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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

2.1

CHARGE AND
ELECTRIC CURRENT

GCKL 2011
the generator can produced a strong force
of
___________ between the opposite
charges. ___________ will suddenly
accelerate from the finger to the dome of
the generator and causes a spark.

21

Van de Graaf
1.

What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.
A device that ...................... and ........................................
+ +

+
+
+

2.

You will feel a brief _________ shock


when your finger is brought close to the
dome of the generator.

(2)

EXPLANATION

1. When the motor of the Van de Graaff

generator is switched on, it drives the rubber


belt. This cause the rubber belt to rub against
the roller and hence becomes _______
charged. The charge is then carried by the
moving belt up to the metal _______ where
it is collected. A large amount of _________
charge is built up on the dome.

2. The electric field around the metal dome of

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

3. When the wire touches the dome, the microammeter needle is deflected. This shows that a
__________ is flowing through the galvanometer.

4.

The electric current is produced by the flow of ____________ from earth through the
galvanometer to the metal dome to neutralize the positive charges on its surface.

5.

The metal dome can be safely touched with the finger as all the positive charges on it have
been ________________.

2The
microammeter
needle is returned
2. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van
de Graaff is connected to the earth via a
microammeter? Explain.

There is a ................of the pointer of the


1meter.
This indicates an electric current
..............

3. Predict what will happen if a


discharging metal sphere to the
charged dome.

4. The

When the
discha
rging
metal
sphere
is
broug
ht
near
the
charg
ed
dome,
..........
.......
occurs
.

to
its .....................
.............
position when
the Van de
Graaf is
switched off.

+
+

+
+
+

2An

ele
ctri
c
cur
ren
t
.....
..... + +
+
.....+
...
+

..................
..................
....

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Electric Current
1. Electric current is defined as the ................................................................................................
2. In symbols, it is given as:

where I = ...............................

Q = ...............................

20

= .................
..............

(1) The SI unit of charge is (Ampere /


Coulomb / Volt)

(2) The SI unit of time is (minute / second /


hour)

(3) The SI unit of current is (Ampere /

Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C -1s


// Cs-1)

I
t
(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It / t
/ I )

3. 1 Coulomb (C) = 1 Ampere Second (As)


4. Example :
Charge of 1 electron =
..
Charge of 1 proton =
.
5. Total Charge :

23

Physics Module Form 5

GCKL
2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

Electric Field
a. An electric field is a ................ in which an ......................... experiences a .........................
b. An electric field can be represented by a number of

lines indicate both the ................ and

....................of the field.


c. The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :
(i) electric field lines always extend from a ..............................................
.........................-charged object to infinity, or from .................
(ii) electric field lines never ..............
(iii) electric field lines are ...................

object to a
to a ..................

-charged object,

....... each other,


in a ....................... electric field.

EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A PING PONG BALL


Observation:
(a) The ball will still remain ..........................
This is because the force exert on the ball by the
............................

plate is ..................

force exerted on it by the ........................

to the
plate.

(a)
(b) If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right
to touch
then

be

and

wil

..........................

(b)
(c) When the ping pong ball

..........

...........
........................... the .............................
This process repeats again and again, causes the
ping pong ball ............................ to and fro
continuously between the two plates.
(c)

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Conclusion
......................................
......................................
Electric field is a ..........................
Like charges
.............................
.............

1.
2.
3.

Electric field lines......................are


from ...................
.......................... to

in an electric field. The direction of the field lines is

EXERCISE 2.1
1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s.
What is the current in the wire?

2.

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in


every 2 minutes. What is the electric current
in the bulb?

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the


amount of electric charge that passes through
the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how


many electrons pass through the wire in one
minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is
1.6 x 10-19 C)

25

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor


for 3 seconds, what is the

2.2

(1)

electric charge

(2)

the number of electrons which flow through


the resistor?

IDEAS
POTENTIAL
DIFFERENCE

OF

GCKL 2011

(b)
(a)
X

Y
P

Pressure at point P is ...................


pressure at point Q

Gravitational potential
energy at X is ........
the gravitational
than than
the
potential energy at Y.

Water will flow from .... to .....when the


valve is opened.
This due to the ............... in the pressure of
water

The apple will fall from ... to ...when the apple


is released.
This due to the ................... in the gravitational
potential energy.

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Physics Module Form 5

GCKL
2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

(c) Similarly,

Point A is connected to .............

terminal

Point B is connected to ..............

terminal

Electric potential at A is .........................


potential at B.

Bulb
A

Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in

the circuit and

than the electric

the bulb.

This is due to the electric ...............................


the two terminals.

between

As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when


electrical energy is transformed to ......... and .......energy.
The ....................................
between two points in a
circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when
one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the
other point in an electric field.

1 The potential difference,V between the two points


will be given by:

V=

Work
Quantityofcharge

W
=Q

where W is work or energy in Joule


Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

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Physics Module Form 5

EXPERIMENT 1:

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT


AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FOR AN OHMIC CONDUCTOR.

(a)
Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits.
Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?

(b
)
Why do the ammeters show
different readings?

Referring to the figure (a) and (b)


complete the following table:
(a) Inference

Apparatus / materials :
The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference
across it.

(b) Hypothesis
(c) Aim

To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a


constantan wire.

(d) Variables
(i) manipulated variable :
(ii) responding variable :

2-8

Physics Module
Form 5
Method

Chapter 2Electricity

GCKL
2011

:
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.
2. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads
the current, I= 0.2 A.
3. Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire.

Tabulation of
data

Analysis of data

Current,I/A

Volt, V/V

0.2

1.0

0.3

1.5

0.4

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.6

3.0

0.7

3.5

Draw a graph of V against I .

2-9

Physics Module
Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

Discussion

GCKL
2011

1. From the graph plotted.


(a)

What is the shape of the V-I graph?


I

......................................................................................................................

is a straight line that passes through origin


(b) What is the relationship between V and I?
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal
to the gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

3. What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit?


......................................................................................................................
Conclusion

rough it increases as long as

Ohms Law

(a)
Ohms law states

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to


the potential difference across the ends of the ohmic conductor,

if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

(b) By Ohms law: V I


V

I = constant

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

4. From, the following can be stated:


(c) The constant is known as
.................................... of the conductor.
(d) The unit of resistance is

Factors Affecting Resistance

1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure


of the ability of the conductor to (resist /
allow) the flow of an electric current
through it.

2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is


(directly / inversely) proportional to the
resistance, R.

3. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the


factors affecting the resistance in the table
below.

The temperature oftheconductor

The cross-sectional

area of the

conductor, A

material of the

conductor

conductor, l

Diagram

The type of the

Length of the

Factors

Hence, resistance of a conductor, R

211

Physics Module Form 5

So

5.

Chapter 2- Electricity

i) Electric charge,

R=

or

Q = ( It / I

ii) Work done, W = (QV /

/t )

Q/V

EXERCISE 2.2
1. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and

the amount of electrical energy converted into


heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences
across the ends of the wire.

2. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time.


In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed
through it and 25 J of electrical energy is
converted to light and heat energy. What is the
potential difference across the bulb?

3. The potential difference of 10 V is used to

operate an electric motor. How much work is


done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the
motor?

GCKL 2011

21
2

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

6. Wh

at
is
the
4. When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V,
val
the current flow is 3 A. How much work done to
ue
transform electrical energy to light and heat energy
of
in 50 s?
the
res
ist
or
in
the
fig
ur
5. Wh
e,
at
if
is
the
dr
the
y
pot
cel
ent
ls
ial
su
diff
pp
ere
ly
nce
2.0
V
acr
an
oss
d
a
the
lig
am
ht
me
bul
ter
b
rea
of
di
ng
resi
is
sta
0.5
nce
A?
5

wh
en
the
cur
ren
t
7. If
tha
the
t
bu
pas
lb
ses
in
thr
the
ou
fig
ur
gh
e
it is
ha
0.5
s a
A?
res
ist
an
Bulb

GCKL 2011

ce
of
6
,
wh
at
is
the
rea
din
g
sho
wn
on
the
am
me
ter,
if
the
dry
cell
s
sup
ply
3
V?

the
res
ist
or
of
3

in
the
fig
ur
e,
cal
cul
ate
the
vo
lta
ge
su
pp
lie
d
by
the
dr
y
cel
ls?

8. If a
cur
ren
t of
0.5
A
flo
ws
thr
ou
gh

213

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

9. Referring to the diagram on the right, calculate


(1) The current flowing through the resistor.

GCKL 2011

5
12
V
Y

two
con
duc
tors
,X

(2) The

amount of electric
charge that passes through
the resistor in 30 s

(3) The amount of work done to

transform the electric energy


to the heat energy in 30 s.

10. The graph shows the relationship


between the potential difference,
V and current, I flowing through
2

I/A

3) I
2) Calculate the resistance
of conductor Y.

and
Y.

1) C
al
c
ul
at
e
th
e
re
si

V/V
X

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

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Physics Module Form 5

2.3

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit


SERIES CIRCUIT

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

1. Effective Resistance:
R=
2. Current:
3. Potential Difference:
V=

1. Effective Resistance:
R=
2. Current:
3. Potential Difference:
V=

Effective resistance, R

(a)
(b)

2-15

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

(d)

(c)

(e)
(f)

(h)
(g)

EXERCISE 2.3

1.

The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2 and 3


respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate
(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

(b) the main current, I in the circuit

(c) the potential difference

GCKL 2011

2-16
Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL
2011

2.

There are two resistors in the circuit shown. Resistor R1 has a


resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow
through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

3.

The electrical current flowing through each branch, I1 and I2, is 5


A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2. Calculate
the voltage supplied.

4.

The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2


have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate
(a) the potential difference across each resistor

(b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

(c) the main current, I in the circuit

(d) the current passing through each resistor

2-17
Physics Module Form 5

2.4

GCKL
2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND


INTERNAL RESISTANCE

Electromotive force
Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,

Voltmeter reading,
potential difference, V <
e.m.f., E

e.m.f.

E,r

e
n
t
fl
o
w
i
n
g

C
u
r
r

R
No current flow

1. An electrical circuit is set up as 1) F


shown in figure (a). A high 2) T

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

2. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b).


1) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
2) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in

2
1
9

the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up)

3) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference


across the dry cell / potential difference across the
bulb / electromotive force).

4) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is


closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than)
when the switch is open.

5) State the relationship between e.m.f , E ,


potential difference across the bulb, VR and
drop in potential difference due to internal
resistance, Vr.

3.

a)
Why is the potential difference across the
resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?
The potential drops as much as

V across the internal resistance

b) Determine the value of the internal resistance.

Since

=
r

Therefore, the value of the internal resistance is

Ir

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

EXERCISE 2.4
1
A voltmeter connected directly across a
battery gives a reading of
1.5 V. The
voltmeter reading
drops to 1.35 V
when a bulb is
connected to the
battery and the
ammeter reading is
0.3 A. Find the
internal resistance
of the battery.

2 A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal


resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of
10.0 and the potential difference across it is 2.5
V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit
and the internal resistance, r.

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry


cell with an internal resistance of 0.5.
When the switch is closed, the ammeter
reading is 0.4 A.
Calculate

(1) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

(b) the resistance, R (c) the voltmeter


reading in closed circuit

22
0

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

4
Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance,
R of the
resistor.

e.m.f.

A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is


connected to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I
and the voltmeter reading, V are recorded for
different resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph
of V

GCKL 2011

against I is as shown. From

/
V

the graph, determine


a)

the electromotive force, e.m.f.,

2
/
A
2

2) b) the internal resistor, r of


the cell
2-21

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Hence,

2.5

; where V = IR

ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER


Hence,

Electrical Energy

; where I = V
R

Electrical Energy and Electrical Power

1. Potential difference, V across two


points is

the

SI unit :

SI unit

energy,E

3. Hence,

E = VQ
4. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.
5. Hence,
Energy dissipated, E
Power, P =
time, t

dissipated or transferred by a
coulomb of charge, Q that moves
across the two points.
2. Therefore,

Potential difference, V =

Electrical Energy, E
From the definition of
potential difference, V
Electrical energy converted, E
; where Q = It

Power is the rate of transfer of electrical


energy,

22
2

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

223

Power Rating and Energy Consumption of


Various Electrical Appliances
1.
The amount of electrical energy consumed in
a given period of time can be calculated by
Energy consumed
E

Power rating x

Pt

where

COST OF ENERGY

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Bulb

60

Refrigerator

400

Kettle

1500

Iron

1000

Total energy consumed, E

Cost

=
=

kWh

kWh x RM 0.28

= RM

GCKL 2011

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

EXERCISE 2.5
1. How much power dissipated in the bulb?

(1)

R = 10

5V

(b)

R = 10

R = 10
5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate :
(a) the current, I in the circuit
released in R 1 in 10 s.

(b) the energy

(b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in


10 s.

2
2
4

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

3. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2


kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is
12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A,
calculate

(1) Energy input to the motor

(2) Useful energy output of the motor

(3) Efficiency of the motor

GCKL 2011

22
5

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

REINFORCEMENT EXERCISE CHAPTER 2


Part A: Objective Questions

GCKL 2011

Which of the following diagrams shows

the correct electric field?

4.

5.

A current of
5 A flows
through an
electric
heater when
it
is
connected to
the 240 V
main supply.
How much
heat is
released
after 2
minutes?
1
1
200
J

3
4

2
400
J
14
400
J
144
000
J

much

energ

el

y is

ec

used

tri

by

the

bu

bulb

lb

in

is

one

la

minu

be

te if

le

the

bulb

is

40

conn

V,

ected

60

to a

240V

powe

suppl

y?

2.

Diagram 1

6.

60 J

360 J

600 J

3600 J

The diagram shows a cell of negligible


internal resistance connected to two

Diagram1show a lamp connected to a


resistor and a battery.
Calculate the power used by the light bulb.
n
n
u
s
m
1
6W
b
f
2
12 W
e
l
r
o
3
20 W
w
o
i
4
50 W
f
n
g
3. When the switch is
e
on, the current that
l
i
flows in an
e
n
electronic
c
advertisemen
t
t
t board is 3.0
r
h
x 10 -5 A.
o
e
What is the

resistors
a
d
v
e
r
t
i
s
e
m
e
n
t
b
o

ard when it
is switched
on for 2
hours ?

A
0.4
0A
0.2
5A

[ Charge of an
electron = 1.6 x 10 -19
C]

A 3.84 x 1011

What is
the value
of
current,
I?

B 1.67 x 1014
C 1.35 x 1018

1
2-26

0
.
4
5