFICE

JOB AREA
LEVEL

GUEST
SERVICE

TELEPHONE
OPERATION

FRONT OFFICE
SERVICE

CONCIERGE

LEVEL 5

GUEST SERVICES MANAGEMENT

LEVEL 4

GUEST SERVICES MANAGEMENT

LEVEL 3

GUEST SERVICES OPERATION

LEVEL 2

NO LEVEL

LEVEL 1

NO LEVEL

RESERVATION

3.3

Activity C - Job Analysis and Competency Analysis Session


Job Analysis (JA) is a process of identifying the duties, tasks, job functions and
responsibilities of an occupation. Then related tasks identified in JA are then being
clustered to form the Competency Units (CU) in Competency Analysis session. A CU
reflects a meaningful unit of work, which contains several activities to complete a work
cycle. The outcome of the session is a list of CUs to make the Competency Profile
Chart (CPC). In normal practice, brainstorming technique among subject matter
experts or practitioners is being applied. The outcome of the brainstorming session is
best written on cards or printed paper and posted on walls to allow the panel
members to have an overall visualisation of the competencies. Ensure exhaustive
analysis of job profile has been done in order to ensure all related tasks are covered.
In this guideline we present the development approach of building the Competency
Profile Chart (CPC) for NOSS area of Beauty and Aesthetics Level 1. Figure 2 shows the
task identified for a beautician to perform tasks in the area of Beauty and Aesthetics.
Stage 1: List all duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation.
CARRY OUT HAND AND NAIL ANALYSIS
CARRY OUT WATER MANICURE
CARRY OUT HOT OIL MANICURE
CARRY OUT FINGER NAILS VARNISHING
VERIFY MANICURE WORKS
CARRY OUT FOOT AND NAIL ANALYSIS
CARRY OUT WATER PEDICURE
CARRY OUT HOT OIL PEDICURE
CARRY OUT TOE NAILS VARNISHING
VERIFY PEDICURE WORKS
Stage 2: Cluster list duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation by
similarity in process flow, complete work cycle, procedures, tools and equipment etc,
according to level of complexity and responsibility as shown in Figure 2.
CARRY OUT
FOOT AND NAIL
ANALYSIS
S
CARRY OUT
t AND NAIL
HAND
ANALYSIS
a

CARRY OUT
WATER
PEDICURE
CARRY OUT
WATER
MANICURE

Legend

CARRY OUT
HOT OIL
PEDICURE
CARRY OUT
HOT OIL
MANICURE

CARRY OUT TOE


NAILS
VARNISHING
CARRY OUT
FINGER NAILS
VARNISHING

Identified related tasks


Not related tasks

Figure 2: Identify tasks, levelling and segregate the task according to level

VERIFY
PEDICURE
WORKS
VERIFY
MANICURE
WORKS

Stage 3: Sequencing of the clustered duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of
an occupation is shown in Figure 3.
CARRY OUT
HAND AND
NAIL
ANALYSIS

CARRY OUT
WATER
MANICURE

L1

CARRY OUT
FINGER
NAILS
VARNISHING

L1

CU title:

CARRY OUT
FOOT AND
NAIL
ANALYSIS

L1

L1

CARRY OUT
WATER
PEDICURE

L1

CARRY OUT
TOE NAILS
VARNISHING

L1

MANICURE & PEDICURE


SERVICES
HT-050-4:2011-C01

Figure 3: Tasks clustering and naming CU title


Stage 4: Determine the CU title as shown in Figure 3. Naming of CU title should reflect
the overall clustered duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities within the
competency unit.
Sort the CU into sequence from most important to less important competency for each
group and level. The sequence the CU based on the following priority:i.

Fundamentals of the CU in relative to other CUs.


Some CUs within the CPC forms the basic competency to be trained. Thus, should
be arranged first before followed up by more increasingly complex CUs. This is in
view to support continuity in training which start from basic competency before
ongoing to the next more advance competency.

ii.

Priority of the CU to job area


CUs which forms the most essential part of the job area is to be arrange first. Of
such without the training of the CU conducted first, the overall training of other
subsequent of CU will hamper overall training objectives. Such example are CUs
which are related to safety issues. This is in view to highlight safety practices first
within the training before proceeding to other CUs.

10

In sequencing the CUs, arrange the CUs from top left to bottom right as illustrated in
Figure 4.

Figure 4: Sequencing the CUs from top left to bottom right in the CPC
Upon completing the list, the CUs are then categorised into core and elective
competency based on industrial needs. A full format of the CPC is shown in Index 9.
CPC consist of core and elective competency units. Below are the definition of Core
and Elective Competency Units:
-

Core Competency Unit


Core Competency unit is classified as generic and essential
competencies required for a particular occupation.

Elective Competency Unit


Elective Competency unit is classified as related additional
competencies and relevant to the particular occupation.

11

3.4

Activity D COMPETENCY PROFILE ANALYSIS


a.

Developing work activities

Work Activities should fulfil the following criteria: Represents a complete cycle of work activities to produce an outcome with its
starting point and ending point. The outcome maybe a product; service; or
decision.
Each work activity is observable and measurable which can be determined by the
performance criterias.
Work activities should follow work process sequence. In certain isolated cases,
functional activities may be applied.
Work activity statement consists of Verb, Object and Qualifier.

CARRY OUT
HAND AND
NAIL ANALYSIS

CARRY OUT
WATER
MANICURE

CARRY OUT
FINGER NAILS
VARNISHING

CARRY OUT
FOOT AND NAIL
ANALYSIS

CARRY OUT
WATER
PEDICURE

CARRY OUT
TOE NAILS
VARNISHING

Figure 5a: Tasks clustered and arrange in form of work activity


END
POINT

START
POINT

1. ANALYZE
CLIENT NAIL
& TOE NAIL
CONDITION

Complete Work Cycle


2. PREPARE
MANICURE
AND
PEDICURE
WORK
AREA

3. EXECUTE
MANICURE
PROCEDURE

4. EXECUTE
PEDICURE
PROCEDURE

5.
PERFOR
M
FINGERNAIL
VARNISH

6.
PERFORM
TOE NAIL
VARNISH

7. CHECK
MANICURE
AND
PEDICURE
ADVERSE
REACTION

8.
RECORD
CLIENT
SERVICE
CARD

Figure 5b: Tasks clustered is refined and reviewed with NOSS development panel experts to create sets
of work activities which are dependent to form a process with start point and end point.

12

b.

Performance Criteria
Characteristic of Performance Criteria: Are explicit parts of objectives
Should be based on specific performance targets
Should be objective (verifiable by outside sources)
Should indicate degrees of accomplishment
Should be agreed to by major actors involved in the programme managers,
supervisor, field personal
Performance Criteria explain how do we know when the work activities are performed
well? The Performance Criteria must reflect the ability of the competency being done in
a measurable or observable method. This is to ensure it can be used for work
performance evaluation.
The Performance Criteria is developed as shown in Table 3:
Table 3: Developing Performance Criteria
Work activities
1. Analyze and interpret prescription

1.1
1.2

1.3
1.4

1.5
2. Collect and interpret data

2.1
2.2

2.3
2.4

13

Performance Criteria
Customer/patient history and current
eyewear are thoroughly reviewed
The prescription is properly and
accurately evaluated relative to
current eyewear and
customer/patient history.
Prescription it reviewed for
completeness.
The prescribing doctor is contacted
to verify accuracy and irregularities as
appropriate.
The limitations defined by the
prescription are properly identified.
Patient/customer record is obtained
in a timely manner.
Third party provider is contacted and
benefits are verified where
appropriate.
Eligible benefits are determined for
vision products and services.
Ophthalmic measurements are
properly interpreted.

c.

Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor


The CU Descriptor describes the synopsis of the competency unit on the outcomes/
objectives; process; condition/ range; standards; and/or regulation; and/or manual;
pre-requisite; etc in order to carry out the competency successfully. The contents CU
Descriptor must be elaborated as follows:
Table 4: Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor

CU Descriptor
Contents
1. CU Title (Extract
from CU title)

CU Descriptor Template

Example

The CU title describes the


competency in [CU Title].

The CU title describes the


competency in Reception Activities
Handling.
He or She is the first person at the
front office to greet, respond and
direct a visitor, client or patient.

2. CU
Definition
(Define
whole
work process of
competency unit)

He or She [CU Definition]

3. Process/
work
activity (Extract
from unit works
activities)

The person who is competent


in this CU shall be able to
[Process/ work activity]

The person who is competent in


this CU shall be able to carry out
guest arrival activities, attend guest
enquiries and needs, carry out bill
settlement activities, carry out
product sales activities, attend
reservation needs, carry out filing
arrangement
and
perform
telephonist function to meet
establishment requirement.

4. Objectives/ goal/
Standards;
and/or
regulation;
and/or manual;

The
outcome
of
this
competency is to [Objectives/
goal] in accordance with
[Standards and/or regulation
and/or manual]

5. CU training prerequisite (If any)

The personnel who are to be


trained for the competency
must have [CU training prerequisite].

The outcome of this competency is


to provide excellent reception
services
to
ensure
guest
satisfaction guaranteed, prompt
action taken in accordance with
companys policy rules and
regulation.

14

3.5

Activity E STANDARD PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT


The Standard Practice (SP) is an essential part before the standard can be run though
the first phase of proofreading and validation. This is because NOSS consist of SP, CPC
and CP to form the complete occupational Standard. The lists of SP content are as
follows:
Table 5: List of Standard Practice Contents
Bil
1

Sub titles
Introduction

Occupational
Structure

Definition
of
competency level

4
5

Malaysian
Skill
Certification
Job competencies

Work conditions

Employment
prospects

Contents
1.1 Occupation overview
1.2 Justification and rational of NOSS development
1.3 Regulatory / statutory body requirements for
employment
1.4 Training programme pre-requisite
2.1 Occupational Structure
2.2 Occupational Area Structure
2.3 NOSS Occupational Area Structure and level
justification
3.1 Competency level as defined by DSD (refer DSD to
update as necessary) (Please refer Index 3 for format
and definition)
4.1 Certification requirements award
5.1 List of core competencies
5.2 List of elective competencies
6.1 Working environment
6.2 Issues related to area of work (such as safety,
environment)
Malaysian market
7.1 Growth of sector/ sub sector/ area/ sub area in
Malaysia
7.2 Employment opportunities in Malaysia
7.3 List of industry sector employers
7.4 Codes, standards and practices in area/ sub area in
Malaysia
International market (optional)
7.5 Growth of sector/ sub sector/ area/ sub area
internationally
7.6 Employment opportunities internationally
7.7 Codes, standards and practices in area/ sub area
15

Bil

Sub titles

Training, industrial
recognition, other
qualification and
advancement

Sources
of
additional
information
Acknowledgement

10
11
12

Literature
References
List of committee
members

Contents
internationally
8.1 Industrial recognition/ professional qualification
8.2 Other prominent qualification recognised (in
Malaysia or international)
8.3 Types of occupation for career advancement
8.4 Related industries
9.1 Local organisation (excluding DSD)
9.2 International organisation
10.1 List of organisation acknowledge
10.2 List of individual acknowledge
11.1 List of books or electronic references (refer
reference section for format of write up)
12.1 List of NOSS development panel expert, program
manager, facilitator and secretariat

Note: Please refer SP example in Index 8.

16

3.6

Activity G - CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT (COCU) DEVELOPMENT


The development of the Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU) will be conducted
based on the information in the CP. CoCU will detail out work activities into Related
Knowledge; Related Skills; Attitude/ Safety/ Environmental; Delivery Mode; Training
Duration; Assessment Criteria; Tools, Equipment and Material (TEM); References; also
related Core Abilities and Social Skills.
During development of CoCU, ensure exhaustive analysis has been done in order to
ensure main elements of Related Knowledge, Applied Skills, Attitude/ Safety/
Environmental are covered.
CoCU will standardise curriculum throughout different training organisations
accredited by DSD. It will further guide the development of Written Instructional
Material (WIM) and Assessment Material.

a.

Identify related skills and related knowledge


Related Knowledge
Related Knowledge refer to the information that is needed to perform the Work
Activities (what do you need to know in order to perform the Work Activities?). Each
related knowledge; there may be more than one related skill as shown in Figure 7, and
vice versa.
Related Skills
Related Skills refer to the abilities of workers which are required to complete the Work
Activities (what skills do you need to perform the Work Activities?).

Related
Knowledge

CU title:
Prepare
Manicure and
Pedicure
Work Area

Related Skill

Determine work
sequence / process
flow
Arrangement of
products tools, and
material for pedicure
and menicure

Position tools,
equipment and
material for easy
accessibility
Keep tools, equipment
and material
hygienically

Figure 6: Identifying related skills and related knowledge examples

17

b.

Develop attitude/ safety


In identifying attitude, safety and environmental, it is advise to look into each related
knowledge and related skill as related to aspects of attitude, safety and environment
which involve in performing the work activities.
Attitude
Attitude involves how people react to certain situation and how they behave in general.
Example: being able to get along with other people, being optimistic, analytical in
analysing reports, concern on environmental friendly issues
Safety
Safety includes behaviour and safety precautions to be complied with when performing
the CU.
Example: handle hazardous materials with caution, display safety signage during
repairing works

Related Skill

Related Knowledge

Atitude/ Safety/
Environmental

Assure client comfort


and modesty during
analysis.

CU title:
Prepare
Manicure and
Pedicure
Work Area

Identify hand, foot


and nail analysis tools
and material (e.g:
magnifier, magnifying
lamp, etc).

Hand, foot and nail


analysis tools and
material

Avoid conducting
services on client and
advise clients to
consult from doctor
upon detection of
infectious diseases.
Ensure implements
are sterilised before
and after use.

Figure 7: Identifying attitude, safety and environment example

c.

Identify training duration


Training hour(s) is the number of hours required for an average person to achieve a
complete learning outcome by guided training (such as lecture, workshop training,
laboratory training or field work), self learning (such as self reading, individual
assignment, report writing) and assessment (theory and practical module assessment).
18

The ratio of training hours varies from 30% to 50% for theory training and 70% to 50%
for practical training respectively. As a guide, the minimum total training program
hours based on level is shown below:Table 6: Minimum total training program hours based on level

d.

No

Level

Minimum Total Training


Program Hours

Level 1

400 - 600

Level 2

400 - 600

Level 3

800 - 1200

Level 4

1000

Level 5

1800

Develop assessment criteria


An assessment criterion is a list of critical elements / range to be assessed in order to
ensure expected competencies achieved. It means to focus on specific expectations of
work activities. It is intended to measure the outcome of the learning process which is
categorised into three (3) learning domains that are defined by Blooms Taxonomy i.e,
Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective Domain. The assessment criterion facilitates the
curriculum delivery strategies and assessment procedures.
The word structure for the assessment criteria is in form of simple past tense. The
simple past is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred in the
past, sometime before the moment of speaking or writing.
Some assessment criteria needs to be add with constructive verb to give emphasize on
the type of criteria.

e.

Determine delivery mode


Training delivery can be in the form of one delivery mode or a combination of delivery
modes. Each type of delivery mode is different for knowledge and skill. The list of
delivery modes is shown in Index 1.

f.

Select core abilities


Core abilities are selected as listed in Index 2. The core abilities are categorised base
on level of competency. Thus, core abilities are assigned to a CU base on the
competency level of the CPC.
19

g.

Identify Tools, Equipment & Materials (TEM)


TEM refers to a listing of tools, equipment and materials required to complete the CU
successfully. It should include materials/supplies, special tools, equipment, safety gear,
safety apparatus, SOP, Companies and Government Policies and regulations, manual,
log and reports, etc.

h.

Determine references
References determined during CoCU development are identified and selected based
on credibility of the source to be used later in training. Such credibility of reference is
based on the following criteria:Table 7: References Criteria
No
1

Reference criteria
Prominent reference for
related industry

1.

2.

3.

Must be available in market

1.

Latest version

2.
3.
1.

List of references are such as:i. Books


ii. Manuals
iii. Journal
iv. Standard Operation Procedure
v. Web site
vi. Audio Visual Materials
vii. Acts and Statutory Regulations

20

Guide
Renown source of reference among
industry practitioners or trainers (ex:
published manufacturers operating
standard)
Established references recognized by
industry regulators or statutory bodies
(ex: publish acts)
Commendable source of reference
mandated to industry from reputable
international industry organisation (ex:
ASME IX, BS )
Available internationally or within
Malaysia market
Available in printed hardcopy or softcopy
Accessible be obtain or purchased
The newest version of the reference in
market.

Writing hardcopy references


American Psychological Association (APA) Format:
Author's last name, first initial. Publication year. Book title Edition Number (Publish
Number). City of Publish: Publisher. ISBN-EAN 13 Number.
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of the
book. City: Publisher.

e.g. Meyer, E., & Smith, L. Z. (1987). The practical tutor. New York: Oxford University
Press.
Example of writing hardcopy references :
1. Brown, R. 1988. Topology: A Geometric Account of General Topology, Homotopy
Types and the Fundamental Groupoid 3 (3). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited.
ISBN-13: 978-3540265627
2. Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad cAli ibn Ahmad ibn Sacid. 1403H/1983. Jamharat
Ansabal-carab. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-CIlmiyyah. ISBN-13: 978-3161484100

Writing electronic references


American Psychological Association (APA) Format:
Author's last name, first initial. Publication date. Topic headline. Book title Edition
Number (Publish Number): Range of reference page. Website address without
underline. [Date accessed: Time accessed].
Example of writing electronic references :
1. Clark, J.K. 1999. Humidity sensor. Journal of Physics
http://www.cit.edu/phys/sensor.html [20 Julai 1999: 20.06pm].

2(2):

9-13

2. Kawasaki, J.L. 1996. Computer administered surveys in extension. Journal of


Extension 33(3): 204-210. http://www.apa.orgljoumals/webref.html [18
November 1999: 09.11am].

21

i.

Training Hour Summary


The training hour summary is enclosed at the final page of the NOSS package. The
format is shown as follows:Table 8: Training hour summary
SECTOR
SUB SECTOR
JOB AREA
JOB LEVEL
CU ID
HT-0504:2011-C01
HT-0504:2011-C02
HT-0504:2011-C03
HT-0504:2011-C04
HT-0504:2011-C05
HT-0504:2011-C06
HT-0504:2011-C07
HT-0504:2011-E01

j.

:
:
:
:

HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM


HOUSEKEEPING
HOUSEKEEPING MANAGEMENT
FOUR (4)
Competency Unit

Training
Hour

HOUSEKEEPING STAFF DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT

120

HOTEL DECO AND AESTHETIC MANAGEMENT

240

HOUSEKEEPING INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

120

HOUSEKEEPING VENDOR ADMINISTRATION

120

HOUSEKEEPING SPECIAL PROJECT ADMINISTRATION

240

HOUSEKEEPING STAFF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION


AND REVIEW

120

HOUSEKEEPING GUEST SERVICES

120

FLORAL ARRANGEMENT

120

Total Training Program Hours

2200

Proofreading
Objective of the proof reading session is:- To ensure technical language errors being sought through and rectified.
- To ensure language errors are rectified.
- To ensure typographical errors are rectified.
- To ensure formatting are rectified.
Tips for proofreading can be referred in Index 5.

22

3.7

Activity F and Activity H STANDARD AND CURRICULUM VALIDATION TO TECHNICAL


EVALUATION COMMITTEE (TEC)
In order to ensure NOSS content meet the industrial requirement, a committee is
formed to validate the drafted NOSS content for endorsement. The committee is
represented by related industrial experts throughout the country. On the other
preference, validation can be extended by circulating the aforesaid NOSS to related
industry nationwide for feedback. Figure 9 illustrates the arrangement for the session.

Projector Screen

Legend
DSD officer
Chairman ( from DSD)
NOSS development panel expert
JPPK or appointed industry experts

Facilitator
Minute taker
Company representative (if any)
Projector

Figure 8: TEC Validation Session arrangement


3.8

Activity I - MPKK APPROVAL


The verified and validated drafted National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) must
be presented to the Majlis Pembangunan Kemahiran Kebangsaan (MPKK) for
approval. The approved document then will become a NOSS for the respective
occupational area.

23

4.

NOSS DOCUMENT STRUCTURE


The NOSS package comprises of:
a)

Occupational Standard
i. Standard Practice (SP);
ii. Standard Content (SC):
Job Profile Chart (JPC);
Competency Profile (CP);

b)

Curriculum - Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU)

c)

Training Hour Summary

24

INDEX 1
TYPES OF TRAINING MODE DELIVERY

Knowledge delivery mode


1 Lecture
In-person lecture to a large group of learners (>10pax) on a
particular topic with limited interaction and practice
2 Group discussion
Instructor introduces a topic for discussion to a small group of
learners. Learner participates by exchanging views on the topic
and report individually or as a group to instructor.
3 E-learning, selfTraining delivered electronically (e.g., computer-based via the
paced
Internet or with CD-ROMs) in which learner sets own learning
pace.
4 E-learning,
Instruction delivered electronically with an instructor or
facilitated
facilitator who sets the pace and/or offers interaction (e.g.,
webcasts or scheduled Internet instruction).
5 Case study or
A specific problem is specified by the course instructor. Students
Problem based
work individually or in teams independent of instructor by over a
learning (PBL)
period of time to develop solutions to the problem in form of a
report.
6 Self-paced
Learner follows a course of study, setting own learning pace
learning, non(e.g., with printed materials such as books or manuals, not via
electronic
the Internet).
7 One-on-one tutorial Instructor provides individual lecture in form of instruction to
one learner on a particular topic with personal guidance.
8 Shop talk
The instructor delivers conversation to a small group of learners
(4-10 pax) about matters on a particular topic with limited
interaction and practice.
9 Seminar
In-person lecture to a large group of learners (>10pax) on a
particular topic with limited interaction but without practice.

25

Skills delivery mode


1 Demonstration
2

Simulation

Project

Scenario based
training (SBT)

On job training
(OJT)

Role play

Coaching

Observation

Mentoring

In-person demonstration on a particular topic with limited


interaction and practice
Training is conducted using a virtual or imitation of a real-life
process, usually via a computer or other technological device, in
order to provide a lifelike experience, with or without guidance of
the instructor.
Learners are given project assignments to practice. They have a
great deal of control of the project they will work on and what
they will do in the project. The project may or may not address a
specific problem.
The instructor creates a real life environment with specific
scenario for the learners to train to achieve specific training
objectives. Uses a highly structured script of real world
experiences. Different scenarios of risk and contingency are
introduced to rationalize decisions and actions.
Employee training at the place of work while he or she is doing the
actual job. Usually a professional trainer (or sometimes an
experienced employee) serves as the course instructor using
hands-on training often supported by formal classroom training.
Role-playing may also refer to role training where people rehearse
situations in preparation for a future performance and to improve
their abilities within a role.
Coaching is helping to identify the skills and capabilities that are
within the learner, and enabling them to use them to the best of
their ability.
The instructor shows to the audience on a particular activity. The
learner is constricted to limited interaction to instructor.
Mentoring is showing people how the people who are really good
at doing something do it.

26

INDEX 2
LIST OF CORE ABILITIES
CORE ABILITY LEVEL 1

ITEM
01

ABILITIES
LOCATE AND PROCESS INFORMATION

01.01

Identify and gather information

01.02

Document information, procedures or processes

01.03

Utilize basic IT applications

02

EXCHANGE/COMMUNICATE INFORMATION

02.01

Interpret and follow manuals, instructions and SOPs

02.02

Follow telephone/ telecommunication procedures

02.03

Communicate clearly

02.04

Prepare brief reports and checklists using standard forms

02.05

Read/interpret flowcharts and pictorial information

03

WORK AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE

03.01

Apply cultural requirements to the workplace

03.02

Demonstrate integrity and apply ethical practices

03.03

Accept responsibility for own work and work area

03.04

Seek and act constructively upon feedback about performance

03.05

Demonstrate safety skills

03.06

Respond appropriately to people and situations

03.07

Resolve interpersonal conflicts

06

WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEM

06.01

Understand systems

06.02

Comply with and follow chain of command

06.03

Identify and highlight problems

06.04

Adapt competencies to new situations / systems

CORE ABILITY LEVEL 2

ITEM
01

ABILITIES
LOCATE AND PROCESS INFORMATION

01.04

Analyze information

01.05

Utilize the internet to locate and gather information

01.06

Utilize word processor to process information

02

EXCHANGE/COMMUNICATE INFORMATION

02.06

Write memos and letters

02.07

Utilize Local Area Network (LAN)/Internet to exchange information

02.08

Prepare pictorial and graphic information

27

ITEM
03
03.08

04

ABILITIES
WORK AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE
Develop and maintain a cooperation within work group

PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK ACTIVITIES

04.01

Organize own work activities

04.02

Set and revise own objectives and goals

04.03

Organize and maintain own workplace

04.04

Apply problem solving strategies

04.05

Demonstrate initiative and flexibility

06

WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEMS

06.05

Analyse technical systems

06.06

Monitor and correct performance of systems

CORE ABILITY LEVEL 3

ITEM
01

ABILITIES
LOCATE AND PROCESS INFORMATION

01.07

Utilize database applications to locate and process information

01.08

Utilize spreadsheets applications to locate and process information

01.09

Utilize business graphic application to process information

01.10

Apply a variety of mathematical techniques

01.11

Apply thinking skills and creativity

02

EXCHANGE/COMMUNICATE INFORMATION

02.09

Prepare flowcharts

02.10

Prepare reports and instructions

02.11

Convey information and ideas to people

03

WORK AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE

03.09

Manage and improve performance of individuals

03.10

Provide consultation and counselling

03.11

Monitor and evaluate performance of human resources

03.12

Provide coaching/on-the job training

03.13

Develop and maintain team harmony and resolve conflicts

03.14

Facilitate and coordinate teams and ideas

03.15

Liase to achieve identified outcomes

03.16

Identify and assess client/customer needs

03.17

Identify staff training needs and facilitate access to training

04

PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK ACTIVITIES

04.06

Allocate work

04.07

Negotiate acceptance and support for objectives and strategies

05
05.01

MANAGE RESORCES
Implement project/work plans

28

ITEM
05.02

06
06.07

ABILITIES
Inspect and monitor work done and/or in progress

WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEM


Develop and maintain networks

CORE ABILITY LEVEL 4

ITEM
04

ABILITIES
PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK ACTIVITIES

04.08

Develop and negotiate staffing plans

04.09

Prepare project/work plans

04.10

Utilize science and technology to achieve goals

05

MANAGE RESOURCES

05.03

Allocate and record usage of financial and physical resources

05.04

Delegate responsibilities and/or authority

05.05

Coordinate contract and tender activities

06

WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEMS

06.08

Identify and analyse effect of technology on the environment

29

INDEX 3
LIST OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS PRESENTING- CRITERIA AND RESPONSIBILITIES

No
1

Presenting
committee
members
Company
representative

Criteria and responsibilities


-

NOSS
development
panel expert

Facilitator

Minute taker

No. Of
person

Ability to represent the NOSS development


company to make management and
operational decision.
The appointed personnel is the person incharge and responsible for managing of the
NOSS project.
The appointed personnel have attended
trough DSDs tender/ project briefing.
The appointed personnel must understand
the needs of developing the NOSS.

If any, 1
person
only

Represents the group of NOSS development


panel experts
A minimum of 5 year experience related in
the job area
Actively plays the main role during NOSS
development session (Activity A to D)
The appointed personnel must understand
the needs of developing the NOSS in order
to justify every detail of the content to the
STEC committee.
Heavily experience within the sector of
industry particularly in the needs of the
NOSS area.

Minimum
2 person

Appointed by NOSS Development Company


during tender submission.
Any amendments to facilitator must be
approved by DSD through submission to the
Director NOSS.
The facilitator is the person in-charge and
responsible for development of the NOSS.

1 person
only

Appointed by NOSS Development Company.


Experience in taking meeting minute

If any, 1
person
only

Note: The list excludes TEC evaluation committee members

30

INDEX 4
APPRECIATING ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR
A facilitator is someone who helps a group of people understand their common objectives and
assists them to plan to achieve them without taking a particular position in the discussion.
Nevertheless, although he or she may not be a subject matter expert, appreciation of the
subject matter is essential.
During NOSS development the role of the facilitator are as follows:a. The facilitator priority is to managing and maintaining a group process. Thus the
facilitator appointed by DSD must ensure that all activities relating to NOSS
development must be in agreement with DSDs policy.
b. The facilitator is to help the group adhere to their ground rules and guidelines that
bound the process they have agreed to use to achieve some end result. In this case he
or she must ensure the contents and format of NOSS are develop according to DSDs
requirement.
c. The facilitator must assist the group in achieving a consensus on any disagreements
that pre-exist or emerge in the meeting so that it has a strong basis for future action.
This is to ensure that the NOSS develop can be widely accepted by the industry and
training centre.
d. The facilitator is to harness group cohesiveness and creativity through uses a variety of
facilitation strategies to assist the group in working their way through the decisionmaking process.
e. The facilitator is to clarify the groups mental model so that the groups perception,
stereotype, prejudice and blind spot which arises due to group thinking is feasibly
filtered and highlighted.
The appointed facilitator must at all time avoid controversial issues such as the following to
ensure proper conduct of NOSS development workshop:a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Racism issues
Sexism issues
Nationalism issues
Classism issues
Religious issues

The list of issues are not only limited to the following but cover areas which are prone to
discrimination resulting in hindrance of group thinking.
Commonly, the facilitator appointed by DSD, will perform the following activities:a)
b)
c)
d)

Facilitation of NOSS development workshop.


Ensure compliance of NOSS to DSDs content and format.
Lead the presenting team during NOSS validation session.
Convey any issues pertaining NOSS development to DSD without delay.

31

INDEX 5
TIPS FOR PROOFREADING

The facilitator is to investigate between the NOSS panel experts whether that the competencies
which have tabled out are common or specific within their job area. Such strategies to
investigate are as follows:1. To identify core competencies, all consensuses from panel NOSS development panel
experts are needed for the CU.
2. To identify elective competencies the voting method can be employed.
Before Proofread Session
1. Be sure to revise the larger aspects of the text. Don't make corrections at the sentence and
word level if the text still needs to work on the focus, organization, and development of the
whole paper, of sections, or of paragraphs.
2. Set the text aside for a while between writing and proofing. Some distance from the text
will help see mistakes more easily.
3. Eliminate unnecessary words before looking for mistakes.
4. Know what to look for (refer Objective of the proof reading session) and make a list of
mistakes you need to watch for.
During Proofread Session
1. Work from a printout, not the computer screen. Some language mistake cannot be found
using computer only.
2. Read out loud. This is especially helpful for spotting run-on sentences. Hear other problems
that may not be detected when reading silently.
3. Use a blank sheet of paper to cover up the lines below the one you're reading. This
technique keeps you from skipping ahead of possible mistakes.
4. Use the search function of the computer (using word processor softwares) to find mistakes
which are likely to make.
5. If tendency to make many mistakes, check separately for each kind of error, moving from
the most to the least important, and following whatever technique works best to identify
the kinds of mistake.
6. But remember that a spelling checker won't catch mistakes with homonyms (e.g., "they're,"
"their," "there") or certain typos (like "he" for "the").

32

INDEX 6
LIST OF NOSS GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT MEMBERS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

EN. MOHD YAZID BIN. MOHD SALLEH


EN. ABDUL HALIM BIN. HASAN
PN. SITI HASMAH BINTI MUSTAPHA
EN. MOHD FAISAL BIN AHMAD
PN. MASHITAH BINTI ABD KADIR
PN. SHARIDA BIN MOHD SHARIF
EN. MOHD KHAIRI BIN NAYAN
TN. HJ. MAHAZRUL B. KAMARRUDIN
TN. HJ. ZAHARUDIN BIN ABDUL LATIF
EN. JAILANI B. ABDULLAH
PN. ROGAYAH BINTI SUPIAN
PN. NORAZURI BT. YUSOF
EN. MOHD AIDIL FITRI BIN AB. RAZAK
EN. YUSNI AMIR BIN DAHLAN
PN. HJH. KHADIJAH BINTI MOHD NOOR
EN. MOHD SHAHROL @ SHUKOR BIN SALLEH
TN. SYED MAHATHIR BIN SYED AZMAN SHAH
EN. AHMAD AZRAN BIN RANAAI
CIK NORASMIZA BT. AZMI
EN. FAIZAL B. ABDUL MAJID
EN. JEFRIZAIN BIN ABDUL RASID
EN. RAGHU A/L THIYAGARAJAN
CIK SALINA BT. YAHYA
TN. HJ. RAZALEE BIN CHE ROS
PN. ZETI AKHTAR BT. MOHAMAD
EN. MOHD LUTFI BIN MOHD DARJAK
EN. MOHD DIN B. ISMAIL
CIK EDAYU BINTI ABIDIN
EN. ABDUL AZIZ B. ABDUL WAHAB
PN. FALIZA BT. FUDZIL

33

INDEX 7
NOSS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FLOWCHART
A
START

REVIEW OS

OCCUPATIONAL
STRUCTURE
(OS)

Activity A
OCCUPATIONAL
ANALYSIS

DEVELOP WORK
ACTIVTIES

DEVELOP
PERFORMANCE
CRITERIA

REVIEW JOB
AREA

REVIEW JOB
LEVEL
OCCUPATIONAL
AREA
STRUCTURE
(OAS)

Activity B
OCCUPATIONAL
AREA ANALYSIS

COMPETENCY
PROFILE

STANDARD
PRACTICE (SP)

IDENTIFY TASK
LEVEL
(OPTIONAL)
SEGREGATE
TASKS
ACCORDING TO
LEVEL

Activity E
STANDARD
PRACTICE
DEVELOPMENT

PROOFREADING

Activity C
JOB ANALYSIS

CLUSTER TASK

DEVELOP CU
DESCRIPTOR

DEVELOP
STANDARD
PRACTICE
COMPONENTS

IDENTIFY TASK
COMPETENCIES

JOB ANALYSIS

Activity D
COMPETENCY
PROFILE ANALYSIS

VALIDATION BY
TECHNICAL
EVALUATION
COMMITTEE
(TEC)

Activity F
STANDARD
VALIDATION

Standard Not
Accpeted

CHECK CU IN
DATABASE

CU
Available

ENDORSE
STANDARD
PICK
COMPETENCY
UNIT

CU Not
Avaliable
CREATE
COMPETENCY
UNIT (CU)

c
SEQUENCE ALL
CU

Standard
Accepted

COMPETENCY
PROFILE
CHART (CPC)

Figure 11a: NOSS Development Process Flowchart

34

IDENTIFY
APPLIED SKILLS

VALIDATION BY
TECHNICAL
EVALUATION
COMMITTEE
(TEC)

IDENTIFY
RELATED
KNOWLEDGE

Curriculum
NOT endorsed
ENDORSE
CURRICULUM

DEVELOP
ATITUDE/
SAFETY/
ENVIRONMENT

Curriculum
endorsed
PRESENT NOSS
FOR MPKK
APPROVAL

IDENTIFY
TRAINING
DURATION

NOSS
APPROVAL

DETERMINE
DELIVERY MODE

END

DEVELOP
ASSESSMENT
CRITERIA

LIST SOCIAL
SKILLS

Activity H
CURRICULUM
VALIDATION

Activity G CoCU
DEVELOPMENT

SELECT
RELATED CORE
ABILITIES

IDENTIFY
TOOLS,
EQUIPMENT &
MATERIAL (TEM)

DETERMINE
REFERENCES

CURRICULUM
OF
COMPETENCY
UNIT (CoCU)

PROOFREADING

Figure 11b: NOSS Development Process Flowchart

35

Activity I MPKK
APPROVAL
B

INDEX 8
SAMPLE OF STANDARD PRACTICE

STANDARD PRACTICE
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) FOR;
FLUX CORE ARC WELDING (FCAW) TECHNOLOGY
LEVEL 3
1. INTRODUCTION
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals (such as steel, aluminium,
brass, stainless steel etc.) or thermoplastics (plastic or polymer), by causing coalescence to form a permanent
bond. The fabrication or sculptural process refers to building metal structures by cutting, bending, and
assembling. They apply heat to metal pieces, melting and fusing them. They may work in a manual mode or in
a semiautomatic mode, using machinery such as a wire feeder to help them perform tasks. In the domain of
welding, arc welding is part of the welding types.
Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an
electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct or
alternating current and consumable or non- consumable electrode. The welding region is usually protected by
some type of shielding gas, vapour, and/ or slag. Flux core arc welding (FCAW), are one of the many process
in arc welding.
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW or FCA) is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process. FCAW requires
a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux and a constant-voltage or, less commonly, a
constant-current welding power supply. An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often the
flux itself is relied upon to generate the necessary protection from the atmosphere. The process is widely used
in construction because of its high welding speed and portability.
A person who is competent in Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) is an individual who is
trained in practising the core businesses of a welder and specializes in joining materials using FCAW process.
This NOSS document shows the structured career path of Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level
3) personnel. It provides structured set of activities that enables a person who aspires to achieve competency
in this particular occupation, ultimately enhancing him or her on a career in the welding industry.
Standard Practice and Standard Content are part of NOSS document. The job areas being develop are based
on the Occupational Area Analysis (OAA). This document covers the competency standard of Flux Core Arc
Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) that is currently gaining priority in the welding industry. This is in
support of the government initiatives for a higher income workforce towards making Malaysia a develop
country

36

Pre-requisite
Based on the workshop findings, it was decided that the minimum requirement for those interested to enrol this
course are as follows:
17 years of age or older.
Good eyesight.
Medically and physically fit to meet strength, endurance and manual dexterity.
Able to read, write and calculate.
These pre-requisite is in line with minimum requirements set by Construction Industry development Board
(CIDB) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). With respect to the regulating bodies, the
role is as follows:
Construction Industry development Board (CIDB)
As welding is an essential aspect of within the construction industry, the Board has taken the functions related
to welding practices performed within the construction industry. Thus, functions of the Board as laid down
under subsection 4 (1) of Act 520 are as follows:
To promote and stimulate the development, improvement and expansion of construction industry;
To advise and make recommendations to the Federal Government and the State Governments on matters
affecting or connected with the construction industry;
To promote, stimulate and undertake research into any matter related to the construction industry;
To promote, stimulate and assist in the export of service related to the construction industry;
To provide consultancy and advisory services with respect to the construction industry;
To promote quality assurance in the construction industry;
To initiate and maintain the construction industry information systems;
To encourage the standardisation and improvement of construction techniques and materials;
To provide, promote, review and coordinate training programmed organized by the public and private
construction training centres for skilled construction workers and construction site supervisors;
To accredit and register contractors and to cancel, suspend or reinstate the registration of any registered
contractor; and
To accredit and certify skilled construction workers and construction site supervisors.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH)
As a regulatory body which enforces the occupational safety and health aspects in Malaysia, the role of DOSH
is to study and review the policies and legislations of occupational safety and health. This in particular is
enforced in risky occupations such as in the welding industry. The following acts are been enforced by DOSH:
a) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and its regulations.
b) Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and its regulations.
c) Part of Petroleum Act 1984 (Safety Measures) and its regulations.
d) Guidelines, codes of practice, circulars.
With regard to the respective acts, DOSH comes forward to apply the functions as to:
Conduct research and technical analysis on issues related to occupational safety and health at the
workplace.
Carry out promotional and publicity programs to employers, workers and the general public to foster and
increase the awareness of occupational safety and health.
Carry out promotional and publicity programs to employers, workers and the general public to foster and
increase the awareness of occupational safety and health.
Become a secretariat for the National Council regarding occupational safety and health

37

2. OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel comes under the sub-sector Welding
Technology and Fabrication. Fig. 1.0 and Fig. 1.1 show the structured career path and area of Flux Core Arc
Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel.
The panel of experts had concluded that this job area starts from tier 3 due to requirement of significant range
of varied work activities and performed in a variety of context, most of which are complex and non-routine.
There is considerable responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is often required. Where
by some of the activities are non-routine and required individual responsibility and autonomy. To produce
skilled workers in this industry, the needs for structured training are essential.

SECTOR

MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

SUB SECTOR

WELDING TECHNOLOGY AND FABRICATION

JOB AREA

ARC WELDING

JOB SUB
AREA

SHIELDED METAL
ARC WELDING
(SMAW)

JOB LEVEL

GAS TUNGSTEN
ARC WELDING
(GTAW)

FLUX CORED ARC


WELDING (FCAW)

WELDING ENGINEER

L5
L4
L3

GAS METAL ARC


WELDING
(GMAW)

SMAW WELDER

WELDING COORDINATOR
GMAW WELDER
GTAW WELDER

L2

N/A

L1

N/A

FCAW WELDER

Fig. 1.0 Occupational Structure for Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel

SECTOR

MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

SUB SECTOR

WELDING TECHNOLOGY AND FABRICATION

JOB AREA
JOB SUB
AREA
JOB LEVEL

SHIELDED METAL
ARC WELDING
(SMAW)

FLUX CORED ARC


WELDING (FCAW)

WELDING ENGINEERING

L5
L4
L3

ARC WELDING
GAS METAL ARC
GAS TUNGSTEN
WELDING
ARC WELDING
(GMAW)
(GTAW)

WELDING COORDINATION
SMAW
TECHNOLOGY

GMAW
TECHNOLOGY

GTAW
TECHNOLOGY

L2

N/A

L1

N/A

FCAW
TECHNOLOGY

Fig. 1.1 Occupational Area Structure for Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel

38

3. DEFINITION OF COMPETENCY LEVEL


The NOSS is developed for various occupational areas. Candidates for certification must be assessed and trained
at certain levels to substantiate competencies. Below is a guideline of each NOSS Level as defined by the
Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia.
Malaysia Skills Certificate Level 1:

Competent in performing a range of varied


work activities, most of which are routine and predictable.

Malaysia Skills Certificate Level 2:

Competent in performing a significant range


of varied work activities, performed in a variety of contexts. Some
of the activities are non-routine and required individual
responsibility and autonomy.

Malaysia Skills Certificate Level 3:

Competent in performing a broad range of


varied work activities, performed in a variety of contexts, most of
which are complex and non-routine. There is considerable
responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is
often required.

Malaysia Skills Diploma Level 4:

Competent in performing a broad range of


complex technical or professional work activities performed in a
wide variety of contexts and with a substantial degree of personal
responsibility and autonomy. Responsibility for the work of others
and allocation of resources is often present.

Malaysia Skills Advanced Diploma


Level 5:

Competent in applying a significant range of


fundamental principles and complex techniques across a wide and
often unpredictable variety of contexts. Very substantial personal
autonomy and often significant responsibility for the work of others
and for the allocation of substantial resources features strongly, as
do personal accountabilities for analysis, diagnosis, planning,
execution and evaluation.

39

4.

MALAYSIAN SKILL CERTIFICATION


Candidates after being assessed and verified and fulfilled Malaysian Skill Certification requirements shall be
awarded with Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) for Level 3.

5. JOB COMPETENCIES
The Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel are competent in performing the following
core competencies:

Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)) For Fillet All Position, 1G And 2G
Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) For 3G And 4G
Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)) For 5G And 6G

Optionally, the Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel are competent in performing
the following elective competencies:

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 1G


Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) 6GR

6. WORKING CONDITIONS
The Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology personnelshould be able to concentrate on detailed work for
long periods and be able to bend, stoop, and weld in awkward positions. They may work outdoors, and must
wear special clothingsafety shoes, gloves, and goggles, face shields or hoods, dust maskto protect self
from the intense light created by arcs, hazardous fumes, and spark burns.
The individual must obtain Permit To Work (PTW) from employers to ensure safe working condition. In order to
be employed at work, the individual need to be qualified by the employer via Welder Qualification Test (WQT).
Good eyesight is needed for visual inspection to check welding condition.
7. EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS
7.1 Malaysian Market
Ahead of 2011, the drive for Malaysian welding market is mainly driven by foreign investments and competition
in the manufacturing industry spearheaded by various Government Link Companys (GLCs) with support from
local welding and inspection contractors.
Thus, markets for welding market in Malaysia are poised to grow in the near future. With the Government
allowing 100 percent foreign investment, the country is set to become a manufacturing hotspot attracting a lot
of foreign capital.
As a result, increased manufacturing activities and construction-related projects are expected to bring about a
rise in demand for competent welders.
Nevertheless current practice shows appointments of competent welders within construction domain are
dominantly appointed on project basis. This resulted in most competent welders personnel within the
construction domain to practice freelancing.
Major legislative changes and the ensuing flood of competition from foreign welders bode well for the
Malaysian market. Local competent welders will need to upgrade their competencies to remain competitive,

40

while foreign companies are looking at establishing their manufacturing facilities and capabilities locally, as
Malaysia promises to be a high-growth market.
As opposed to the construction industry prospect, an increase in demand from the automotive sector which is
the biggest end-user of welding equipment will harness sustainable employment demand for the job area. This
is due to domestic car manufacturers modernize their production processes as well as increase capacity in a
bid to overcome foreign competition.
The spill over effects from other sectors benefiting from an increase in investment is also likely to boost the
demand for welding equipment and consumables, says the analyst of this research service1. In return, this
supports growth in demand for the competent welders.
The growth brought about by an increase in foreign investment is also likely to encourage developments in
welding technology as foreign companies are expected to have higher requirements for welding equipment.
As in most emerging markets, product segments involving arc welding dominate the welding equipment and
consumables markets in Malaysia, accounting for 74.0 percent of the total market revenues in 2005. This data
presents that competencies in arc welding is the common process practiced within the welding industry in
emerging markets such as Malaysia.
Virtually every manufacturing industry needs welding expertise, with related industries with respect to
employment opportunities are:

Oil and Gas


Boilers and Pressure vessels
Shipbuilding
Construction
Heavy equipment
Industrial machinery
Aerospace
Automotive
Vocational training

Frost & Sullivan, [February 2006]

41

7.2 International Market


The Malaysian welding equipment and consumables market is relatively small compared to the sheer market
of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and developed countries, registering only
RM270.6 million2 in revenues in 2005. Analogously, this presents the limited job market for the competent
welders for further carrier growth. Compared to the size of the countrys economy, this market is rather small,
perhaps due to limited demand from traditional welding-intensive industries.
Tense competition between local and foreign welders within the realm (especially construction) has result an
out flux of local welding expertise to internationalise.
Thus, the gaining of international standards and recognition through certification or other methods suitable is
essential to the welding technology personnel to ensure future career growth. These custodians to the
standards and recognition are such as:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


American Welding Society (AWS)
American Petroleum Institute (API)
British Standard (BS)
British Standard European Norm (BSEN)
International Standards Organisation (ISO).

8. TRAINING, INDUSTRIAL/PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION, OTHER QUALIFICATIONS AND


ADVANCEMENT
As for career advancement, most competent welders learn their craft on the job. They usually begin as
qualified welders and gradually learn their new skills as they gain experience. Further certification may
increase their chances of career advancement. Thus with additional formal training/education and certification,
this experience competent welders can advance to become a certified welding inspector and welding engineer.
9. SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
9.1. Local

Construction Industry development Board (CIDB)


Tingkat 7, Grand Seasons Avenue, 72, Jalan Pahang,
53000 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 603-2617 0200
Fax: 603-2617 0220
Email: cidb@cidb.gov.my
Web: http://www.cidb.gov.my

Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH)


Ministry of Human Resource,
Level 2, 3 & 4, Block D3, Complex D
Federal Government Administrative Centre
62530 W. P. Putrajaya
Tel: 603 - 8886 5000
Fax: 603 - 8889 2443
Email: jkkp@mohr.gov.my
Web: http://www.dosh.gov.my

2Ringgit/USD

3.7800, Bank Negara Exchange Rates Historical Lookup:1-3 http://www.bnm.gov.my [30 December 2005: 20.11pm]

42

Department of Standards Malaysia (Standards Malaysia)


Century Square, Level 1 & 2, Block 2300, Jalan Usahawan,
63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Tel: 603-8318 0002
Fax: 603-8319 3131
Email: central@standardsmalaysia.gov.my
Web: http://www.standardsmalaysia.gov.my

SIRIM Berhad
No. 1, Persiaran Dato' Menteri, Seksyen 2,
Peti Surat 7035, 40700 Shah Alam
Selangor Darul Ehsan
Tel: 603-55446000
Fax: 603-55108095
Email: web@sirim.my
Web: http://www.sirim.my

9.2. International

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


Three Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
United States of America
Tel: 973-882-1170
Fax: 973-882-1717
Email: infocentral@asme.org
Web: http://www.asme.org

American Petroleum Institute (API)


1220 L Street, NW
Washington, DC 20005-4070
United States of America
Tel: 202-682-8000
Fax: Email: Web: http://www.api.org

American Welding Society (AWS)


550 N.W. LeJeune Road,
Miami, Florida 33126
United States of America
Tel: 800-443-9353
Fax: Email: Web:http://awsnow.org

American National Standard Institute (ANSI)


1899 L Street, NW, 11th Floor
Washington, DC, 20036
United States of America
Tel: 202-293-8020
Fax: 202-293-9287
Email: Web:http://www.ansi.org/

43

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


100 Barr Harbor Drive,
West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania,
United States of America
Tel: 610-832-9500
Fax: 610-832-9555
Email: Web: http://www.astm.org

British Standards International (BSI) Group


389 Chiswick High Road,
London, W4 4AL,
United Kingdom
Tel: 44-20-8996-9001
Fax: 44-20-8996-7001
Email: cservices@bsigroup.com
Web: http://www.bsigroup.com

International Organization for Standardization


ISO Central Secretariat,
1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56,
CH-1211, Geneva 20,
Switzerland
Tel: 41-22-749 01 11
Fax: 41-22-733 34 30
E-mail: central@iso.org
Web: http://www.iso.org

International Labour Organisation (ILO)


4 route des, Morillons,
CH-1211,Geneva 22,
Switzerland
Tel: 41-22-799-6111
Fax: 41-22-798-8685
Website: www.ilo.org
E-mail: ilo@ilo.org

44

10.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Director General of DSD would like to extend his gratitude to the organisations and individuals who have
been involved in developing this standard.

11.

COMMITTEE MEMBERS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD PRACTICE (SP), COMPETENCY


PROFILE CHART (CPC), COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP) AND CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT
(CoCU)

FLUX CORE ARC WELDING (FCAW) TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 3


PANEL EXPERTS
1

En. Mohd Herman Bin Rosli

En. Mansor Bin Ibrahim

En. Awaldin Bin Mohd Arif

En. Azaddin Bin A. Aziz

En. Lokman Bin Zakaria

En. Hamzah Bin Mohamed Kasa

En. Zahidi Bin Zainuddin

En. Wan Yusof Bin Wan Hasan

En. Mohd Ali Bin Moh Salleh

10

En. Mohd Sufie Bin Mohamed

12

En. Mohd Ali Man Shah Bin Abu


Samah

Johor State Occupational Safety and Health officer


Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH)
Technical Instructor
Malaysia Marine And Heavy Engineering Sdn Bhd (MMHE)
Managing Director
Industrial Testing & engineering Inspection Sdn Bhd
QA/QC and HSE Senior Manager 1
Sime Darby Engineering Sdn Bhd
QA and Risk Manager
MISC Sdn Bhd,
Training Manager Welding Inspection
TWI Training & Certification (S.E. Asia) Sdn. Bhd,
Welding Operations Officer
Akademi Bina Malaysia, CIDB
Welding Operations Officer
Akademi Bina Malaysia, CIDB
Welding Specialist
Time Temasek Sdn Bhd
Welding Specialist
Time Temasek Sdn Bhd
Welding Specialist
Time Temasek Sdn Bhd
FACILITATORS

En. Syed Mahathir Bin Syed Azman


Shah

En. Ahmad Azran Bin Ranaai

Tn. Hj. Razalee Bin Che Ros

En. Mohd Lutfi Bin Mohd Darjak

Assistant Director
JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor
Assistant Director
JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor
Senior Skills Development Officer
JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor
Senior Skills Development Officer
JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor

45

INDEX 9
COMPETENCY PROFILE CHART (CPC)

SECTOR

HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM

Sector of the Job Area

SUB SECTOR

HOUSEKEEPING

Sub Sector of the Job Area

JOB AREA

HOUSEKEEPING MANAGEMENT

Job Area describes Job Function

JOB LEVEL

FOUR (4)

Unique ID for Job Area

JOB AREA CODE

Level of Competency
COMPETENCY

CORE

COMPETENCY UNIT

HOUSEKEEPING
STAFF
DEVELOPMENT
MANAGEMENT

HT-050-4:2011-C01

Competency Unit
Type

HOUSEKEEPING
SPECIAL PROJECT
ADMINISTRATION

HT-050-4:2011-C05

HOUSEKEEPING
INVENTORY
MANAGEMENT

HOUSEKEEPING
STAFF
PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION AND
REVIEW

HOUSEKEEPING
VENDOR
ADMINISTRATION

HT-050-4:2011-C04

HT-050-4:2011-C07

Competency Unit

HOUSEKEEPING GUEST
SERVICES

FLORAL
ARRANGEMENT

HT-050-4:2011-E01

HT-050-4:2011-C03

HT-050-4:2011-C06

ELECTIVE

HT-050-4:2011-C02

HOTEL DECO AND


AESTHETIC
MANAGEMENT

Competency Unit ID
[Sector Code-Subsector Code-Level-Year of Approval-Core/elective, CU Number]

Figure 12: Example of46


a Competency Profile Chart

INDEX 10
COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP)

COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP)


Sub Sector

FRONT OFFICE

Job Area

GUEST SERVICES OPERATION

Level

Three (3)
CU Title

1. Reception activities
handling

CU Code

CU Descriptor

CU Work Activities

The CU title describes the 1. Identify reception activities


competency in Reception Activities
handling requirement
Handling. He or She is the first
person at the front office to greet,
respond and direct a visitor, client or
patient.
2. Prepare arrival activities
The person who is competent in this
CU shall be able to carry out guest
arrival activities, attend guest 3. Carry out guest arrival
enquiries and needs, carry out bill
activities
settlement activities, carry out
product sales activities, attend
reservation needs, carry out filing
arrangement
and
perform
telephonist
function
to
meet 4. Attend guest enquiries and
establishment requirement.
needs
The outcome of this competency is
to provide excellent reception 5. Carry out bill settlement
services to ensure guest satisfaction
activities
guaranteed, prompt action taken.

6. Carry out product sales


activities

47

Performance Criteria
1.1 Reception activities are
handled with guest
preferences and in
accordance with company
policies.
2.1 Arrival activities prepared in
accordance with rooming list.
3.1 Guest arrival activities are
handled, Malaysian value and
culture, grooming are applied
accordance with company
policies.
4.1 Guest enquiries and needs
answered in accordance with
company policies.
5.1 Bill settlement activities are
managed as per payment
term in accordance with
company policies.
6.1 Product sales activities
explained to guest in
accordance with company
policies.

CU Title

CU Code

CU Descriptor

CU Work Activities

11. Produce

48

Performance Criteria

7. Attend reservation needs

7.1 Reservation needs handled in


accordance with company
policies.

8. Carry out filing arrangement

8.1 Filing arrangement managed


in accordance with company
policies.

9. Perform telephonist function

9.1 Telephonist function


performed in accordance with
company policies.

10. Evaluate reception activities


handling effectiveness

10.1 Reception activities handling


effectiveness evaluated in
accordance with company
policies.

INDEX 11
CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)
CURRICULUM of COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)
Sub Sector

FRONT OFFICE

Job Area

GUEST SERVICES OPERATION

Competency Unit Title

RECEPTION ACTIVITIES HANDLING

The person who is competent in this CU shall be able to provide excellent reception services to ensure guest
satisfaction guaranteed, prompt action taken. Upon completion of this competency unit, trainees will be able to: Identify reception activities handling requirement
Prepare arrival activities
Carry out guest arrival activities
Attend guest enquiries and needs
Learning Outcome
Carry out bill settlement activities
Attend reservation needs
Carry out filing arrangement
Perform telephonist function
Evaluate reception activities handling effectiveness
Produce reception activities report.
Training
Competency Unit ID
Level
3
240 Hours Credit Hours
Duration
Attitude / Safety /
Training
Delivery
Assessment
Work Activities
Related Knowledge
Related Skills
Environmental
Hours
Mode
Criteria
1 Identify
i. Definition of hospitable
4 hours
Lecture
i. Establishment/
reception
and its elements such
accommodation
activities
as:
providers
handling
products and
Grooming
requirement
services manual
Body language
interpreted
Voice intonation
ii.
Reception
ii. Establishment/accommo
activities
dation providers
workflow
products and services
determined
manual
iii. Guest
iii. Reception activities

49

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

workflow
iv. Types of guest such as:
Frequent
Independent
Travellers (FIT)
Corporate
Group Independent
Travellers (GIT)
Meeting, Incentive,
Convention and
Exhibition (MICE)
Royal/ public figures
v. Types of products and
services such as:
Business centre
F&B outlets
Accommodations
Health & Wellness
Club
Entertainment
outlets
Baby sitter
Special need
services (OKU)
vi. Types of guests
preferences
Food preference
(Vegetarian, Kosher)
Smoking/Non
Smoking floor
Ladies floor
Room views
vii. Types of room rates
Published/Rack

50

Training
Hours

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria
requirement &
preferences
determined

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

Training
Hours

Delivery
Mode

8 hours

Demonstration
&
Observation

Day use
Corporate
Government
Travel Agent
Convention
Promotional
Seasonal
i. Obtain
establishment/accomm
odation providers
products and services
manual
ii. Interpret
establishment/accomm
odation providers
products and services
manual
iii. Determine reception
activities workflow
iv. Determine guest
requirement &
preferences.

51

Attitude:
i. Meticulous in
identifying
reception
activities
handling

Assessment
Criteria

Work Activities
2

Prepare arrival
activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

i. Types of Property
Management System
(PMS) such as
Fidelio
Opera
IFCA
ii. Function, features and
usage of Property
Management System
iii. Types of room
status/code such as
Vacant Clean (VC)
Vacant Dirty (VD)
Vacant Clean
Inspection (VCI)
Occupied Clean
(OC)
Occupied Dirty (OD)
Occupied Clean
Inspection (OCI)
Out of Order (OOO)
Do Not Disturb
(DND)
Under Repair (UR)
iv. Types of room such as
Standard
Superior
Deluxe
Junior/Executive/Pre
sidential/Royal Suite
Club Floor
Studio
Cabana
One/Two/Three

52

Training
Hours
7 hours

Delivery
Mode
Lecture

Assessment
Criteria
i. Individual
password
logged in
ii. Room status
and expected
arrival against
rooming list
checked
iii. Available room
to expected
guests assigned
iv. Room rates
against
confirmed
booking
checked
v. Mode of
payment
checked

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

Training
Hours

Delivery
Mode

17 hours

Demonstration
&
Observation

Bedroom Apartment
v. Modes of payment
Cash
Credit/Debit Card
Letter of Undertaking
Local Order
Purchase Order
Letter of
Authorisation
Companys Cheque
Travellers Cheque
i. Log in individual
password
ii. Check room status and
expected arrival
against rooming list
iii. Assign available room
to expected guests
iv. Check room rates
against confirmed
booking
v. Check mode of
payment
Attitude:
i. Knowledgeable
and meticulous in
preparing arrival
activities

53

Assessment
Criteria

Work Activities
3

Carry out guest


arrival activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

i. Establishments meet
and greet practice
ii. Guests reservation
profile verification
process
Reservation/
booking number
Checking of
passport/I.C
Travel agent
voucher
iii. Method of deposit
collection
iv. Procedure of issuing
room key/card

Training
Hours
7 hours

Delivery
Mode
Lecture

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

i. Comply with
establishments meet
and greet practice
ii. Verify guests
reservation profile
iii. Collect cash
deposit/credit card
verification
iv. Issue room key/card
and remind guest on
standard departure time
and establishments
facilities.
v. Rooming the guest

17 hours

Attitude:
i. Hospitable in

54

Demonstration
&
Observation

Assessment
Criteria
Establishments
meet and greet
practice
complied
Guests
reservation
profile verified
Cash
deposit/credit
card verification
collected
Room key/card
and remind
guest on
standard
departure time
and
establishments
facilities issued

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental
meet and greet
guest
ii. Responsible and
accountable in
receiving guest
deposit
iii. Guest information
confidentiality

Related Skills

Training
Hours

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria

7 hours

Lecture

i. Types of guest
enquiries and
needs
determined
ii. Guest enquiries
responded and
guest needs
fulfilled
iii. Guest request
followed up

17 hours

Demonstration
&
Observation

Safety:
i. Adhere to safety
requirement

Attend guest
enquiries and
needs

i.

ii.

Types of guest
enquiries and needs
such as
Direction/Location
Online facilities
Extra bed
Baby cot
Guest supplies
Special request
Techniques to
respond and fulfil
guest enquiries and
needs
i. Determine types of
guest enquiries and
needs
ii. Respond to guest
enquiries and fulfil

55

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

Training
Hours

Delivery
Mode

7 hours

Lecture

Assessment
Criteria

guest needs
iii. Coordinate with related
department on guest
needs
iv. Follow up with related
department and guest
on guest request
Attitude:
i. Responsible and
quick response in
attending guest
enquiries and
needs
ii. Diplomatic in
attending guest
enquiries and
needs
Safety:
i. Adhere to safety
requirement
5

Carry out bill


settlement
activities

i. Verification of guest
profile
ii. Types of guest charges
such as
Early check-in/ late
check-out
Mini bar
Laundry
Room service
Food and beverages
Internet/Phone
Business Centre
Spa

56

i. Room key/card
collected
ii. Guest profile
verified
iii. Guest folio
checked and
guest charges
confirmed
iv. Deposit receipt
requested
v. Mode of
payment
confirmed and
check out folio

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills
i. Collect room key/card
ii. Verify guest profile
iii. Check guest folio and
confirm guest charges
iv. Request for deposit
receipt
v. Confirm mode of
payment and generate
check out folio
vi. Collect payment and
refund guests deposit
if any

Training
Hours
17 hours

Delivery
Assessment
Mode
Criteria
Demonstration
generated
&
vi. Payment
Observation
collected and
guests deposit
refunded if any

Attitude:
i. Meticulous and
detail in handling
bill settlement
activities
ii. Responsible and
accountable in
handling bill
settlement
activities
6

Carry out
product sales
activities

i.

Up selling techniques of
rooms category and
other products and
services such as
Communication
skills
Product knowledge
Selling techniques
Willingness to sell

7 hours

57

Lecture

i. Room availability
checked
ii. Suggestive
selling executed
iii. Related
department
coordinated on
confirmed
suggested
products or

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills
i. Check room availability
ii. Up sell room category
iii. Execute suggestive
selling
iv. Coordinate with related
department on
confirmed suggested
products or services

Training
Hours
17 hours

Delivery
Mode
Demonstration
&
Observation

Assessment
Criteria
services

7 hours

Lecture

i. Guests
reservation
needs obtained
ii. Guests personal
details obtained
iii. Guests
reservation
status confirmed

Attitude:
i. Creative and
knowledgeable in
up selling rooms
and other
services

Attend
reservation
needs

i. Types of reservation
sources
Phone calls
Fax
Email
Internet booking
Walk-in
ii. Guests reservation
needs
check-in/check-out
date
room preference
number of guest
room rate
iii. Guests personal details
Guests name

58

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

Training
Hours

Contact details
Contact person
Companys name
Country of origin
Address
Nationality
Gender
iv. Confirmation of guests
reservation status
Guaranteed
reservation
Non-guaranteed
reservation
v. Types of reservation
status
Confirmed
Definite
Tentative
No show
Cancel
i. Determine reservation
sources
ii. Obtain guests
reservation needs
iii. Obtain guests personal
details
iv. Confirm guests
reservation status

17 hours

Attitude:
i. Hospitable in
meet and greet
guest
ii. Responsible and

59

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria

Work Activities

Carry out filing


arrangement

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental
accountable in
attending
reservation needs

Related Skills

i. Filing system
Online filing
Manual filing
ii. Filing index

Training
Hours

7 hours

i. Determine filing system


ii. Collate guests services
documents
iii. Store files according to
index

17 hours

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria

i. Filing system
determined
ii. Guests services
documents
collated
iii. Files stored
according to
index

Attitude:
i. Meticulous and
detail in filing
guests services
documents
Safety:
i. Adhere to safety
requirement
9

Perform
telephonist
function

i. Interpretation of callers
request such as
Enquiries
Reservation
Complain
Prank calls
Emergency
ii. Communication skills
iii. Techniques of
answering phone call

7 hours

60

i. Establishments
meet and greet
practice
complied
ii. Callers request
interpreted
iii. Internal/ external
call transferred
to respective
department/
room

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills
i. Comply with
establishments meet
and greet practice
ii. Interpret callers
request
iii. Transfer internal/
external call to
respective department/
room

Training
Hours
17 hours

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria

Attitude:
i. Hospitable in
meet and greet
guest
ii. Knowledgeable
and responsible
in performing
telephonist
function

10 Evaluate
reception
activities
handling
effectiveness

i. Guest satisfaction level


on delivered services
ii. Numbers of complain on
guest services handling
iii. Product sales activities
effectiveness
iv. Numbers of sold product
v. Payment accuracy

7 hours

i.

Assess guest
satisfaction level on
delivered services
ii. Check numbers of
complain on guest
services handling

61

17 hours

i.

Guest
satisfaction level
on delivered
services
assessed
ii. Numbers of
complaint on
guest services
handling
checked
iii. Product sales
activities
effectiveness
assessed
iv. Numbers of sold

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

Training
Hours

iii. Assess product sales


activities effectiveness
iv. Check numbers of sold
product
v. Assess payment
accuracy

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria
product checked
v. Payment
accuracy
assessed

Attitude:
i. Knowledgeable
and meticulous
in evaluating
reception
activities
handling
effectiveness

11 Produce
reception
activities report

i. Report writing skills


ii. Procedures to write
reception activities
report
iii. Format of reports
iv. Communication and
presentation skill

3 hours

i. Determine procedure to
write reception
activities report
ii. Determine format of
reports
iii. Write reception
activities report
iv. Present reception

62

9 hours

i. Procedure to
write reception
activities report
determined
ii. Format of
reports
determined
iii. Reception
activities report
wrote
iv. Reception
activities report
presented to
superior

Work Activities

Related Knowledge

Attitude / Safety /
Environmental

Related Skills

Training
Hours

activities report to
superior
Attitude:
i. Knowledgeable
and meticulous in
reporting
reception
activities

Employability Skills
Core Abilities
01.01
01.02
01.03
02.01
02.02
02.03
02.04
02.05
03.01
03.02
03.03
03.04

Social Skills

Identify and gather information.


Document information procedures or processes.
Utilize basic IT applications.
Interpret and follow manuals, instructions and SOP's.
Follow telephone/telecommunication procedures.
Communicate clearly.
Prepare brief reports and checklist using standard forms.
Read/Interpret flowcharts and pictorial information.
Apply cultural requirement to the workplace.
Demonstrate integrity and apply practical practices.
Accept responsibility for own work and work area.
Seek and act constructively upon feedback about work performance.

63

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Communication skills
Conceptual skills
Interpersonal skills
Learning skills
Leadership skills
Multitasking and prioritizing
Self-discipline
Teamwork

Delivery
Mode

Assessment
Criteria

Core Abilities
03.06
03.07
06.01
06.02
06.03
06.04
01.04
01.05
01.06
02.07
03.08
04.01
04.02
04.03
04.04
04.05
01.07
01.08
01.10
01.11
02.09
02.10
02.11
03.09
03.12
03.13
03.14
03.15
03.16
04.06
04.07
05.01
05.02

Social Skills

Respond appropriately to people and situations.


Resolve interpersonal conflicts.
Understand systems.
Comply with and follow chain of command.
Identify and highlight problems.
Adapt competencies to new situations/systems.
Analyse information.
Utilize the Internet to locate and gather information.
Utilize word processor to process information.
Utilize Local Area Network (LAN)/Intranet to exchange information.
Develop and maintain a cooperation within work group.
Organize own work activities.
Set and revise own objectives and goals.
Organize and maintain own workplace.
Apply problem solving strategies.
Demonstrate initiative and flexibility.
Utilize database applications to locate a process information.
Utilize spreadsheets applications to locate and process information.
Apply a variety of mathematical techniques.
Apply thinking skills and creativity.
Prepare flowcharts.
Prepare reports and instructions.
Convey information and ideas to people.
Manage and improve performance of individuals.
Provide coaching/on-the-job training.
Develop and maintain team harmony and resolve conflicts.
Facilitate and coordinate teams and ideas.
Liase to achieve identified outcomes.
Identify and assess client/customer needs.
Allocate work.
Negotiate acceptance and support for objectives and strategies.
Implement project/work plans.
Inspect and monitor work done and/or in progress.

64

Tools, Equipment and Materials (TEM)


ITEMS

RATIO (TEM : Trainees)

1. Reservation list
2. Rooming list
3. Room tariff list
4. Guest Profile
5. Room key/card
6. Guest request form
7. Credit card/ credit card terminal
8. Calculation tool
9. Computer
10. Printer
11. Property Management System (PMS)
12. Telephone system
13. Stationery
14. Front office SOP

1:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
1:5
1:5
1:30
1:30
1:1
1:1

REFERENCES
1.

Sudhir Andrews (2009), Hotel Front Office Training Manual, Mc Graw Hill, ISBN:978-0-07-065570-6

2.

Ahmad Ismail (2002), Front Office Operations & Management, Thomson Delmar, ISBN:0-7668-2343-1

3.

James A. Bardi (2007), Hotel Front Office Management (5th Edition), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 978-0-470-63752-4

4.

Denney G.Rutherford & Michael J.OFallon (2007), Hotel Management & Operations, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 978-0471-47065-6

5.

Sue Baker, Jeremy Huyton &Pam Bradley (2009), Principle of Hotel Front Office Operations, South Western Cengage Learning, ISBN: 978-1844480-090-2

6.

Betty A.Kildow (2001), Front Desk Security & Safety, AMACOM, ISBN: 0-8144-0826-5

65