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KULLIYYAH OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING

LAB REPORT
MCT 2119
EXPERIMENT 6A: DC
GENERATOR
EXPERIMENT 6B: DC MOTOR
NAME

MATRIC NO.

1. IZZUL FIKRI BIN MOHAMAD KHAFID


2. MUHAMMAD HASBI SHIDDIQ BIN SUPARMAN
3. IMADUDDIN BIN HAMZAH
GROUP

PROGRAMME

MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING

DATE OF EXPERIMENT

12/3/2012

1016057
1018585
1010765

DATE OF SUBMISSION

19/3/2012

Experiment 6A :Dc Generator


Part A:Connection and Starting
Introduction
Dc generators are basics needs in our daily live. Electricity is
generated by generator. From the name itself we can get to know the usage
of the DC generator that is to convert mechanical energy to electricity
energy. From part A, the mechanical energy influences the rate of voltage
produce. Next, the experiment involved student in connecting the DC wound
machine to the system and familiar with the equipment and machine in the
laboratory. Moreover, we can use table Torque Vs Voltage produce to see the
characteristics of the generator. The generator used is Shunt-Wound
Machine. This type of machine runs practically constant speed, regardless
of the load. It is the type generally used in commercial practice and is usually
recommended where starting conditions are not usually severs. Speed of the
shunt-wound machine may be regulated in two ways: first, by inserting
resistance in series with the armature, thus decreasing speed: and second,
by inserting resistance in the field circuit, the speed will vary with each
change in load: in the latter, the speed is practically constant for any setting
of the controller. This latter is the most generally used for adjustable-speed
service, as in the case of machine tools.

Figure show the connection of shunt generator.


Objective
1. Connect and operate a D.C shunt wound machine as a self-excited
shunt wound generator.
2. Deduce from the measurements that the magnitude of the
generated voltage is determined by the speed and the armature or

excite current.
3. Explain the function and purpose of the field regulator
4. Familiarize students with the laboratory machine and equipment.
Instrument and Components
1. 1 D.C shunt wound machine
2. 1 Three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor
3. 1 Magnetic powder brake
4. 1 Control unit for brake
5. 2 Rubber coupling sleeves
6. 2 Coupling guard
7. 1 Shaft end guard
8. Field regulator for D.C generators
9. Load resistance
10.
Motor protection switch
11.
3 Multimeter
12.
Set of connection cables
Procedures

Rf

t
q

IE
A

E1

IA
A1

RB

E2

A2

1. Connect the generator with the system or controller as shown in the


above figure .
2. The asynchronous generator and wound-rotor machine are already
been assemble together.
3. Next, ask the lab moderator to check the connections are properly
assembled.
4. Set the control unit:
(a) Speed
(b)Torque
(c) Operating Mode

n
M

=
=
N

3000 rpm
1 Nm
=
Constant

(2)Range in Multimeter :
(a) Voltage
(b)Armature Current

=
IA

300 V
=
1A

(c) Exciter Current

IE

0.3 A

Set the field generator to 0% and Load Resistance to 100%


~(1000)
5. Operate the generator. Apply a load to the drive machine to obtain
2900 rpm (or at maximum rpm obtained. Use set/start value from the
control unit and set it to fully clockwise. In our case the value starts at
2700 rpm.)
6. Record the value of voltage, armature current I A and exciter current IE
into the table.(due to the value starts at 2700 rpm thus the table ends
at 1700 rpm)
Results
This figure shows the result that obtained from the experiment. The power
get by multiplying the voltage induced with current excite.
N (Rpm)

VG (V)

IE (mA)

IA

2700
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700

183
174
164.5
155.9
146.6
137
127.9
117.9
107.2
97.2
85.7

107.5
101.7
96
90.9
85.4
79.8
74.5
68.7
62.7
56.8
50.1

-0.28
-0.26
-0.24
-0.23
-0.22
-0.2
-0.19
-0.17
-0.16
-0.15
-0.13

Power (W) VG
* IE
19.67
17.69
15.79
14.17
12.52
10.93
9.53
8.1
6.72
5.56
4.29

Fig. 2
This figure shows the relationship between the voltages induced by the
generator with the speed of rotation of the generator.

VG VS Rpm
200
150
Voltage , VG (V)

100

VG VS Speed

50
0

Speed n , Rpm X 1000

Discussion
In the experiment 6 part A, firstly, we can get to know the generator
producing electricity from the reading in fig. 2. The connection must be
thoroughly checked because we need to reduce the possibilities the motor
will damaged or burn. For this, we must check with the lab moderator to
check the system connection. Next, from part A we can confirm that the
generator was running properly without any problems encountered.
The working principle of the induction motor are when three phase
voltage is applied to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic flux is
established in the motor, that cuts the rotor conductors, induces voltage and
generate current in the rotor. Due to nature of the process, the rotor current
and the rotating magnetic flux are placed at 90 0 in space domain. The
interaction between the rotating flux and the rotor current produces a torque
that turns the motor into rotation.
The voltage induces are influence by the rotation of the generator.
From the fig. 3, we can refer the voltage increases when the rotation per
minute of the generator increases. From the fig. 3, the speed started at 2700
rpm instead of 3000 rpm. We can understand this problem by understanding
slip of an induction machine. Slip induction is the difference between the
synchronous speed and the rotor speed, expressed as a percent of
synchronous speed.
s=(ns-n)/n
s= slip, ns= synchronous speed, n = rotor speed

Synchronous Speed depends upon the frequency of the source and the
number of poles on the stator.
ns = 120f/p
ns = synchronous speed (r/min),
number of poles

f = frequency of the source (Hz), p =

The induction motor cannot achieve the synchronous speed as it has slip.
The slip exists in induction motor because the stator and the rotor are having
slight difference in the rotation. Thus, slip is occurred. From there, we can
understand the phenomena the speed starts from 2700 rpm rather than
3000 rpm.
In this experiment, the speed (rpm) is manipulate and the voltage
induced is the recorded value. In this experiment the torque is constant thus
there no relation between torque and speed can be made in this experiment.
Next, we can see the uses of field regulator. The field regulator are the
one that control the current flows from generator. The field regulator works
by control the current flows out, and then it will control the electromagnetic
field. The electromagnetic will control the strength of the magnetic field. As
the magnetic field controlled thus we can control the current and voltage
produced.
There are many application in from DC generator can be produced. We
can see some example from the wind generator. The winds rotate the blade,
then rotating the rotor. Thus, produce electricity. From this example, it clearly
shows that the generator converting mechanical power to electricity.
One of the problem that can occur is the objects can come from
external sources or failure of internal components; they can pick up energy
from the spinning rotor and do extensive damage. We can prevent by
inspecting on a regular basis all internal parts that are prone to failure or can
be dislodged. Inspection tests can be a combination of visual inspection
along with ultrasonic or magnetic particle tests on rotating component.
Conclusion
All in all, DC generator give a lot of contribution as it become the
basics to some other application around the globe. In this experiment, the
voltages and current produce are directly proportional to the speed rotation
of the armature and the field regulator.
Question
1. What is the effect of reduction in speed?

The speed influence the voltage induced by the armature. The higher the
speed the higher the voltage induced and vice versa. The magnetic field
produced by the stator will be reduced thus reducing the production of
electromotive force which is the voltage induced.
2. What is the purpose of the field regulator?
The field regulator are the one that control the current flows from
generator. The field regulator works by control the current flows out, and
then it will control the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic will control
the strength of the magnetic field. As the magnetic field controlled thus we
can control the current and voltage produced.
3. What function has the load resistance?
The load resistance also used to control the value of output or voltages
induce. When the resistances increase, speed of rotation of the armature
reduces thus producing low output of voltage. The load resistance will reduce
the speed below its nominal speed.

Part B :(Load Characteristics)


Introduction
DC shunt-excited generator is a machine with the field winding in parallel
with the armature terminals. This eliminates the need for an external source
of excitation. The generator becomes self-excitation. Load characteristics can
be determined by adjusted the load resistance to produce the generated
voltage. Load characteristic curve is a relationship between the generated
voltage and the armature current.

Objective
1. To determine the load characteristics of DC self-excited shunt wound
generator.
2. To determine the armature current when the load is varied.
3. To calculate the delivered electrical power.
4. To determine the relationship between generator voltage, armature
current and power.
Instrument and Components
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

1 D.C shunt wound machine


1 Three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor
1 Magnetic powder brake
1 Control unit for brake
2 Rubber coupling sleeves
2 Coupling guard
1 Shaft end guard
Field regulator for D.C generators
Load resistance
Motor protection switch
3 Multimeter
Set of connection cables

Procedure
IA
A

RB
V

A1

E1

E2
A2

1. The circuit is connected as shown in the above figure .


2. The 3 phase asynchronous motor is connected.
3. The control unit is set as follow:
Speed
(n)
= 3000 rpm
Torque
(M)
= 1 Nm
Operating mode (n)
= constant

Range on multimeters:
Voltage
Armature current, IA
Exciter current, IE

= 300 V
=1A
= 0.3 A

4. The generator is operated.


5. The load resistance is adjusted to produce the generated voltage given
in the table. The armature current are measured and recorded in the
table.
6. The delivered electrical power , P= I x V, is calculated.
7. The load characteristic is drawn by the relationship between generator
voltage and armature current.

Results:
Table
VG
(V)
IA
(A)
Pout
(W)

175

150

125

100

75

50

25

0.4

0.64

0.77

0.86

1.01

1.35

1.51

0.44

70

96

96.25

86

75.75

67.5

37.5

Sample calculation of delivered electrical power, Pout = IA x VG


Example:
Pout= 0.4A x 175V
= 70 W
Figure 1: shows the relationship between generator voltage and
armature current

VG (V) vs IA (A)
200
150
VG

(V)

100
50
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

IA (A)

Figure 2: shows the relationship between power output and


armature current

Pout (W) vs IA (A)


120
100
80
Pout (W)

60
40
20
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
IA

1.2

1.4

1.6

(A)

Discussion:
In this experiment we manage to determine load characteristics by drawing
the load characteristics curve. In the figure 1, when the voltage decreases by
adjusting the load resistance, the armature current will decrease. The
generator operating under constant speed and field excitation. The exciting
current is controlled by potentiometer.
In figure 2, we can conclude that the power output is linearly rise to
maximum when the armature current reach 0.77A and start to decrease
when the current above 0.77A. It shows that 0.77 A is the limit of the
armature current to get maximum of the power output.
Questions:
1. Delivered power depends on the armature current
-The basic formula for power (Watts) is: P = V * I, where P is power (in
Watts), V is generator terminal voltage (in Volts), and I is armature
current (the current flowing in the stator of the generator). (For a threephase generator the entire formula is P = V* I * (3^(0.5)) * PF, where,
3^(0.5) is the square root of three (a fixed value, 1.732, I think), and
PF is the power factor of the generator (which is a number never
greater than 1.0, and which we will presume to be 1.0 for the purposes
of our discussion). Coincidentally, the terminal voltage of most
synchronous generators is almost a fixed value, as well, and doesn't

usually vary by more than approximately +/- 5.0%, which on an


11,0000 Volt generator is only about 550 Volts (out of 11,000).
So, since one of the terms of the three-phase power formula *is* a
fixed value (the square root of three), and we are presuming one of the
terms (PF) to be fixed and equal to 1.0, and the generator terminal
voltage is, for all intents and purposes, a fixed value, the way that a
generator produces more power is to increase the number of amps
flowing in the stator. The way that amps are increased in the generator
stator is by providing more torque from the turbine into the generator;
more torque equals more amps. Less torque equals less amps. (We are
presuming that the prime mover is always producing at least sufficient
torque to keep the generator rotor spinning at synchronous speed.
When it doesn't, the generator actually becomes a motor and keeps
spinning at synchronous speed and draws current from other
generators on the grid. This is what's known as "reverse power" or,
"motorizing the generator.
2. The shape of the load characteristic curve
-the voltage at the terminals is equal to the induced voltage at no-load
current condition. As the voltage generator decrease, current armature
will increase. The voltage generator is inversely proportional to the
armature current.
Conclusion
In conclusion the objectives of the experiment are well-achieved and proven
where load characteristic curve are successfully obtained from the
experimental and calculated results.

Experiment 6B :DC Motor


Part A: Connection and Starting
Introduction
Motor are significance in our daily lives. As we all know, there are many
application that uses motor such as combustion engine. It converts from
electrical energy to mechanical energy. Furthermore, motor are opposite of
generator. Besides that, motor must have starter to start the motor so that
the motor do not damage with high voltage input.

The figure shows that the current move into the motor to produce
mechanical energy.
Objective
1.
2.
3.
4.

Connect and operate a D.C shunt wound machine as a D.C


shunt wound motor with and without starter.
Measure the starting current and the armature voltages.
Deduce that the starter reduces the starting current.
To know to identify the specification of the motor machine.

Instrument and Components

1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1

D.C shunt wound motor machine


Magnetic powder brake
Control unit for brake
Rubber coupling sleeves
Coupling guard
Shaft end guard
Starter for D.C motors
Field regulator for D.C generators
Load resistance
Multimeter
Set of connection cables

Procedure
L+
A

A1

M
E1

E2
A2

LFigure 1: without starter

1. Check the DC motor working properly by consulting with the lab


demonstrator.
2. Assemble the connection as shown in the above figure 1.
3. Set the control unit as follows:

(a) Speed
(b)Torque
(c) Operating mode

n
m

= 3000 Rpm
= 1 N.M
n
= constant

Range on Multimeter
(a) Voltage , V
(b)Armature current , IA
(c) Exciter current , IE

= 300V
=1 A
= 0.3 A

Set the field generator to 0 % and the load resistance to 100% (~1000
)
4. Operate the motor and set the torque on the control unit to M=0.3
Nm.
Measure the starting current and the armature voltage. Enter the
measured
values into fig. 1
L+
A

RA
A1
E1

E2

M
A2

LFigure 2: with starter


5. Connect the machine with starter, according to circuit diagram in
figure 2. The
settings on the control unit remain unchanged. Set the starting
resistor to
100% (47 ) Measure the starting current and the armature
voltage. Enter the
measured values into fig. 1

6. Make sure to record the reading quickly at the maximum value of


current that used.
Results
The motor that had been used specification are shown.
Type : SE 2662 3A
V
: 220 V
I
: 1.4 A
VE
: 220 V
IE
: 0.14 A
This table shows the motor current when starter used and starter at rest.
Starter

R=0
R = 47
M = 0. 3
M = 0.3 Nm
Nm

Load
Starter Current IA
5.5
(A)
Armature Voltage
266
IA (V)

1.5
242.8

Discussion
In this experiment the student must learn the type of the motor and
know how to read the specification that are used. From there, we can get to
know the voltage, voltage excited, current and current exciter from the
specification.
Next, to get the fig. 1, we need to find assemble the connection and
run the experiment. The motor that we get for the experiment are used for
high end performance. Thus, current value data recording must be quickly
taken due to fluctuation of the ammeter really fast. We must take the
maximum point that the pointer of the ammeter go. Then, we get the value
of the starter current. From this, it will produce random error and the value
will not precise.
When the starter in used, the starter current is lower than when the
starter off. Thus it will help to prevent some damage to the armature winding
due to high starting current. As the rotating armature of dc motor picks up
speed, the starter resistance is gradually reduced so that the motor is able to
attain.
At full speed the motor starts running normally, of course, without the
help of starter. In other words, the starter offers resistance to armature
current during starting of dc motor only. Under normal working condition of

dc motor, the starter is electrically out of armature circuit of the motor. The
starter protects the armature of dc motor from getting damaged.
The electromotive force (emf) induced in the armature winding during
starting builds up from zero value to max value to restrict the armature
current within the permissible value at full speed. As the speed of
armature/motor build up, armature induced emf also starts building thus
reducing the role resistance offered by the starter, hence requiring it to
gradually reduce as the motor picks up full speed.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the starter current will help to maintain the motor from
damages by reducing the high starting current. Besides, the starter gives
benefit to motor machine because it will produce the same voltage as nonstarter motor as it will gradually increase to produce the same output
voltage.
Question
What is the function of starter?
When the starter in used, the starter current is lower than when the
starter off. Thus it will help to prevent some damage to the armature winding
due to high starting current. As the rotating armature of dc motor picks up
speed, the starter resistance is gradually reduced so that the motor is able to
attain.
Part B: Load Characteristics
Introduction
Shunt motor gets its names from the way it is connected where the field coil
is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature.

As DC shunt motors speed does not change more than 12% between noload to full-load, the shunt motor is considered as a constant speed motor. It
is the type generally used in commercial practice and is usually
recommended where starting conditions are not usually severs. Speed of the
shunt-wound motors may be regulated in two ways: first, by inserting
resistance in series with the armature, thus decreasing speed, and second,
by inserting resistance in the field circuit, the speed will vary with each
change in load, in the latter, the speeds are practically constant for any
setting of the controller. This latter is the most generally used for adjustablespeed service, as in the case of machine tools. A shunt wound motor has a
high-resistance field winding connected in parallel with the armature. It
responds to increased load by trying to maintain its speed and this leads to
an increase in armature current. This makes it unsuitable for widely-varying
loads, which may lead to overheating.
Objectives
1. To connect and operate a D.C shunt wound machine as a shunt wound
motor for recording the load characteristics.
2. To obtain the load characteristics curve based on the values obtained
by measurement and by calculations.
3. To deduce from the load characteristics the highest efficiency of the
motor at its nominal speed and approved the deduction through
calculations.
4. To describe the response of the shunt wound motor under various load
conditions.

Instrument and Components

1
1
1
2

D.C shunt wound motor machine


Magnetic powder brake
Control unit for brake
Rubber coupling sleeves

2
1
1
1
1
2
1

Coupling guard
Shaft end guard
Starter for D.C motors
Field regulator for D.C generators
Load resistance
Multimeter
Set of connection cables

Procedure
L+
A

A1

E1

E2

L-

A2

1. The circuit is connected as shown in above figure .


2. The control unit is set as follow:

Speed
(n)
Torque
(M)
Operating mode (M)

Range on multimeter:
Voltage
Armature current, IA
Exciter current, IE

= 3000 rpm
= 1 Nm
= constant
= 300 V
=1A
= 0.3 A

3. The generator is operated with D.C power supply is set at 220 V.


4. The control unit is used to vary the values of the torque based on the values
given in the
table. At the given values, the speed, armature current
and exciter current are measured.

5. The consumed electrical power, delivered mechanical power and efficiency


of the motor is calculated at each torques varied values. The calculated
values are entered into the table.
i. Consumed electrical power:
P1 = UA Itotal
Itotal = IA + IE
ii.

Delivered mechanical power:


P2 = M.N/9.55

iii.

Efficiency of the motor:


= P2/P1
6. The graph of load characteristics is plotted from the
measured and calculated values obtained from the
result.
N (rpm) vs M(Nm)
IA (A) vs M (Nm)
P2 (W) vs M (Nm)
vs M (Nm)

Results:
Table 1:
U (V)
220
M (Nm)
0.3
N (rpm)
103
2.2
0.3
IA (A)
6
0.1
IE (A)
2
0.4
Itot (A)
8
105
P1 (W)
.6
69.
P2 (W)
11
0.6

0.5

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

0.53

0.7

0.78

0.87

0.94

1.04

1.13

1.23

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.65

0.82

0.9

0.99

1.06

1.16

1.25

1.35

143
112.5
7

180.4
157.5
9

198

233.2

180.1

217.8
197.9
1

219.9

255.2
241.8
8

275
263.8
7

297
285.
86

0.79

0.87

0.91

0.91

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.96

Figure 1:
The graph below is obtained from the tabulated data from Table 1 which
is showing the relationship between speed, N (rpm) and torque, M (Nm).

N (rpm) vs M (Nm)
2.25
2.2
2.15
N (rpm)

2.1
2.05
2
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

M (Nm)

Figure 2:
The graph below is obtained from tabulated data in Table 1 where shows
the relationship between armature current, IA (A) and torque, M (Nm).

IA (A) vs M (Nm)
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
IA (A) 0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
M (Nm)

1.2

1.4

Figure 3:

The graph below is obtained from calculated results based from the data
obtained
in Table 1 which shows the
relation
between
mechanical
output
power,
P2
(W)
and
torque, M (Nm) .

P2 (W) vs M (Nm)
350
300
250
200
P2 (W) 150
100
50
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

M (Nm)

Sample calculation:
P2=M.N/9.55
=(0.9).(2.1)/9.55
=197.1 Watt

Figure 4:
The graph below is obtained from the calculated results which are based on
data
obtained in Table 1 where it shows the
relation between efficiency, torque, M (Nm).

vs M (Nm)
1.2
1
0.8

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

M (Nm)

Sample calculation
= P2/P1
=285.86/297
= 0.96
Discussion:
DC shunt motors speed is considered constant as its speed does not
regulate beyond 12 % from no-load to full-load condition and vise-versa.
From Figure 1 which shows the relationship between the motor speeds, N

(rpm) as the torque, M (Nm) is varied. As observed from the graph of


Figure 1, the speed of the motor is decreasing as the torque is increased
and finally starts to equalize at 0.9 Nm of torque magnitude with speed of
2.1 103 rpm. This is due to the fact that when the motor switches from noload to load condition; the motor will eventually slow down. The reduction in
speed is proportional to the reduction of counter-electromotive force (CEMF).
As the armature net voltage increases:
VA CEMF = Net Voltage
As the net voltage increases, the armature current, IA (A) will increases and
result in increasing torque, N (Nm). These properties can be observed from
Figure 2, where from the graph it is shown that as the torque is increased
the armature current also increases. However, the speed (referring to Figure
1) will eventually equalize and stop changing when the torque reaches a
level that is required to turn the larger load. The speed at which it equalize is
known as nominal speed, referring to figure 1 the nominal speed is 2.1 103
rpm. Figure 3 shows the relationship between the mechanical output power
of the motor (P2 in Watt) and the torque (M in Nm). The graph shows the
relation almost linearly proportional between the increases of torque with the
mechanical output torque. As referred to Figure 4 and Table 1, the motor is
most efficient at its nominal speed, which is at 2.1 10 3 rpm with efficiency
up to 0.96.
Conclusion
In conclusion the objectives of the experiment are well-achieved and proven
where load characteristic curve are successfully obtained from the
experimental and calculated results. Besides, it is also proven that the motor
operate at the best efficiency when it reach its nominal speed which is at
2.1 103 rpm with efficiency of 0.96.