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PROTECTIM DEVICE COORDINATION

- IDEAL AND PRACTICAL

J. C. Das, Senior Member IEEE

Simons-Eastern Consultants, Inc. Atlanta, Georgia


Abstract: The objectives o f protective device
coordination i n a r a d i a l system o f d i s t r i b u t i o n is t o
achieve s e l e c t i v i t y without s a c r i f i c i n g s e n s i t i v i t y
An
ideal
and f a s t f a u l t clearance times.
time-current
coordination
is,
however,
rarely
achieved.
Though
the
setting
ranges
and
characteristics o f the p r o t e c t i v e devices selected
may be as f l e x i b l e a s practicable, y e t compromises
may be required. In case these compromises a r e not
acceptable, additional p r o t e c t i v e devices , changes i n
t h e type and characteristics o f the protective
devices or the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f the equipment being
protected may be needed. Coordination o f p r o t e c t i v e
devices is undertaken towards t h e comnissioning s t a g e
o f an e l e c t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n system, however a
proper s e l e c t i o n o f p r o t e c t i v e devices i n the design
s t a g e itself is important t o ensure a properly
coordinated protective system.
lhe paper examines
p r o t e c t i v e device coordination i n an i n d u s t r i a l
d i s t r i b u t i o n system, covering both low and medium
voltage d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h in-plant generation and a
u t i l i t y tie. The coordination o f protective devices
for transformers, motors, in-plant generator, and
feeder cables is examined. The compromises necessary
i n each s i t u a t i o n and the possible improvements t h a t
could be made are discussed.
I. INTRODUCTION

The elements i n a p r o t e c t i v e system include


relays, direct acting s o l i d - s t a t e t r i p devices and
fuses.
Low voltage power c i r c u i t breakers and
i n s u l a t e d case c i r c u i t breakers are generally
provided with solid-state t r i p devices. For medium
and high voltage systems, r e l a y s a r e exclusively
used. A time current coordination o f these devices
should ensure s e l e c t i v i t y and back-up protection t o
u n i t p r o t e c t i v e devices so that a minimum of
unfaulted load is interrupted. A downstream device
must operate f a s t e r a s compared t o the next upstream
device, though the magnitude o f f a u l t current flowing
through these series connected devices may be t h e
same. While maximizing protection and minimizing the
area o f shutdown, it should be ensured t h a t a l l t h e
system
components
like
transformers,
cables,
switching and r o t a t i n g equipment a r e protected w i t h
respect t o continuous overloads, f a u l t withstand
c a p a b i l i t i e s and thermal damage curves according t o
applicable ASNIIIEEE Standards [l, 2, 3, 4, 51.
Enactment of the Federal Occupational Safety and
Health Act o f 1970 (OSHA) has made strict compliance
with National Electric Code [l] a l e g a l requirement
on a l l new construction a f t e r March 1972.
Retroactive requirements were introduced by OSHA for
a l l e l e c t r i c a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s and for i n s t a l l a t i o n s
after April 16, 1981.
The coordination o f p r o t e c t i v e devices should
meet t h e specific requirements o f t h e operating
processes. There may be s i t u a t i o n s where protection
can be sacrificed for continuity o f operations, e.g.
a f i r e f i g h t i n g punp. While nuisance t r i p p i n g o f a
p r o t e c t i v e device may r e s u l t i n a loss o f production,
an equipment damage due to l a c k o f protection can
lead t o more serious l o s s o f production due t o a
prolonged shutdown.
Coordination o f protective
devices i n a given s i t u a t i o n is not a s u b s t i t u t e for
proper system planning and adequacy o f the system
protection t o perform the required functions.

11. DATA FOR COORDINATION STUDY

Depending upon the extent o f coordination study


t o be undertaken, the following data may be needed:
A ) A s i n g l e line diagram o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n
system.
A s a minimum, t h i s should show a l l
protective devices which w i l l be coordinated on a
time-current basis. It is desirable t o include u n i t
protection and a l l o t h e r protective device functions
i n accordance with Reference [SI.
The switching
conditions o f breakers, a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s o f power
flow, and which breakers or switching devices w i l l be
opened on occurrence o f a f a u l t condition can also be
shown.
B) The equipment current r a t i n g s and magnitude
o f current flow under normal and emergency loading
conditions.
C)
Current
transformers
ratios,
burdens,
secondary r e s i s t a n c e and relaying accuracies.
D)
Time
current
characteristics of
all
protective devices t o be coordinated. Total clearing
and minimum melting time-current c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
fuses, let-through c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f fuses, and
current limiters.
Time-current characteristics o f
solid-state t r i p devices and relays. Relay burdens,
current s e t t i n g ranges for time delay,
and
instantaneous functions.
E ) Short-circuit
c u r r e n t s a t the point o f
application o f t h e p r o t e c t i v e devices. First-cycle,
i n t e r r u p t i n g , and 30 cycles c u r r e n t s may be
required.
The c a l c u l a t e d f a u l t c u r r e n t decrement
curves o f in-plant generators.
F) F u l l load current, locked r o t o r c u r r e n t ,
s t a r t i n g time and s a f e locked rotor withstand time o f
the medium voltage motors. The thermal damage curves
o f the motors.
G ) Power transformers impedances, primary and
secondary winding connections and through f a u l t
withstand c a p a b i l i t y curves constructed according t o
Reference [71.
H) Short-circuit withstand c a p a b i l i t y curves o f
t h e cables, depending upon t h e i n i t i a l conductor
temperature and allowable conductor temperature rise
on short-circuit [SI.
I

111. INITIAL ANALYSIS

I n i t i a l considerations t o be applied t o a
d i s t r i b u t i o n system protection a n a l y s i s before
proceeding with a c t u a l coordination o f the protective
devices are:
A) The coordination for phase f a u l t s is carried
o u t for a three-phase bolted type o f f a u l t .
This
gives the maximum a v a i l a b l e f a u l t current a t a point
i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n system. The flow o f this current
can widely change when the p l a n t is operated a t
minimum generation or outage o f a source. In some
r a r e cases, the f a u l t c u r r e n t magnitude may sink
below t h e load c u r r e n t presenting s p e c i a l relaying
and coordination considerations.
Majority
of
electrical circuit
faults
o r i g i n a t e as a phase t o ground f a u l t . The flow o f
ground f a u l t c u r r e n t is dependent upon system
grounding and can vary over l a r g e values.
Future system expansion o f motor loads w i l l
contribute t o the short-circuit
currents.
An
increase i n the f a u l t a v a i l a b i l i t y can occur from a
u t i l i t y t i e source. The short-circuit d u t i e s o f the
high voltage switchgear a t primary d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l

89CH27920/89/~1861$01.OO 0 1989 IEEE

be selected with a s a f e margin with respect t o


These switchgear
calculated short-circuit d u t i e s .
r a t i n g s may be a more acceptable basis o f calculation
o f f a u l t currents on downstream equipment f o r
protective device coordination.
B) Recommendations o f Reference [l] should be
followed for s e l e c t i o n o f protective devices and
their s e t t i n g s on transformers, feeder cables, and
f o r ground f a u l t s .
Power transformer's n e u t r a l
grounding and winding connections impact the flow o f
primary short-circuit current on a secondary f a u l t
181. The ANSI through f a u l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s [7]
should be accordingly modified.
C) The tolerances on relay and fuse time-current
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s should be considered. Due t o ambient
temperature variations, pre-loading and manufacturing
tolerances, the time-current c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f power
fuses may s h i f t . One approach employs a 25 percent
s a f e t y zone i n time f o r a given value o f current, and
the other uses a 10 percent s a f e t y zone i n current
f o r a given value o f time. me operating time o f
induction pattern overcurrent r e l a y s within a range
o f 1 t o 1.5 o f the pick-up current s e t t i n g is not
defined
D ) The saturation of the current transformers
under f a u l t condition can a l t e r t h e relay operating
times and much higher primary currents may be
required f o r operation than t h e chosen s e t t i n g s [91.
Considerations o f ANSI accuracy c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s [lo]
should
be
applied.
Saturation
of
current
transformers can a f f e c t even t h e operation o f
induction pattern current relays 1111.
E) An i n i t i a l analysis o f t h e protective
functions should reveal t h a t none o f the system
components is exposed t o damaging overloads or
s h o r t - c i r c u i t currents which w i l l go undetected under
various conditions o f operations o f the system. A l l
switching devices, i.e. c i r c u i t breakers and s t a t i c
equipment (such a s bus bars and c a b l e s ) , a r e applied
within t h e i r assigned continuous current r a t i n g s and
s h o r t - c i r c u i t ratings.
F) The s t a b i l i t y l i m i t o f in-plant generators t o
feed i n t o an external f a u l t should be considered. I f
these external f a u l t s a r e not cleared selectively and
f a s t enough, the s t a b i l i t y may be l o s t , i n t e r r u p t i n g
the very e s s e n t i a l loads which should have continued
operating.
G) The coordination o f protective devices on
co-generation and u t i l i t y t i e should receive s p e c i a l
considerations. These have been b r i e f l y discussed i n
Section I X o f the paper.

TABLE 1

Commonly Used C o o r d i n m i m e I n t e r v a l s ( C T I ' s )


Switching
Device

Coordinatina Time I n t e r v a l

Relayed

Very inverse and extremely inverse


electromagnetic relays:
0.4 sec.
5 cycle breakers
0.45 sec. 8 cycle breakers
(pre 1964 basis)
Inverse time c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
electromagnetic relays:
0.43 sec. 5 cycle breakers
0.48 sec. 8 cycle breakers
(The relay over-travel or impulsation
time is longer for inverse
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c relays a s compared t o
very inverse relays).

Medium

Voltage
Breakers

c'ir )

Solid-state relays:
0.3 sec. 5 cycle breakers
0.35 sec. 8 cycle breaker
(Relay over-travel is eliminated)

Above times can be reduced by 0.5 sec.


f o r properly c a l i b r a t e d and f i e l d
t e s t e d relays.
Electromagnetic relays:
0.20 sec.

Relayed
Weaker and
)ownstream
Fuses

Solid-state relays:
0.1 sec.
Relay over-travel and breaker opening
time is eliminated. It is possible
t o coordinate w i t h a s low a s 0.1 sec.
C T I f o r opening times below 1 sec.

.ow Voltage
Circuit
Breakers
rith Soliditate Trip
Devices

The s l i g h t time margin provided


between operating time bands w i l l
provide required coordination.
Moulded c i r c u i t breakers which do not
have short-time r a t i n g s should have
instantaneous t r i p s .

t- uses

Coordination between fuses f o r a time


duration l e s s than 0.1 sec. should not
be evaluated on a time-current basis.
Two s e r i e s connected fuses which see
t h e same maanitude of f a u l t current
w i l l coordinate, i f t h e maximum 1%
l e t through o f t h e downstream fuse is
below the minimum 1%l e t through o f
the upstream fuse.

I
I
I
I
I

I V . COORDINATING TIME INTERVAL (CTI)

The sequential operation o f t h e series-connected


protective devices depends upon maintaining a c e r t a i n
minimum coordinating time i n t e r v a l throughout t h e
operating range. A graphical representation o f t h e
time-current
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the protective
devices is an accepted method, though it is possible
t o determine s e l e c t i v i t y by comparing a t t h e most
t h r e e c r i t i c a l values o f the f a u l t currents and
ascertaining the associated relay operating times.
The C T I takes i n t o account t h e c i r c u i t breaker
opening time, relay over-travel, and an a r b i t r a r y
s a f e t y f a c t o r t o take i n t o account the current
transformer s a t u r a t i o n and s e t t i n g e r r o r s [SI.
Table 1 shows the C T I ' s normally used.
Low voltage c i r c u i t breakers a r e rated and
applied i n accordance with Reference [12].
These
breakers may operate rapidly t o p a r t t h e i r contacts
during f i r s t cycle o f short-circuit current.
Low
voltage power c i r c u i t breakers have a short-time
r a t i n g o f 30 cycles and stored energy moulded case
breakers have short-time r a t i n g s o f 18 cycles t o 30
cycles. Fuses a r e f a s t acting devices which operate
i n the f i r s t cycle o f f a u l t current. Instantaneous

S e t t i n g s must recognize p o s s i b i l i t y o f
asymmtricity on f a u l t , a s these relays
operate equally well on ac and dc
currents. Coordination without an
intervening impedance should not be
I attempted.

hstantaneous
Relays
I
(Electro- I
magnetic I
I
Type)

F i r s t cycle
devices operate i n 2 t o 3 cycles.
s h o r t - c i r c u i t c u r r e n t s should be considered f o r
operation o f these devices, though there may be some
decrement due t o ac and dc decay o f s h o r t - c i r c u i t
current components [131.
The time current coordination o f instantaneous
devices below 0.1 second when these may see t h e same
magnitude o f asymmetrical current is generally not
attempted. Reference [14] shows time-current p l o t s
of
protective devices extended down t o lr4
second.
For such a coordination t h e maximun
let-through current excursion o f a downstream device
under a l l conditions should be below the '*no operate"
boundary o f the upstream protective device.
1862

For application o f time delay relays beyond


cycles, the motor c o n t r i b u t i o n t o f a u l t current
be omitted.
The generators are represented
t r a n s i e n t or l a r g e r impedance r e l a t e d t o
magnitude o f decaying s h o r t - c i r c u i t current a t
specified c a l c u l a t i o n time [ 5 1.

six
can
by
the
the

V. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STUDIED

Figure 1 shows a s i n g l e l i n e diagram o f an


a r b i t r a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n with a u t i l i t y t i e and
in-plant generation.
The ANSI p r o t e c t i v e device
nunbers
are
shown;
however,
the
coordination
discussed i n the paper i s l i m i t e d t o the device
A discussion o f the
nunbers shown i n bold types.
philosophy
of
selection
of
p r o t e c t i v e device

Fig.

V I . 2000 KVA 480 VOLT UNIT SUBSTATION,


LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND LOW VOLTAGE
MOTOR PROTECTION COORDINATION

The p r o t e c t i v e device coordination f o r phase and


ground f a u l t s f o r the low voltage system is shown i n
Figures 2, 3 and 4.
Figure 3 shows t h e possible
improvements i n the p r o t e c t i o n and coordination over
t h a t o f Figure 2. Referring t o Figure 2, which shows
the
coordination f o r phase overcurrent devices
following observations can be made:
A) A complete p r o t e c t i o n with respect t o ANSI
through f a u l t withstand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 2000 kVA
transformer phase and ground f a u l t s i s n o t provided
by the transformer primary fuses.
These fuses
provide p r o t e c t i o n for three-phase f a u l t s exceeding

1. S i n g l e l i n e d i a g r a m o f t h e a r b i t r a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m
s t u d i e d f o r p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e coordination

approximately 45% o f the maximun f a u l t current.


Hardly any p r o t e c t i o n i s provided by the primary
fuses for secondary ground-faults.
This i s an o f t e n
drawn conclusion t h a t the primary fuses cannot
provide complete through f a u l t p r o t e c t i o n o f the
transformer.
The p r o t e c t i o n f o r the phase and ground
f a u l t s on 480 v o l t switchgear bus i s provided by the
solid-state
t r i p devices on 4000 ampere main
secondary breaker.
The secondary phase and ground
f a u l t s t h a t may occur i n s i d e the transformer or
interconnecting feeder cables between the transformer
and the 480 v o l t switchgear are o f concern. I f these
cables are longer than 25 feet, i t i s necessary t o
provide overcurrent feeder protection as required i n
Reference 113. A ground-fault i n t h i s region may be
sustained with a probable damage t o the transformer.
I f a r a t e o f pressure r i s e relay, device No. 63, i s
provided on t h e transformer, i t may a f f o r d some
protection.
Ultimately, the f a u l t may be cleared by
opening o f one or two o f the primary fuses.

functions i s excluded.
The modifications t o the
r e l a y i n g required on coordination attempts are a l s o
not shown i n Figure 1. These modifications appear on
the time-current coordination p l o t s i n Figures 2
through 10.
The system normally operates with bus t i e
breaker B between 13.8 kV buses A and B and the
The reactor t i e
reactor t i e breaker C closed.
normally c a r r i e s a load o f 6 MVA; however, i t can
suddenly increase t o 25 MVA, which the system can
support
without
excessive
voltage
drops.
The
e s s e n t i a l service load i s connected t o p l a n t
generation bus B.
The d i s t r i b u t i o n connected t o
breaker H i s studied for coordination o f p r o t e c t i v e
devices.
This load i s an essential service load and
should remain i n service when l o a d shedding has
i s o l a t e d the u t i l i t y t i e and dropped other loads
connected t o bus B.
The magnitude o f s h o r t - c i r c u i t
currents are not shown i n Figure 1, but i n the
individual
time-current
coordination
plots
in
Figures 1 through 10.
1863

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U

ld
4
5
&

0
a,

..i

3
5

me

U .d

a,c

E 3

a 0

>e
om
a C
H
E .O
d

.d
E

1864

This may give r i s e t o a ferroresonant condition


f u r t h e r discussed below i n paragraph B.
The possible improvements t h a t can be considered
are :
i) Add medium inverse time overcurrent
r e l a y s connected t o phase current transformers
These provide
located i n the transformer tank.
r e q u i s i t e s h o r t - c i r c u i t p r o t e c t i o n as shown i n
Figure 3, and must t r i p the 13.8 kV breaker H.
A
medium inverse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s allows primary fuses
t o s e l e c t i v e l y clear higher magnitude o f secondary
phase f a u l t currents.
ii)Add a very inverse time c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
ground f a u l t relay, device 51G, connected t o a
current transformer i n the transformer neutral.
Figure 4 shows t h a t with the a d d i t i o n o f t h i s relay,
the transformer i s protected with respect t o ANSI
through-fault c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r ground f a u l t s .
When devices 63 and 51G are provided, these
w i l l be required t o t r i p a remotely located breaker.
The voltage drop t h a t may occur i n the extended t r i p
c i r c u i t due t o inrush currents? as w e l l as i t s
protection
and
fault
supervision
should
be
considered.
A 63 device i s generally used with a
special
auxiliary
relay
to
prevent
nuisance
I n addition, a high-speed lockout relay,
tripping.
device No. 86, w i l l normally be used.
The extended
t r i p c i r c u i t can be separately fused and the fuse
f a i l u r e monitored.
iii)
I t i s unusual t o consider d i f f e r e n t i a l
p r o t e c t i o n f o r a transformer o f the s i z e under
review;
however,
a 7500 kVA,
13.8
2.4
kV
transformer connected t o the same 13.8 kV feeder
breaker H i s provided w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a y i n g
(Fig. 1). I t i s easy t o extend t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l
r e l a y i n g t o 2500 kVA 13.8
0.48 kV transformer by
selecting a three-winding type d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a y
connected t o the secondaries o f both the 7500 kVA, as
w e l l as 2500 kVA transformers.
For a s o l i d l y
grounded 0.48
kV system,
t h i s relay w i l l be
responsive t o ground f a u l t s also and the transformer
n e u t r a l connected 51N r e l a y may n o t be required.
This a l t e r n a t i v e w i l l require a d d i t i o n o f only three
current transformers, preferably on the bus side o f
the main 4000 ampere transformer secondary breaker,
so t h a t the feeder cables, as w e l l as transformer
w i l l be covered i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l zone o f
protection, as shown i n Figure 5.
A disadvantage o f
t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t selective t r i p p i n g cannot be
obtained.
B) Opening o f one o r two o f the primary fuses on
a transformer secondary f a u l t r e s u l t s i n energization
of
a
transformer
phase
through
the
cable
capacitance.
This c i r c u i t i s o f ferroresonance, as
i t involves e x c i t a t i o n o f one or more saturable
reactors
(transformer
windings)
through
cable
capacitance [151.
When ferroresonance occurs, h i g h
peak
voltages,
irregular
voltage
and current
waveforms and loud noises i n transformer due t o
magneto-striction can be produced.
Phase-to-phase
and phase-to-ground
capacitance o f the l a t e r a l
c i r c u i t and transformer i n t e r n a l capacitance are
important parameters t o be considered.
There are
other f a c t o r s l i k e transformer connections, grounding
arrangements and transformer secondary loads which
C173
influence
ferroresonance
C163.
Reference
indicates t h a t ferroresonance i s u n l i k e l y under the
s i t u a t i o n being studied as small length o f primary
cables are involved and transformer size i s f a i r l y
large.
Thus the r i s k o f a ferroresonant condition
due t o operation o f a primary fuse seems t o be a
minimum. A negative sequence voltage balance relay,
ANSI device number 604, can be used t o detect t h i s
condition.
In a s o l i d l y grounded system, the magnitude
o f ground f a u l t current can be higher than a
three-phase s h o r t - c i r c u i t current.
The fuse l i m i t e r s

1865

IJd KV IUS B
I

FIGURE 5
D i f f e r e n t i a l relaying for 13.8 kV
feeders and transformers
provided on 480 v o l t feeder breakers and the fuses i n
the motor s t a r t e r c i r c u i t s a t each o f the 480 v o l t
motor
control
centers
can
also
create
single-phasing.
The 480 v o l t power c i r c u i t breakers
can open a l l t h e poles on operation o f a l i m i t e r .
This f a c i l i t y w i l l not be available for the motor
c i r c u i t fuses.
Three-pole thermal relays required by
Reference [11 may a f f o r d only a p a r t i a l p r o t e c t i o n on
single
phasing.
The
motor
negative
sequence
impedance i s much lower as compared t o i t s p o s i t i v e
sequence impedance; and for a motor drawing 6 times
the f u l l load s t a r t i n g current, a mere 5% voltage
unbalance can give r i s e t o 3OW: negative sequence
current. 118, 191 Recent a v a i l a b i l i t y o f molded case
c i r c u i t breakers and motor c i r c u i t protectors without
fuses i n i n t e r r u p t i n g r a t i n g s up t o 100 k A (current
l i m i t i n g type) can obviate the necessity o f fuses i n
480 v o l t motor c o n t r o l centers.
C) Referring t o Figure 2, the solid-state
p r o t e c t i v e devices of the 4000 ampere main secondary
breaker do not coordinate with transformer primary
A l a tolerance on the fuse minimum melting
fuses.
time c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a f u r t h e r 16% s h i f t due t o
secondary
phaseto-phase
faults
should
be
considered. The improvements are shown i n Figure 3.
i) A transformer primary c u r r e n t - l i m i t i n g
fuse of 200 amperes i s selected i n Figure 3, instead
o f 150 amperes shown i n Figure 2.
This p u l l s the
fuse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s away from the 4000 amperes
c i r c u i t breaker solid-state t r i p device short-time
operating delay band.
ii)A f u r t h e r advantage o f the divergent
fuse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s taken by lowering the
short-time delay band o f 4OOO amperes c i r c u i t breaker
solid-state t r i p device.
This, however, requires
t h a t short-time delay band o f 800 ampere feeder
breaker t r i p device should also be lowered.
This
device must be equipped with a 12t f u n c t i o n t o
c l e a r the 200 hp motor s t a r t e r fuse.
Figure 3 shows t h a t the f a u l t clearance times
are reduced and the p r o t e c t i v e device coordination i s
improved.
D) Coordination o f p r o t e c t i v e devices i n s o l i d l y
grounded system requires due considerations.
The
phase f a u l t as w e l l as t h e ground f a u l t devices w i l l

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motor-starter and feeder ground-fault devices should


a l s o be coordinated.

be operative, a s t h e ground-fault
current can
approach or even exceed three-phase short-circuit
current. Coordination is thus required not only w i t h
respect.t.0 ground-fault devices, but a l s o w i t h t h e
phase-fault devices. The phase-fault o r ground-fault
devices on the main secondary breaker should not
operate f a s t e r than similar protective devices on t h e
feeder breaker t o prevent a shutdown o f t h e t o t a l
load served from the main 480 v o l t distribution.
The arc f a u l t damage t h a t can occur on a ground
f a u l t i n 480 volt d i s t r i b u t i o n has been investigated
and limits o f the acceptable damage t o bus material
on release o f a r c f a u l t energy have been established
[20, U ] . A s m a r y o f t h e recent findings i s given
i n Appendix I, These form a b a s i s o f s e t t i n g s
adopted on ground - f a u l t protective devices 151.
Reference [l] gives the maximum limits o f the
acceptable ground - f a u l t c u r r e n t s e t t i n g s and time
delays. Lower s e t t i n g s should always be provided,
where possible, t o l i m i t t h e a r c f a u l t damage.
Figure 4 shows ground - f a u l t coordination.
The
s e t t i n g s chosen w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e following arc
f a u l t damages:
i)
4000 amperes main secondary breaker
ground f a u l t pickup s e t t i n g i s 800 ampere, ground
f a u l t delay is 0.33 second and clearing time is 0.05
seconds. The p r a c t i c a l damage l i m i t is 1.0 x 1 U 6
(amperes)l.
seconds.
Thus the maximum t o l e r a b l e
arcing current w i l l be 1 9 070 amperes and acceptable
Figure 4 shows t h a t
damage t o copper 0.72 in3.
f a u l t s above 2000 amperes are cleared with a time
delay o f 0.38 seconds and thus maximum a r c f a u l t
damage t o copper is .0245 in3.
Appendix I may be
seen f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s .
i i ) 800 amperes secondary breaker ground
f a u l t pickup s e t t i n g i s 120 ampere, ground-fault
delay 0.18 second and clearing time is .05 second.
The p r a c t i c a l
damage l i m i t
is
0.2
x lo6
(amperes)l.5 seconds.
Thus the maximum t o l e r a b l e
arcing current w i l l be 9114 amperes and acceptable
damage t o copper w i l l be 0.144 in3. Figure 4 shows
t h a t f a u l t s above 500 amperes w i l l be cleared i n 0.23
seconds and thus maximum arc f a u l t damage t o copper
is 0.0018 in3.
The 480 volt motor c o n t r o l center ( K C ) i s
not provided w i t h ground - f a u l t protection on each
motor starter. Qnsider t h a t t h e smallest disconnect
i n the MCC is rated a t 100 amperes. The p r a c t i c a l
damage l i m i t i s .025 x 106 (ampere)ls5 second.
Reference [U]indicates t h a t an arcing ground-fault
protection w i l l not be required t o protect against
arcing f a u l t s through a i r , i f t h e available ground
f a u l t current a t every point on branch or feeder
c i r c u i t i s a t least 263% o f instantaneous t r i p
s e t t i n g . In practice, it is d i f f i c u l t t o c a l c u l a t e
the magnitude of bolted ground-fault current. If i t
i s above 3000 amperes, additional arcing f a u l t
protection is not required for 100 ampere disconnect,
a s shown i n Figure 4. Appendix I may be seen f o r
further details.
The above analysis shows t h a t the calculated
a c t u a l damage is much lower than the permissible
damage on a r c f a u l t s and the system is adequately
protected.
The ground- f a u l t t r i p s e t t i n g s on
480 volt feeder breaker connected t o the motor
c o n t r o l c e n t e r w i l l operate i n 0.18 seconds f o r a
ground f a u l t current o f approximately 500 amperes.
This shows t h a t conductors up t o 1 0 amperes can be
protected without exceeding the permissible damage
limits. It is, however, evident from Figure 4 t h a t
t h e ground-fault s e t t i n g s on feeder breaker w i l l not
coordinate with overcurrent devices on t h e motor
starter feeders i n t h e MCC. If t h i s is unacceptable,
an instantaneous ground-fault protection, coordinated
with the 0.18 second ground-fault band o f t h e
480 v o l t feeder breaker device, should be added
t o each MCC feeder. The pick-up s e t t i n g s on the

V I I . 7500 KVA TRANSFORMR, 2.4 KV SWITCHGEAR


AND 2500 HP MOTOR PROTECTION

The protective device coordination is shown i n


Figures 6 and 7, which a r e analyzed as follows:
A ) Vacuun contactors have a lesser interrupting
r a t i n g than t h e a i r break contactors.
Though t h e
interrupting r a t i n g o f 50 MVA f o r t h e 700 ampere
vacuum contactor shown i n Figure 6 is higher than the
crossover point (where the thermal relay curve
crosses over t h e fuse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) , the f u s e
clearing time exceeds the dropout time o f the
contactor.
Thus a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a contactor
interrupting a short-circuit current exceeding i t s
interrupting r a t i n g does e x i s t . Figure 6 shows a
dropout time o f 0.02 seconds f o r t h e vacuum contactor
[22].
It is, however, realized t h a t t h e contactor
dropout time is not very consistent and i s dependent
upon t h e magnetic energy stored i n t h e contactor
magnetic c i r c u i t .
In order t o prevent multiple
reignitions,
microprocessor
based
devices
are
available which w i l l delay the opening o f the
contactor and prevent opening near a current zero
[22, 231.
It is, however, seen from Figure 6 t h a t
even with a delay o f 5 cycles, a complete
coordination i s not achieved with t h e contactor
interrupting rating.
If an a i r break contactor o f 75 MVA interrupting
r a t i n g i s used, the s i t u a t i o n is much improved, a s
shown i n Figure 6, though a s l i g h t lack o f
coordination s t i l l e x i s t s . A dropout time o f 0.04
seconds is assumed for the a i r break contactor.
The remedial measures can be:
( a ) delayed
opening o f the vacuum contactor or latched contactors
with undervoltage protection, (b) c i r c u i t breaker
c o n t r o l , ( c ) connecting the 2500 hp motor t o a
4.16 kV system, (d) s p e c i a l design o f 2500 hp motor
t o reduce s t a r t i n g inrush current so t h a t a lower
s i z e o f motor f u s e could be used.
Considerations should a l s o be applied t o the
selection o f an appropriate fuse s i z e f o r motor
protection. The fuse selected should be t h e smallest
f u s e whose minimum melting time c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s does
not c r o s s t h e motor overload relay curve f o r currents
less than the adjusted locked r o t o r current withstand
time o f t h e motor [51.
The adjusted locked r o t o r
current is taken 10%higher than t h e a c t u a l locked
r o t o r current t o account f o r system voltage
variations and manufacturing tolerances a s shown i n
Figure 6. For the case under review, a smaller fuse
s i z e could not have been used t o provide a b e t t e r
coordination with the interrupting c a p a b i l i t y o f the
vacuum contactor.
B) In order t o coordinate with t h e 2500 hp motor
fuse, t h e phase overcurrent r e l a y s connected t o 1200
amperes breaker L feeding t h e line-up o f motor
s t a r t e r s have been set a t a pick-up o f 1920 amperes,
a s shown i n Figure 6.
This can expose t h e 1200
its associated
current
amperes
breaker
and
transformer t o 160% o f their rated continuous current
ratings.
The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a 160% overload on breaker
feeding t h e line-up o f 2.4 kV motor s t a r t e r s i s
examined: The motor protection w i l l not permit such
an overload on a sustained basis. It i s unlikely
that a l l motors w i l l experience a simultaneous
overload condition due t o driven load. A p o s s i b i l i t y
o f overload does e x i s t due t o sustained voltage dips,
which w i l l r e s u l t i n a proportional increase i n t h e
l i n e currents.
Again it is unlikely t h a t plant
operations can be sustained a t f u l l load i f t h e
voltage remains below 5 t o 1R% o f i t s r a t e d value.
Thus p r a c t i c a l l y a 16cB6 overload on breaker L w i l l
not occur due t o operating conditions o f t h e connected
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load. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a sustained high resistance


phase f a u l t , when the current w i l l remain l i m i t e d t o
160% o f pick-up s e t t i n g o f the relays f o r a
considerable period o f time, i s next examined: I t i s
u n l i k e l y t h a t f a u l t w i l l remain sustained a t t h i s
value.
The f a u l t w i l l "burn through" and the
overload protection should operate.
Reference E11
allows long time current s e t t i n g o f 6 times the f u l l
load current f o r systems above 600 v o l t s f o r
It is,
s h o r t - c i r c u i t protection o f the feeders.
however,
always desirable
t o achieve
overload
p r o t e c t i o n without exceeding the thermal l i m i t s o f
the protected apparatus.
Two phase overcurrent relays set t o operate a t
the maximum operating load current o f the 2.4 kV
motor c o n t r o l center can be added and connected f o r
alarm only.
Undervoltage relays can be used t o
p r o t e c t against sustained voltage depressions.
These
should,
however,
remain inoperative f o r motor
starting
voltage
drops
and momentary
voltage
depressions due t o system f a u l t s .
A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s f o r coordination o f
main 2000 ampere breaker K overcurrent relays
with the
1200
ampere
feeder
breaker
relays.
Figure 6 shows t h a t these relays must be set
a t 2800 amperes t o coordinate
with
the
feeder
breaker L relays.
The instantaneous elements on feeder and main
secondary breaker relays are bypassed as these w i l l
not coordinate with the motor fuse (Figures 6 and 7 ) .
C) Figure 7 shows the coordination of phase
overcurrent relays o f 13.8 kV breaker H w i t h the
2000 ampere, 2.4 kV breaker K overcurrent relays.
In
order t o provide required C T I o f 0.4 second a t the
maximum available f a u l t current on secondary o f
2.4 kV, 7500 kVA transformer, the 13.8 kV feeder
breaker H relay operating time w i l l be approximately
1.0 second.
(The decrement in 13.8 kV s h o r t - c i r c u i t
current due t o presence o f generator i s neglected f o r
the present discussion).
Though 13.8 kV buses are
provided with d i f f e r e n t i a l protection,
a short
c i r c u i t i n the feeder c i r c u i t may cause i n s t a b i l i t y
o f in-plant generator, and i t i s desirable t o have
faster f a u l t clearance time [241.
The following
considerations apply:
i) D i f f e r e n t i a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r 7500 kVA
transformer can be extended t o include 13.8 kV feeder
cables from breaker H. This i s shown i n Figure 5.
ii)A lack o f coordination can be accepted
between 2000 ampere, 2.4 kV secondary breaker. K and
This
13.8 kV feeder breaker H overcurrent relays.
lack o f coordination w i l l r e s u l t i n t r i p p i n g o f the
13.8 kV feeder breaker f o r a bus f a u l t on 2.4 kV
switchgear.
However, the p r o b a b i l i t y o f such a f a u l t
i n metalclad switchgear i s low. I f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s
not acceptable, d i f f e r e n t i a l protection can be added
t o 2.4 kV switchgear.
Alternatively,
a lack o f
coordination between 2.4 kV feeder breaker L and main
2.4 kV 2000 amperes breaker K overcurrent relays may
be acceptable.
I n each o f these a l t e r n a t i v e s the
13.8 kV feeder breaker overcurrent relays ( o f very
inverse type) need not be s e t higher than 0.7 seconds
a t the maximm coordinating point.
This i s shown i n
Figure 7.
0) Figure
7
shows
the
thermal withstand
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 500 kcmil, 13.8 kV feeder cables.
I t i s seen t h a t the cables are not f u l l y protected by
An advantage of
the feeder overcurrent relays.
accepting a lack o f coordination between 13.8 kV
feeder breaker 4 relays and 2.4 kV main 2000 ampere
breaker K relays i s t h a t 13.8 kV feeder relays can be
set low and a b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n o f the 13.8 kV feeder
cables can be obtained.
A n increase i n pick-up
s e t t i n g o f relays a t L, K, and H and decrease i n the
time d i a l s e t t i n g can be t r i e d .
This w i l l , however,
f u r t h e r compromise the p o s i t i o n described above i n
paragraphs 0 and C.

13.8 KV GENERATOR AND FEEDER


OVERCURRENT RELAY COORDINATION

This time-current cooraination i s shown i n


Figure 8. The following observations are o f i n t e r e s t :
A) The calculated three-phase f a u l t decrement
curve o f 24 MVA in-plant generator i s shown i n
Figure 8.
This i s calculated based upon the
calculations described i n Reference E53 f o r a stuck
regulator condition, which gives the minimum f a u l t
current f o r relay operation. Appendix 11 may be seen
f o r details.
The c a l c u l a t i o n o f the operating .time o f
overcurrent relays on delaying currents i s a c u t and
t r y process [251. The a n a l y t i c a l procedure described
i n reference [261 has been used i n Figure 8.
It
recommends c a l c u l a t i o n o f operating time based on
ismr, the square r o o t o f the mean r o o t current.
The
curve o f ismr i s also p l o t t e d i n Figure 8. Appendix
111 may be seen f o r d e t a i l s . The calculated settings
of the 13.8 kV feeder breaker H overcurrent relays,
It
as shown i n Figure 7, are r e p l o t t e d i n Figure 8.
is
seen
that
feeder
relays
w i l l
operate
instantaneously f o r f a u l t currents exceeding 11 kA,
when 13.8 kV bus t i e breaker B and the reactor t i e
breaker C are closed. However, when the d i s t r i b u t i o n
system i s operating only with in-plant generator,
with bus t i e breaker B open, the 13.8 kV feeder H
r e l a y takes 7 seconds t o operate.
Stability of
generator should be checked f o r t h i s operating time.
The operating times of
overcurrent devices i n
2400 v o l t and 480 v o l t system should also be examined
when only in-plant generator i s i n operation.
Figures 2, 3 and 4 show t h a t on 480 v o l t
distribution,
the f a u l t clearance time w i l l not
appreciably change; however, from Figures 6 and 7 , on
the 2400 v o l t system, a feeder f a u l t w i l l be cleared
i n 1.2 seconds, while a bus f a u l t may p e r s i s t f o r
approximately 3 seconds. These operating times must
be coordinated with respect t o generator s t a b i l i t y
l i m i t s . A study may reveal t h a t the generator w i l l
be stable f o r f a u l t s on the 2.4 kV and 480 V
d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the duration o f f a u l t clearance
times involved.
However, f a s t e r f a u l t clearance
times on 13.8 kV system are required.
The above discussion shows t h a t a d d i t i o n a l
kV
p r o t e c t i o n w i l l be required on the 13.8
d i s t r i b u t i o n when the generator alone i s supplying
the essential loads connected t o i t s bus B.
One obvious s o l u t i o n w i l l be t o add d i f f e r e n t i a l
relays t o p r o t e c t a l l 13.8 kV feeder cables.
As
shown i n Figure 5, these relays can be used t o
include transformers also i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l zone o f
protection.
The operating time of the p r o t e c t i v e devices on
13.8 kV bus A, w i t h bus t i e breaker B open, should
a l s o be s i m i l a r l y examined.
IX.

UTILITY TIE TRANSFORMER RELAY


COOROINATION

Figure 9 shows the coordination o f phase


overcurrent relays.
The maximum s e t t i n g s on feeder
relays on buses A and B should be considered for
coordination with u t i l i t y t i e transformer.
The overcurrent r e l a y settings on 13.8 kV feeder
breaker H were calculated i n Section V I I I .
Feeder
breaker C on bus A c a r r i e s the maximum l o a d and i t s
assumed overcurrent r e l a y s e t t i n g i s shown i n
Figure 9. This does not seem t o coordinate with the
generator voltage r e s t r a i n t overcurrent device 51V.
A study o f Figure 8, however, shows t h a t coordination
has been achieved f o r the f a u l t s on the load
terminals o f feeder breaker C close t o the pick-up
setting.
The s e t t i n g s on the primary and secondary sides
of 25 MVA transformer overcurrent relays coordinate
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with the transformer through f a u l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s


and provide s e l e c t i v e t r i p p i n g .
The s e t t i n g s on 67 r e l a y on breaker A are
provided t o coordinate with the u t i l i t y r e l a y s f o r a
f a u l t i n the u t i l i t y system. This r e l a y w i l l see a
r a p i d l y decaying f a u l t current.
Assuming t h a t the
motor contributions on buses A and B w i l l decay i n
6 cycles, and a 30% decay i n the f a u l t c u r r e n t
c o n t r i b u t i o n from the reactor t i e , the s h o r t - c i r c u i t
currents seen by 67 r e l a y w i l l be as shown i n Figure
9. A f a u l t decrement curve can be constructed and
response o f the r e l a y examined by constructing
effective
current
curves
as
described
in
Appendix 111. The momentary power swings t h a t may
occur on sudden loading and synchronizing should
receive consideration.
There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a
sustained low magnitude o f ground-fault c u r r e n t on
115 kV side o f 25 MVA transformer being f e d from the
i n - p l a n t generator, i n case the transformer 115 kV
side breaker i s open.
A s e n s i t i v e reverse power
relay, device 32, with a time delay can he provided
or i n t e r t r i p p i n g channels between primary and
secondary breakers can be i n s t a l l e d .
Distance
relays, device Zl, can also replace 67 r e l a y s f o r
coordination with the u t i l i t y r e l a y i n g [41.
Figure 10 shows the coordination o f
the
ground-fault p r o t e c t i v e devices.
The d e l t a primary
windings o f the u t i l i t y t i e transformer and the p l a n t
u n i t transformers r e s t r i c t the primary ground-faults
t o primary r e l a y i n g only.
The u t i l i t y transformer
and the generator are each grounded through r e s i s t o r s
l i m i t i n g the ground-fault c u r r e n t t o 400 amperes.
The coordination shown i n Figure 10 assumes t h a t the
reactor t i e , breaker C , contributes 200 amperes
ground-fault current t o the system.
The 50N/51N
devices on the primary side o f 25 MVA u t i l i t y t i e
transformer can have low settings, l o n g enough t o
r i d e through transformer
i n r u s h currents.
The
instantaneous ground relay, device 50N, i s set above
the transformer i n r u s h current.
Though the ground-faults i n the zone between the
secondary o f the 25 MVA u t i l i t y t i e transformer and
bus A w i l l be s e l e c t i v e l y cleared by devices 51N and
51G shown i n Figure 10,
yet
a differential
ground-fault relay, device 87TG, i s added t o provide
more s e n s i t i v e ground-fault p r o t e c t i o n i n t h i s zone.
The transformer d i f f e r e n t i a l relay, device 87T, w i l l
not be responsive t o low magnitudes o f ground-fault
current.
Device 87TG i s p o l a r i z e d by the c u r r e n t i n
transformer n e u t r a l c i r c u i t and has a product range
o f 0.25 t o 4 amperes.
A s e n s i t i v i t y o f 20 amperes
can be obtained, though the r e l a y burdens and c u r r e n t
.transformer s a t u r a t i o n may increase the a c t u a l
pick-up.
S o l i d s t a t e type 51N, 51G and 87TG devices
can be used t o reduce burden.
I n order t o provide s e l e c t i v e ground-fault
clearance on 13.8 kV buses A and B devices 67N are
added on each side o f the bus breaker B. Device 67N
on feeder breaker C i s by-passed when bus t i e breaker
i s closed.
The voltage dips t h a t may occur on the p l a n t
load buses on occurrence o f a f a u l t i n the u t i l i t y
system r e q u i r e c a r e f u l considerations.
The vacuum o r
a i r break contactors may drop o u t i n 2 t o 8 cycles on
Thus motors
a 20% t o 70% o f the supply voltage.
c o n t r o l l e d through NEMA E-1 and E-2 s t a r t e r s w i l l a l l
drop out, though these may be able t o r i d e through
the momentary voltage dip.
Stablization o f the
contactors, latched contactors, or c i r c u i t breaker
c o n t r o l may be required.
The SCR loads and dc d r i v e
loads w i l l be more s e n s i t i v e t o voltage dips.
Figure 1 shows a phase sequence and undervoltage
Its
device No. 47 connected t o the 13.8 kV bus A.
operation is blocked by device No. 60 f o r a p o t e n t i a l
transformer
fuse f a i l u r e .
The coordination o f
undervoltage devices i s n o t discussed i n the paper.
An autoclosing operation on the u t i l i t y l i n e s t o

c l e a r t r a n s i e n t f a u l t s may subject the motors t o


current and torque surges, which may be damaging t o
the motors. Such operation, o r a f a s t bus transfer,
shoulQ be c a r e f u l l y analyzed before implementation.
Location
of
surge
protective
devices,
their
coordination with system grounding and current
l i m i t i n g fuses, load shedding on loss o f u t i l i t y or
i n - p l a n t generation are some other r e l a t e a concerns
n o t addressed i n the paper.
X.

CONCLUSIONS

A r e l a y coordination study should ensure maximum


p r o t e c t i o n o f the system components with minimum load
removed from the service.
Compromises w i l l be
necessary i n t h i s o b j e c t i v e and each compromise
should receive c r i t i c a l considerations i n terms o f
s p e c i f i c requirements o f the p l a n t operations,
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the equipment f o r r e s t a r t and the
possible damages.
The paper demonstrates t h a t
p r o t e c t i v e device coordination i s n o t only a fag-end
a c t i v i t y , b u t also a front-end a c t i v i t y too.
It
impacts the system design and performance.
A
coordination engineer can manipulate w i t h d i f f e r e n t
relay
characteristics,
setting
ranges,
addition/subtraction
of
relaying
and
sometimes
a l t e r i n g the equipment s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t o achieve the
desired objectives.
Many p o s s i b i l i t i e s ?ay
be
present, and i m p l i c a t i o n o f each a l t e r n a t i v e i s
required t o oe examined.
The paper goes through a
step-by-step analysis o f coordination o f p r o t e c t i v e
in
an
arbitrary
multi-voltage
level
devices
d i s t r i b u t i o n system w i t h i n - p l a n t generation and a
u t i l i t y t i e . Coordination a t 180 v o l t , 2400 v o l t and
13.8 kV d i s t r i b u t i o n i s examined under f u l l p l a n t
operations and when the s h o r t - c i r c u i t l e v e l s on the
system are considerably reduced, with only i n - p l a n t
generator i n operation.
The paper shows how the i n i t i a l coordination
study f o r 480 v o l t phase and ground f a u l t r e l a y i n g
could be improved by:

A) Addition o f phase overcurrent r e l a y s on


transformer secondary feeders.
The impact o f
the r e l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s e t t i n g s with
respect t o transformer primary fuses f o r
coordination has been examined.
B ) Addition o f a ground f a u l t r e l a y on the
transformer n e u t r a l t o provide ground f a u l t
protection.
C) Manipulation o f short-time c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on
the main and feeder breakers s o l i d - s t a t e t r i p
devices and use o f 12t ramp f u n c t i o n t o
provide f a s t e r f a u l t clearance times.
D) Philosophy o f ground f a u l t r e l a y i n g i n
s o l i d l y grounded system t o l i m i t the f a u l t
damage and provide an optimum protection.
E) P o s s i b i l i t y o f s i n g l e phasing t h a t can be
caused by s h o r t - c i r c u i t c u r r e n t l i m i t e r s ,
motor s t a r t e r and transformer primary fuses
and the remedial measures.
For
2400
volt
distribution
system,
coordination of p r o t e c t i v e devices discusses:

the

o f coordinating with fuses and


i n t e r r u p t i n g r a t i n g s of the motor contactor.
Possible solutions,
circuit
breaker and
latched contactor controls, and d i s t r i b u t i o n
system design changes.
B ) Coordination o f feeder p r o t e c t i v e r e l a y s with
2500 hp motor fuses.
Problems due t o h i g h
s e t t i n g s t h a t have t o be adopted on these
relays.
C> E l i m i n a t i n g a coordinating time i n t e r v a l f o r
2.4 kV bus f a u l t r e l a y i n g and discussions o f
the impact o f t h i s compromise.
A ) Problems

1871

For the 13.8 kV system the coordination problems


discussed are:
The
generator
decrement
curve
and
calculations o f operating time o f relays on
decrement.
Lack of protection on 13.8 kV feeder cables
from s h o r t - c i r c u i t considerations.
The generator i n s t a b i l i t y due t o excessive
operating relay times f o r a 13.8 kV feeder
fault.
Reduction o f s h o r t - c i r c u i t currents with only
in-plant generation i n service, e f f e c t on
relaying
and
the
additionai
feeder
d i f f e r e n t i a l relays t h a t w i l l be required f o r
f a s t e r f a u l t clearance times.
Coordination f o r phase and ground f a u l t s on
25 MVA u t i l i t y t i e transformer.

Reference E211 shows t h a t 277 v o l t s t o ground


arcing f a u l t s , having arcing currents l e s s than 36% o f
will
be
the
available
bolted
fault
current,
self-extinguishing
Reference [ 281 gives arcing f a u l t
currents i n percentage o f bolted L-G f a u l t s f o r
various f a u l t c i r c u i t X/R r a t i o s .
The arc f a u l t
current varies from 30-41%, w i t h arc durations o f
38-70% o f a cycle.
This self-extinguishing property can be very
h e l p f u l f o r the system design and s e t t i n g o f ground
I n case the instantaneous
f a u l t p r o t e c t i v e devices.
devices are set t o operate, say a t X amperes, a ground
f a u l t p r o t e c t i o n i s not necessary i f the bolted L-G
f a u l t current i s a t l e a s t 2.63X amperes.
Figure 4
shows the self-extinguishing zone o f a 100 ampere fuse
w i t h 3000 ampere L-G f a u l t current.

APPENDIX I1
APPENDIX I
Calculation o f Generator F a u l t Decrement Curve
Arcing Faults on 480 Volt S o l i d l y Grounded Systems
Single-phase 277 v o l t arcing f a u l t t e s t s using
spacings o f one t o four inches from bus bars t o ground
a t current l e v e l s o f 3000 t o 26000 amperes indicates
t h a t f a u l t damage i s proportional t o (I)1.5t
[U].
The damaged volume o f material, VD i s given by the
expression:
VD = ks ( I ) l S 5 t (in3 /A1s5S)
where k, = 0.72 x 1(r6f o r copper
k 5 = 1.52 x 1F6f o r aluminum
k s = 0.66 x 1F6f o r s t e e l

The acceptable damage then becomes:


VD = 250 k 5 b

Xx = subtransient reactance, saturated valve


Xl, = transient reactance, saturated valve
X d = synchronous reactance
I F g = f i e l d current a t no load, rated v o l t s
IF = f i e l d current a t given load condition
T% = subtransient s h o r t - c i r c u i t time constant
i n sec.
T & = transient s h o r t - c i r c u i t time constant
sec.
TA = armature s h o r t - c i r c u i t time constant i n
sec.

------(1)

For coordinated s h o r t - c i r c u i t and ground-fault


protection, an a r b i t r a r y p r a c t i c a l l i m i t i s assumed i n
NEMA PB1.2 [271, so t h a t ( I ) 1 * 5 t i s not numerically
greater than 250 times the ampere r a t i n g o f the
This
conductor, bus or disconnect t o be protected.
gives:

(1)1.5t = 250 I~
where I R = current r a t i n g

The generator p a r t i c u l a r s are: output = 24 MVA,


rated power f a c t o r = 0.85, X ' k = 17.5%, X k = 26.25%,
x d = 13%, fg = 1 Pu, IF = 3 Pu, T"d
=
.012 sec., and TA = 0.19 sec. , a n d T k = 0 . 3 4 sec.

---_--(2)
------(3)

The ground-fault s e t t i n g s on the s o l i d s t a t e


4000
ampere
breaker
shown
in
t r i p device
of
Figure 4 are evaluated i n terms o f equations (11,
(2) and ( 3 ) .
The ground-fault pick-up i s set a t
800 amperes,
and ground-fault
currents
exceeding
2000 amperes w i l l be cleared i n 0.33
seconds.
Assuming a breaker c l e a r i n g time o f .05 second,
the maximum
tolerable
arcing
current
can
be
calculated from
equation
(2).
This
gives
(I)l.5(0.38)
= 1.0 x l o 6 and I = 19 070 amperes.
Thus the g r o m b f a u l t p r o t e c t i v e device s e t t i n g a t
0.33 sec. should not exceed 20134 amperes t o l i m i t
damage t o as acceptable l e v e l .
The acceptable damage
i s calculated from equation (l),
giving V
=
0.72 i n 3 f o r copper.
As lower ground f a u l t current
settings are provided, the a c t u a l damage w i l l be
.0245 in3, approximately 3.4% o f the permissible
arc f a u l t damage.
The available ground-fault current w i l l be given
by the following expression:
If
=
3E,
amperes
3Rg+Rf+(R1+R2+Ro)+J(X1''+X2+Xo)
(4)

A sudden s h o r t - c i r c u i t o f a generator w i l l r e s u l t
i n a changes i n the f l u x linkages i n d i r e c t and
quadrature axes. A change i n the d i r e c t a x i s tends t o
change the f l u x l i n k i n g w i t h main f i e l d , which i s
r e s i s t e d by an induced current i n the r o t o r .
As the
magnetic f l u x represents a considerable amount o f
stored energy, i t s decay i s dependent upon the time
circuits.
At
constant associated with e l e c t r i c
instance o f s h o r t - c i r c u i t subtransient reactances and
time constants are considered, a f t e r a few cycles when
the e f f e c t s o f damper windings and eddy currents i n
pole faces
disappear,
the
transient
conditions
prevail.
These s e t t l e down t o a steady-state
s h o r t - c i r c u i t current a f t e r a l l damping currents i n
the f i e l d windings have decayed.
The decay w i l l also be dependent upon e x c i t e r
c e i l i n g voltage, pre-loading and regulator response.
The i n s t a n t of f a u l t on the voltage wave w i l l
determine the presence o f a decaying dc component.
Reference [51 gives the following expression f o r the
t o t a l ac component o f armature current:

//

where E, = phase-to-neutral p o t e n t i a l i n v o l t s
Rg = resistance o f the ground g r i d
Rf = minimun f a u l t resistance

Xl",

x2,

xo

?c
decaying components o f the
and Ld i s the steady-state component.

-----

R1, Rz, Ro

ib- a r e

Ldand
current

= eft

x k s ~ we

-----,, (7)

= mahine i n t e r n a l v o l t a g e behind X d

------( 8 )
I

e'= e t + % & S i n e

------ ( 9 )
I

= m a c h i n e i n t e r n a l v o l t a g e b e h i n d X&

= Sequence resistancesand
reactances
1872

The dc component i s given by

i&

et=

.4
C L &

----- (14)

e
The r e s u l t s o f the f i n d i n g s can be summarizea i n
Table 2.
TABLE 2
E f f e c t i v e Current w a t i o n s f o r Various
Relay Types and Settings

machine i n t e r n a l voltage

0 = load power f a c t o r angle


For the decrement curve shown i n Figure 8, the
generator i s assuned unloaded.
A stuck r e g u l a t o r
c o n d i t i o n i s considered as no l o a d f i e l d c u r r e n t
Thus
r e s u l t s i n the longest r e l a y operating times.
f o r the 24 MVA generator under consideration 8 = 0;
= 6057 amperes, i& = 4038 amperes,
I~3 = I t = ,
id = 803 amperes.
The generator s h o r t - c i r c u i t
decrement curve i s as shown i n Figure 8.

Relay Type

Settings
I

Voltage r e s t r a i n t

1 ismr (5-20 a t 25% tap s e t t i n g )


I i a v (2-5)
I

Inverse r e l a y s

ismr (above 4) and i a v (2-4)

APPENDIX I11

Very inverse r e l a y s

S e t t i n g o f Generator 51V Device


Extremely inverse

The s e t t i n g s of a voltage r e s t r a i n t overcurrent


r e l a y and other
i n d u c t i o n r e l a y s on decaying
s h o r t - c i r c u i t currents can be calculated by one o f
the f o l l o w i n g three methods:
Step-byzstep method:
The percentage o f the
t o t a l t r a v e l t h a t the r e l a y d i s c w i l l move when
subjected t o an a r i t h n e t i c average o f each
incremental i n t e r v a l o f the decrement curve i s
calculated.
The t o t a l distance traveled i n
successive increments i s summed up.
T r i a l and e r r o r method [25]:
For a given r e l a y
s e t t i n g , an operating time i s assuned. For t h i s
operating
time,
the
average
current
is
calculated and a new approximation o f the
operating time made from the r e l a y curve.
The
method i s recommended f o r the saturated p o r t i o n
o f the curve.

ismr (above e), i a v (4-81,


irms (2-4)

i a v (above 8), irms (2-8)


irms (2-4)

I
I
I
1

Table 2 shows t h a t a s i n g l e curve o f operation


f o r the e f f e c t i v e current w i l l r e q u i r e i n t e r p o l a t i o n
between various e f f e c t i v e current types.
Reference C261 recommends construction o f a
"composite curve" f o r generator 51V r e l a y operation.
Between ismr and the generator 3-phase
fault
decrement curve, i t f o l l o w s the 51V zero r e s t r a i n t
characteristics.
Below steady-state 3-phase f a u l t
current, i t breaks from zero r e s t r a i n t curve upwards
and crosses each curve f o r higher r e s t r a i n t a t a
current
given by:

I"=

Mathematical solution:
Reference [261 r e l a t e s
various calculations o f e f f e c t i v e current t o the
d i f f e r e n t types o f r e l a y operating characteris t i c s and t h e i r slopes.
The e f f e c t i v e currents
considered are:

i&Xd

--v

-----(15)

XCL

= r e s t r a i n t i n p.u.

o f generator voltage

lv = steady s t a t e 3-phase current a t which


r e s t r a i n t equals V

i d dr X d are as defined i n Appendix I1


Table 3 shows a step-by-step c a l c u l a t i o n o f ismr
f o r 24 MVA generator.
The r e s u l t i n g ismr curve i s
shown i n Figure 8.
According t o Table 2, i a v should be used f o r the
However,
operating range o f 51V device i n Figure 8.
t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s do n o t show much d i f f e r e n c e between
t h e two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t the operating times shown
i n Figure 8.

TABLE 3
Calculations o f ismr
Decrement
From Generator Decrement
Curve
Time t

0.01
0.04
0.08
a. 12

Current i

6057
4831
3751
3362
3076

Average
Current
are i a v

Square
Root Average
Current

ismr =

(&.IFS

JET

--

--

--

--

--

--

5444
4291
3557

73.78
65.50
59.64

3219

56.74

0.738
1.9651
2.386
2.260

0.738
2.703
5.089
7.454

73.80
67.57
63.62
62.00

5446
4566
4096
3844

1873

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