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GSM_EDGE_BSS10.

5
Nokia GSM/EDGE BSS10.5 System
Documentation Set

GSM/EDGE BSS network planning


and implementation for AMR

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Contents

Contents
Contents 3
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Overview of Adaptive Multi Rate Codec, AMR 5


Link adaptation 10
Channel allocation 12
Requirements for AMR activation in Nokia networks 13
AMR parameters 14

AMR compatibility 23

Overview of planning AMR 27

Activating AMR in MSC 29

Activating AMR in BSC 33

Deactivating AMR 37

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Overview of Adaptive Multi Rate Codec, AMR

Overview of Adaptive Multi Rate Codec,


AMR
The Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) codec, which was standardised for GSM during
1998-1999, adapts its bit rate allocation between speech and channel coding,
thereby optimising speech quality in various radio channel conditions. This
provides the next step in the improvement of speech quality in GSM after the
introduction of the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec in 1996, which was the first
codec to provide wireline speech quality. The new AMR codec brings further
quality enhancements, especially in terms of high error robustness in the full rate
channel. It also provides the first codec with quality comparable to wireline for
the half rate channel in good channel conditions. All previous GSM codecs
operate with fixed partitioning between speech and channel coding (error
protection) bit rates. These bit rates have been chosen as compromises between
performance in error-free and high-error channels. The AMR codec operates in
either the GSM full or half rate channel and selects the optimum bit rate trade-off
between speech and channel coding, according to the channel quality, to deliver
the best possible overall speech quality. To achieve overall good speech quality,
the quality degradation caused by speech coding and the errors engendered by the
transmission channel have to be carefully balanced. The benefits of AMR are
seen when AMR capable phones come to the market.
AMR (Adaptive Multirate Codec) is a technology that enables operators
smoothly and cost-efficiently to add voice capacity in their networks. In the
Nokia AMR solution, this requires only a software upgrade. AMR is one of the
voice capacity enhancement technologies (the others are: half rate, frequency
hopping, intelligent frequency hopping, further development of handover
algorithm).
AMR consists of 8 different speech codec modes (bit rates of 12.2, 10.2, 7.95,
7.4, 6.7, 5.9, 5.15 and 4.75 kbit/s) with total of 14 channel codec modes (see
Table Channel and speech codec modes available for AMR). All the speech
codecs are defined for the full rate channel, while the six lowest ones are defined
for the half rate channel. The net bit rate is 0.10 kbit/s (in-band channel). The
channel coding bit rate (in-band) is 0.30 kbit/s.

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Table 1.
Channel
mode

Channel and speech codec modes available for AMR.


Channel
codec

Source coding
bit rate, speech

Channel
coding bit
rate, speech

12.20kbit/s
(GSMEFR)

10.20 kbit/s

mode
TCH/FR

CH0-FS
CH1-FS
CH2-FS
CH3-FS
CH4-FS
CH5-FS
CH6-FS
CH7-FS

10.20 kbit/s
7.95 kbit/s
7.40 kbit/s (IS-641)
6.70 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s
5.15 kbit/s

12.20 kbit/s
14.45 kbit/s
15.00 kbit/s
15.70 kbit/s
16.50 kbit/s
17.25 kbit/s
17.65 kbit/s

4.75 kbit/s
TCH/HR

CH8-HS

7.95 kbit/s(*)

3.25 kbit/s

CH9-HS

7.40 kbit/s (IS-641)

3.80 kbit/s

CH10-HS

6.70 kbit/s

4.50 kbit/s

CH11-HS

5.90 kbit/s

5.30 kbit/s

CH12-HS

5.15 kbit/s

6.05 kbit/s

CH13-HS

4.75 kbit/s

6.45 kbit/s

(*) Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU. Therefore it is not seen as a feasible codec mode
and is not supported by Nokia BSS10.
A mobile station must implement all the codec modes. However, the network can
support any combination of them.
Each codec mode provides a different level of error protection through a different
distribution between speech and channel coding.
The link adaptation process bears responsibility for measuring the channel
quality. Depending on the quality and possible network constraints (for example
network load), mode adaptation selects the optimal speech and channel codecs.
The mobile station (MS) and the base transceiver station (BTS) both perform
channel quality estimation for their own receive paths. Based on the channel
quality measurements, the MS sends a Codec Mode Request (Mode requested to
be used in the downlink) to the BTS. This signalling is sent in-band, along with

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the speech data. The codec mode in the uplink may be different from the one used
in downlink, but the channel mode (full rate or half rate) must be the same. The
in-band signalling has been designed to allow fast adaptation to rapid channel
variations.
Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality estimation
in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most appropriate speech and
channel codec mode to apply at a given time. In high-error conditions more bits
are used for error correction to obtain error robust coding, while in good
transmission conditions a lower amount of bits are needed for sufficient error
protection and more bits can therefore be allocated for the source coding.
An in-band signalling channel is defined for AMR that enables the MS and the
BTS to exchange messages on applied or requested speech and channel codec
modes. The above mentioned selected speech codec mode is then sent by using
the in-band signalling channel to the transmitting side, where it is applied for the
other link. The BTS commands the MS to apply a particular speech codec mode
in the uplink by Codec Mode Command. The MS sends a Codec Mode Request
(Mode requested to be used in the down-link) to the BTS. The BTS has an option
to override the MS's request. The codec mode in the up-link may be different
from the one used in the down-link, but the channel mode (full rate or half rate)
must be the same.
Mobile station must support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to
4 speech codec modes is used during a call. BSC supports all of speech codec
modes, except 7.95 kbit/s on HR channel, and it has one default set for each
channel mode. The default codec sets also include a default set of decision
thresholds and hysteresis. The initial codec mode and codec set with thresholds
and hysteresis are transferred between network elements and MS by using the
existing layer 3 signalling. Only a few add-ons are needed.
Benefits of AMR

GSM speech codecs (full rate - FR, half rate - HR and enhanced full rate - EFR)
operate at a fixed coding rate. The channel protection (against errors) is also
added at a fixed rate. The coding rates are chosen as a compromise between best
clear channel performance and robustness to channel errors.
The AMR system exploits the implied performance compromises by adapting the
speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel.
This gives better and clearer channel quality and better robustness to errors.
These benefits are realised regardless of whether operating in full rate or half rate
channels.

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Example 1.
Consider the situation where the mobile is in a zone of the cell border where you
have a bad C/I (for example 7dB). With EFR you have a degradation of the
quality of the speech due to interference. With AMR, however, similar quality
can be achieved with a reduced number of speech coded bits which allows more
bits to be used for error protection and correction (see Figure ETSI Mean Opinion
Score test results for current EFR/FR and AMR FR).
Together with quality improvements, the need to enhance capacity by allocating
half rate channels to some or all mobiles network is also recognised. The radio
resource algorithm, enhanced to support AMR operation, allocates a half rate or
full rate channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell in
order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity.
Example 2.
Increase in capacity: in normal C/I condition two voice channels can use a single
timeslot in the case of Half rate coding (HR) with little or no compromise in voice
quality compared to EFR (see Figure ETSI Mean Opinion Score test results for
current EFR/FR and AMR FR).
Optimal interworking with power control and handover algorithms together with
enhanced quality measurements (FER Measurement feature) provides full
benefits and interworking with prior Nokia capacity features including Intelligent
Frequency Hopping (IFH).

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AMR Full Rate performance compared to


Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0

4.0

3.0

EFR

2.0

AMR FR
1.0
No Errors

16 dB C/I

13 dB C/I

10 dB C/I

7 dB C/I

4 dB C/I

AMR Half Rate performance compared to


Full Rate in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

FR
AMR HR

1.0
No Errors

Figure 1.

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19 dB C/I

16 dB C/I

13 dB C/I

10 dB C/I

7 dB C/I

4 dB C/I

ETSI Mean Opinion Score test results for current EFR/FR and AMR
FR

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Related topics

1.1

AMR compatibility

Overview of planning AMR

Link adaptation
Link adaptation is the capacity of AMR feature to vary the codec used according
to the link conditions. In this way both network, for up-link, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio conditions in each link and take decisions on which codec
should be applied to each way.
Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: codec mode
adaptation and channel mode adaptation. The channel mode adaptation algorithm
decides whether the speech can be handled by a full rate channel or by a half rate
channel according to the link conditions, whereas for the channel selected, the
codec mode adaptation algorithm decides which codec is the one that provides
the best speech quality for the current radio conditions. That is, as each codec has
different channel protection and speech encoding performance, the idea of the
codec mode adaptation is to select the codec that provides the best speech quality
for the radio conditions that the receivers are submitted to.
Codec mode adaptation

There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the standardised fast LA and the
Nokia proprietary slow LA. Fast LA BTS allows in-band codec mode changes on
every other TCH frame, but in Nokia proprietary slow LA BTS allows in-band
codec mode changes only on SACCH frame interval.
The choice of the LA mode is done on BSC basis with the parameter
slowAmrLaEnabled: if it is set to N (default) it is used fast LA; if it is set to Y
it used Nokia slow LA. With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes
only on the SACCH frame interval of 480 ms and this option gives better
flexibility with HO and PC algorithms. During both LA modes, the BTS indicates
the first and the last used codec during the last measurement interval and the
average quality. The BTS commands the MS to apply a particular speech codec
mode in the up-link, but the MS can only request the BTS to apply a particular
speech codec mode in the downlink, because the BTS has an option to override
the MS's request (see Figure AMR Link Adaptation).
The codec mode bit rate, that is, the bit rate partitioning between the speech and
channel coding for a given channel mode, may be varied rapidly (see Figure
Example of AMR Codec mode link adaptation). The codec mode can be switched
one up or one down at the time so that it is not possible to switch from the mode

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12.2 kbit/s to 4.75 kbit/s when for example the modes 5.9 kbit/s and 7.4 kbit/s are
included to the mode set. Also, it should be noted that codec changes do not take
place immediately after the Codec Mode Command/Request is sent: there is a
delay until a frame is received with the new codec.
Codec mode adaptation operates independently on the up-links and down-links. It
is transparent to the channel allocation and operates independently of it. Control
depends mainly on measurements of the quality of the respective links.
Channel mode adaptation

The channel mode (FR or HR) is switched to achieve the optimum balance
between speech quality and capacity enhancements. The up-links and down-links
use the same channel mode. The channel mode is selected by the network based
on measurements of the quality of the up-links and down-links.

MS

BTS

UL channel quality 16 or 8
kbit/s
DL
codec

DL channel
quality

Figure 2.

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UL
adaptation

UL codec
command

DL
adaptation

DL codec

AMR link adaptation

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C/I

EFR operation

AMR mode

C/I

AMR

30

25

12.2 kbit/s

20

7.95 kbit/s

15

6.70 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s

10

0
0

10

Figure 3.

1.2

15
Time[s]

20

25

30

Example of AMR Codec mode link adaptation

Channel allocation
HR and EFR principles are applied with two exceptions.
The first exception is that an AMR call may be started in full rate channel in a
new cell. It depends on the new parameter Initial AMR channel rate
which has a default value Any Rate. This value means that the chosen channel
rate is defined by taking into account the currently used information (Channel
Type IE, resource situation on radio interface, circuit pool, current channel rate,
HO parameters). The other option is AMR FR which means that full rate channel is
allocated despite the values of the currently used information. If AMR FR codec
is not present in the Channel Type element or it cannot be allocated (for example
AMR FR set is disabled in the target cell), allocation continues with the currently

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used information. The parameter is valid in call setup (except FACCH call setup),
internal inter cell HO and external HO. The reason behind this new parameter is
that quality may not be sufficient for HR AMR call setup (radio measurement is
done on SDCCH).
The second exception is that AMR capable TRXs are allocated first for AMR
speech call use and at the latest for other speech calls.

1.3

Requirements for AMR activation in Nokia


networks
BSC Capacity requirements

Maximum 512 TRXs, if RTSLs are configured as FR channels.


Maximum 256 TRXs, if RTSLs are configured as HR or DR channels.
Signalling requirements on Air and Abis interfaces

Performance of signalling channels such as SACCH and FACCH which are


carried by the same TSL, should be checked.
Introduction of AMR HR causes increased load in measurement reporting;
therefore a 16 kbit/s LAP-D signalling link does not have enough capacity in all
cases. When the TRX contains merely HR or DR TCH resources, the situation
becomes even worse if the SDCCHs have also been configured on the TRX.
Therefore a 32 kbit/s LAP-D link should be introduced to support the telecom
signalling.
Configuration requirements

The new circuit pool (pool 23) is needed in A interface configuration. AMR
feature needs to be activated first and Abis parameters need to be set on Abis
interface.
Equipment requirements

See AMR compatibility.

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1.4

AMR parameters
The following lists the related parameters, proper settings and best practices of
AMR. Some aspects of the AMR functionality are explained with the related
parameters. All the parameters are on cell basis.
Initial codec mode selection

These parameters specify which of the possible speech coding bit rates are
implemented in the serving cell:
.

amrConfigurationFR: codecModeSet

amrConfigurationHR: codecModeSet

Their default values are 12.2, 7.4, 5.9 and 4.75 Kb/s (for FR) and 7.4, 5.9 and
4.75 Kb/s (for HR). Remember also that MS supports all speech codec modes,
although only a set of up to 4 speech codec modes is used during a call (the codec
set can be updated during the call, for example handover) and BSC supports all of
speech codec modes, except 7.95 kbit/s on the HR channel.
The initial codec mode to start the speech coding operation at call set-up and after
handover is signalled by layer 3 signalling in which case it is used by the BTS
and the MS.
With these parameters you can select a different codec mode from the default
ones:
.

amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode

amrConfigurationFr: startMode

amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode

amrConfigurationHr: startMode

If the initial codec mode is set to 0 (default), the most robust codec of the ones
available is chosen (start mode is 00, which is the default value); otherwise if the
initial codec mode is 1 it is possible to choose one of the four codec modes
available. It is recommended that you choose the most robust codec available
(less bit rate for speech).
With initAmrChannelRate parameter you define the initial channel in call
set-up (except FACCH call set-up), internal inter cell handover and external
handover for an AMR call. The default value is Any Rate and this means that
the chosen channel rate is defined by taking into account the currently used
information (Channel Type IE, resource situation on radio interface, circuit pool,
current channel rate, handover parameters). The other option is AMR FR, which

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means that full rate channel is allocated despite the values of the currently used
information. If AMR FR cannot be allocated, then allocation continues with the
currently used information. The reason behind this last parameter is that quality
may not be sufficient for HR AMR call set-up (radio measurement is done on
SDCCH).
Codec mode adaptation

With the following parameters you can define the thresholds for switching from
one codec mode to another:
.

amrConfigurationFr: threshold1: switching from codec mode 2


(second lowest bit rate) to codec mode 1 (lowest bit rate  most robust)

amrConfigurationFr: threshold2: switching from codec mode 3


to codec mode 2

amrConfigurationFr: threshold3: switching from codec mode 4


(highest bit rate  less robust) to codec mode 3.

The recommended values are 4dB, 7dB, and 11dB (in ideal conditions
simulations show that also the values 6dB, 9dB and 13dB give good results in
terms of FER (Frame Error ate) and mean opinion score (MOS) degradation:
higher threshold means that most robust codecs are used, lower thresholds imply
that less robust codecs are used.
Aggressive (low C/I) thresholds increase the number of TCH frame errors since
the high modes are used even with low C/I values. Whereas thresholds that are set
too high decrease the usage of higher modes, thus some speech quality is lost due
to lower number of speech bits.
With the following parameters, together with AMR FR thresholds, it is possible
to define the threshold for switching from one codec mode to another.
.

amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis1

amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis2

amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis3

The thresholds and the related hysteresis must be in consistent order, that is,
AMR FR threshold 1 and AMR FR hysteresis 1 must be equal to or smaller than
the AMR FR threshold 2 and the AMR FR hysteresis 2 and the AMR FR
threshold 2 and the AMR FR hysteresis 2 must be equal to or smaller than the
AMR FR threshold 3 and the AMR FR hysteresis 3.
The following parameters are used for HR configuration:

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amrConfigurationHr: threshold1

amrConfigurationHr: threshold2

amrConfigurationHr: threshold3

amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis1

amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis2

amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis3

In case of only three codec modes (default HR codecModeSet) threshold 3 and


hysteresis 3 are set to 0 in order not to use them.
The basic AMR set for FR and HR channels on the BSC are shown in tables
Basic AMR FR codec set and Basic AMR HR codec set:

Table 2.

Basic AMR FR codec set

Codec Mode

Threshold (C/I)

Hysteresis (C/
I)

Lower
threshold (C/I)

Upper
threshold (C/I)

12.2

11

11

7.4

12

5.9

4.75

Table 3.

Basic AMR HR codec set

Codec Mode

Threshold (C/I)

Hysteresis

Lower
threshold

Upper
threshold

7.4

14

14

5.9

11

11

15

12

4.75

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Configuration in handovers

Two of the BSC-related parameters refer to the behaviour during internal and
external handovers:
.

amrConfInHandovers

amrSetGradesEnabl

With the first parameter it is possible to define the preference between the
currently used multi-rate configuration and the one defined for the target BTS
during internal and external handovers. With the value 1 (default) the currently
used multi-rate configuration is preferred in further channel allocations; with the
value 2, the multi-rate configuration of the target BTS is preferred in further
channel allocations.
With the second parameter it is possible to define whether codec mode set
downgrades during internal HOs and upgrades after internal HOs are applied or
not. Its value can be Y or N: with Y downgrades and upgrades are applied, with N
(default value) these upgrades and downgrades are not applied.
Handover (HO) and power control (PC) thresholds parameters for AMR

RxQual thresholds (either HO or PC) are specified for FR and HR AMR sets:

Power Control

Handover

Pc lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR

threshold dl Rx qual for AMR FR

Pc lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR

threshold dl RX qual AMR HR

Pc lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR

threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR

Pc lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR

threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR

Pc upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR


Pc upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR
Pc upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR
Pc upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR

With these parameters it is possible to define the threshold level of the signal
quality down-link/up-link measurements for triggering the handover. The default
values for these new thresholds are set according to the default AMR codec sets.
The current Nx and Px values of RxQual thresholds are used.

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If you want to replace or remove the most robust mode on AMR set, the
corresponding PC and HO RxQual thresholds have to be edited manually. This
also applies to the least robust mode. Replacement or removal of a middle mode
on AMR set does not have an effect on the new PC and HO thresholds.
One solution to benefit from the AMR penetration is to use more aggressive
(higher values) power control for the AMR mobiles and thus decrease the average
interference. This can be done by having different power control thresholds for
the AMR mobiles. By using higher thresholds for AMR mobiles (1-2 classes
more), lower transmission powers are used and as a result, there is less
interference.
Channel mode adaptation

The RxQual HO thresholds are specified for FR and HR AMR and they are taken
into account when making intra-cell handovers between FR AMR and HR AMR:
.

amrHandoverFR

amrHandoverHR

The current Nx and Px values of RxQual thresholds are used. With these
parameters it is possible to define the threshold level of the signal quality downlink and up-link measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover process for
an AMR FR call in order to switch it to an AMR HR call and vice versa.
These two parameters together with the parameters lower limit for FR TCH
resources and upper limit for FR TCH resources
(btsLoadDepTCHRate) are used to control the packing of FR calls, to HR
AMR calls due to cell load and unpacking of HR calls to FR AMR calls due to
call quality. In fact half-rate channels can be used without a noticeable speech
quality loss in high C/I conditions. However, with low C/I the speech quality
decreases a lot and therefore it is essential to choose the best connections when
FR to HR handovers are performed. In addition, if the availability of full-rate
timeslots is good in a certain cell, all connections could be kept in full-rate in
order to optimise the quality and minimise the number of intra-cell handovers. In
Figure Packing of FR calls to HE AMR calls due to cell load, there is a simple
example of how the packing works.
The spontaneous packing of FR AMR calls to HR AMR calls is triggered when
the cell load is high enough, that is, the number of free full rate resources
decreases below the value of the parameter lower limit for the FR TCH
resources (according to the BTS-level parameter, if it contradicts with the
BSC-level parameter). The packing continues until the cell load is low enough,

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that is, the number of free full rate resources increases above the value of the
parameter upper limit for FR TCH resources (according to the BTSlevel parameter, if it contradicts with the BSC-level parameter). Spontaneous
packing is triggered by any new channel allocation.
Free FR TCHs

Upper limit for free


FR TCHs

Lower limit for free


FR TCHs

Time
No packing of
AMR FR calls

Packing of
AMR FR calls

Figure 4.

No packing of
AMR FR calls

Packing of FR calls to HE AMR calls due to cell load

The BSC keeps a record of the FR and HR AMR calls per BTS and the
corresponding counters are updated during channel allocations and releases. After
a new channel allocation, the BSC makes a request to perform an intra-cell HO
for N number of calls. The packing request is done with a new unacknowledged
procedure. The BSC performs the ordered HOs for FR AMR calls, the quality of
which is above the amrHandoverFR (the intra HO threshold RxQual for AMR
FR) and which use the least robust codec mode. A packing request is valid until it
is overwritten by a new one. A packing request, which indicates the number N as
0, is used to remove any pending packing requests. Moreover, the algorithm tries
to fill the timeslots in HR channel pairs or tries to find an empty half for one HR
channel allocation. Before the FR  HR handover decision, the number of
timeslots having only one HR connection is measured. For example, if there is
only one half timeslot available, that is allocated first. If more FR  HR
handovers are required, they are made in pairs so that two FR connections are
selected and allocated to the same timeslot.

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The spontaneous unpacking of the HR AMR calls to the FR AMR calls is


triggered when the quality of a HR AMR call degrades below the
amrHandoverHR (intra HO threshold RxQual for AMR HR). The cell load is
not affected.
The FR and HR AMR call counters of the BSC are again updated during the
channel allocations and releases.
With packing and unpacking, hard blocking decreases compared to a pure FR
case. Moreover, low average TCH FER can be maintained based on the allocation
criteria that only good quality connections are allocated to HR channels.
Prioritisation of AMR capable cells during internal and external handovers

In order to support AMR call continuation also after an internal or external HO,
the handover target cell list is manipulated so that the AMR capable cells with a
low load are on the top. The candidate cells on the target list are already
eliminated by the adjacent cell parameter hoMarginPBGT. The AMR capable
cells are verified by the adjacent cell parameter amrDadlbTargetCell (AMR
target cell of direct access to desired layer) and those AMR capable adjacent cells
are prioritised that are below the threshold of the BTS parameter
btsLoadThreshold (see Figure DADL/B and prioritisation). Prioritisation is
only done when AMR call is the current call type.
Direct access to desired layer/band (DADL/B)

In order to support the 2nd generation BTSs in the AMR environment, DADL/B
is used to hand over AMR calls to co-located AMR capable cells during the call
set-up phase. Both intra-BSC and inter-BSC DADL/B handovers are possible and
preferably inside one frequency band as the failure probability is higher with
DADL/B handovers between bands. Figure DADL/B and prioritisation shows an
example of DADL/B.

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Overview of Adaptive Multi Rate Codec, AMR

1) DADL/B used to direct AMR


mobiles to AMR capable cells

2nd gen BTS


SDCCH

2) Prioritisation of AMR capable


cells in handovers

2nd gen BTS


UltraSite
(co-located)

TCH

Figure 5.

DADL/B and prioritisation

TCH assignment versus DADL/B handover start:


.

If an AMR call is the aim and there are no TCHs available in the accessed
cell, then Directed Retry (DR) due to congestion, with or without queuing,
is made.

If, on the other hand, there are TCHs available in the accessed cell and
there are adjacent cells defined as DADL/B handover target cells with the
new parameter amrDadlbTargetCell, then the DADL/B handover is
applied. Adjacent cells are not verified according to the MS capabilities
(single band, dual band or tri-band), but they have to fulfil the current
signal level requirements in order to be considered as a target cell for
DADL/B handover. The current method for sorting the target adjacent cells
is used.

if there are no DADL/B handover target cells defined, the TCH is allocated
from the accessed cell and another speech codec than AMR is chosen.

Intelligent Frequency Hopping and Intelligent Underlay-Overlay

AMR specific good and bad C/I thresholds are specified for the HR and FR
AMR:

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super reuse good C/I threshold for AMR HR

super reuse bad C/I threshold for AMR HR

super reuse good C/I threshold for AMR FR

super reuse bad C/I threshold for AMR FR

Current Nx and Px values of C/I thresholds are in use.


The new threshold values for the HR AMR also serve the basic HR. The current
good and bad threshold pair (super reuse good C/I threshold and super reuse bad
C/I threshold) is going to serve the basic FR.
With these new thresholds you can control which type of speech calls are
preferred to enter the super layers cells, for example HR AMR calls could be
packed to the super layer in order to increase the capacity of regular layer cells
(good value for HR AMR - 5 dB compared to the current value and good value
for FR AMR for example. + 5 dB).

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AMR compatibility

AMR compatibility
Table 4.

Frequency band

Compatible

GSM 800

GSM 900

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

Table 5.

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This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network
element

Compatible

Release

MSC

M10

Nokia NetAct

OSS3.1

BSC

S10

SGSN

NetAct Planner

Nokia 2nd Gen.

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Notes

All the Nokia BSCs


and TCSM2 with
software version
S10 onwards have
full AMR support
except 7.95 kbit/s
on HR channel.

4.0

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Table 5.

Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable). (cont.)

Network
element

Compatible

Release

Notes

Nokia Talk-family

DF6

Nokia Talk-family
BTSs have AMR
support for FR
modes 4.75, 5.9,
7.4 and 12.2 as
well as for HR
modes 4.75, 5.9
and 7.4 with
software version
DF 6.0 onwards.
With this
approach, the link
adaptation
between full scale
of FR modes and
almost full scale of
HR can be
achieved.

Nokia PrimeSite

DF6

FH is removed if
AMR is
implemented.
Nokia PrimeSite
BTS AMR support
is similar to that of
Nokia Talk-family
BTS. Due to the
limited DSP
processor/memory
capacity the
frequency hopping
functionality is
removed from
PrimeSite BTSs to
enable this SW
modification. This
means that the last
PrimeSite SW
release supporting
frequency hopping
is DF5.0.

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Nokia MetroSite

Nokia InSite

Nokia UltraSite

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CXM3.0

CXM3.0

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AMR compatibility

Table 6.

MMI

Parameters

BSC MMI

BTS MMI

Table 7.

Notes

This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network
element

Additional or
alternative HW/FW
required

BSC

BTS

TC

SGSN

Table 8.

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This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, = not applicable).

Notes

TCSM2 with new


pools required.

This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS

AMR capable MS
required

STD/OPT

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Related topics

Overview of Adaptive Multirate Codec

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Overview of planning AMR

Overview of planning AMR


Summary

For an overview of the feature, see Overview of Adaptive Multi Rate Codec
(AMR).
The implementation procedure for AMR includes the following:
Steps

1.

Activating AMR in MSC

2.

Activating AMR in BSC

Further information

If you want to deactivate the feature, see Deactivating AMR.

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Activating AMR in MSC

Activating AMR in MSC


It is important to follow these instructions carefully in order to succeed in taking
the feature into use.

Note
Steps 1 and 2 are executed in the BSC.

Steps

1.

Change the direction of circuits

2.

Create the connection from the BSC to the MSC (Reversed Hunting in
the BSC)

3.

Lock the BSC


ZEDS:NO=<BSC_NO>:L;

4.

Create incoming CGR to the MSC


ZRCC:TYPE=CCS,NCGR=<used_circuit_group_name>,
CGR=<used_circuitgroup_number>:DIR=IN,NET=NA0,LSI=AIF01,
SPC=<used_signalling_point_code>:INR=IMCG0,
TREE=<tree_number>,NCCP=BSSAP;

Note
Parameter TREE is obligatory, but never used. The tree number can thus be
defined as any number.

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Parameter NCGR should be named so that it can be identified with a BSC. This is
because only NCGR gives information on which CGRs are tied to a certain BSC.
You can check it with an MML of the Circuit Group Handling (RC) command
group.

5.

Create PCM timeslots under CGR


ZRCA:NCGR=<used_circuit_group_name>:CRCT=<used_pcmtsl's>:
CCSPCM=<used_ccspcm>::;

6.

Set the circuit allocation by the BSS to ON in the BSC


This command is executed in the MSC.
ZEDH:NO=<BSC_NO>:ON;

7.

Unlock the BSC


ZEDS:NO=<BSC_NO>:U;

8.

Change the circuit state


ZCEC:CRCT=<pcm-tsl's>:BL;
ZCEC:CRCT=<pcm-tsl's>:wo;

9.

Take adaptive multi-rate speech codec support into use


Choose one of the following:
.

Activate Adaptive multi-rate speech codec


Ensure that at least the adaptive multi-rate code points are allowed
for the adaptive multi-rate codec supporting BSCs. This is done with
the EDT command in the MSC:

ZEDT:VER=<used BSSAP version>:F,50,1


Activate adaptive multi-rate speech codec without Enhanced Ainterface circuit reservation
a.

Ensure that at least the adaptive multi-rate code points are


allowed for the adaptive multi-rate codec supporting BSCs.
This is done with the EDT command in the MSC:
ZEDT:VER=<used BSSAP version>:F,50,1

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Activating AMR in MSC

b.

c.

Ensure that circuit pools are used in the A-interface, if all


routes towards the BSC do not support all type of channels,
that is, full rate, half rate, enhanced full rate, adaptive multirate. This is relevant if remote transcoders are used by the
BSC and part of transcoders do not support the adaptive
multi-rate codec.
Define routes to the BSC through AMR transcoders by the
AMR pool (pool number 23). If the BSC does not use the
remote transcoders, the route between the MSC and the BSC
should be defined as 'Not Applicable Pool' (pool number 0).
Routes and circuit groups are handled with the MSC MML
with commands of the Route Handling (RR) command group.
To create a route, that is, to connect a circuit group to the
route, use the RRC command:

Further information

Example:
a.

b.
c.

ZRCC:TYPE=CCS,NCGR<used_circuit_group_name>,
CGR=<used_circuitgroup_number>:DIR=OUT,NET=NA0,
LSI=AIF01,SPC=<used_signalling_point_code>;
ZRCA:NCGR=<used_circuit_group_name>:
CRCT=<used_pcmtsl's>:ccspcm=<used_ccspcm>::;
ZRRC:EXT:ROU=<used_route>,OUTR=OMCG0,NCCP=BSSAP,
STP=1,TON=NOE,NCGR=<used_circuit_group_name>;

PARAMETER NAMES:
ROU ... INTERNAL ROUTE NUMBER OBLIGATORY
OUTR .. OUTGOING REGISTER SIGNALLING OBLIGATORY
NCCP... CALL CONTROL PARAMETER SET OBLIGATORY
STP ... STARTING POINT FOR OUTGOING DIALLING
OBLIGATORY
TON ... TYPE OF NUMBER
NCGR .. CIRCUIT GROUP NAME OBLIGATORY

d.
e.
f.
g.

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The feature has effect on the MMI command EDR (handling of


route) where only the new pool definitions can be used.
Lock the used BSC.
ZEDS:NO=<used_bsc_no>:L;
Define AMR pool for the BSC and the route used.
ZEDR:NO=<used_bsc_no>:<used_pool_no>,<used_route>;
Unlock the used BSC.
ZEDS:NO=<used_bsc_no>:U;
Change circuit state.
ZCEC:CRCT=<pcm-tsl's>:BA;

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ZCEC:CRCT=<pcm-tsl's>:WO;
Further information

Overview of planning AMR

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Activating AMR in BSC

Activating AMR in BSC


These instructions cover all actions to be done in the BSC to take AMR into use.
Summary

The procedure consists of the following phases


.

Switching the feature-specific control parameter on (step 1).

Adding and modifying circuits in the BSC (step 2).

Configuring radio network parameters (steps 3-6).


For detailed instructions and command parameters, see BSS Integration in
BSC documentation.

Testing AMR (steps 7-9).


The test requires an MSC/VLR, BSC and a mobile.
The BSC should be defined to use reversed circuit allocation by the BSC.
The BSC will be in a locked status, that is the circuits are not in use. This
means that traffic will be cut off, therefore it is recommended to take the
feature in use during some 'low traffic hours'.

Steps

1.

Switch on the AMR_CODEC_USED parameter


ZWOA:2,619,A;

2.

Modify speech circuits


You must change the type of the first TC-PCM from FR to AMR (pool 1 ->
pool 23). There are currently two ways to do this: speech circuits can be
removed and added during modification or speech circuits can be
transferred automatically during modification. Choose one of the
following:

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Remove and add speech circuits during modification.


a.

Remove the speech circuits of the first TC-PCM from the


circuit group that contains circuits of pool 1.
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BA (or BL);
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>CRCT=1-1&&-31:NU;

ZRCR:NCGR=<circuit group name for pool 1>,


ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31;
b.
Modify the TC-PCM type.
ZWGM:<et_pcm number>,1:POOL=23;
c.
Restart the TCSM unit.
This must be done because the TC-PCM type in the TCSM2
is changed and the TCSM unit is in WO-EX state. The
TCKONF-MML notifies about this during ZWGM command.
ZUSU:TCSM,ZUSU:TCSM,
d.
Add speech circuits to the circuit group that contains circuits
of pool 23.
ZRCA:NCGR=<circuit group name for pool 23>,
ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31,CCSPCM=3;
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BA;
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:WO;
Modify circuits with automatic circuit transfer
a.
b.

c.

d.

3.

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Block speech circuits of the TC-PCM.


ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BA (or BL);
Modify the TC-PCM type.
Note that the target circuit group has to exist.
ZWGM:<et_pcm number>,1:POOL=23:NCGR=<circuit
group name for pool 23>;
Restart the TCSM unit.
This must be done because the TC-PCM type in the TCSM2
is changed and the TCSM unit is in WO-EX state. The
TCKONF-MML notifies about this during ZWGM command.
ZUSU:TCSM,<et_pcm number>
Unblock speech circuit of the TC_PCM.
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:WO;

Modify AMR parameters (EQY and EQO commands)

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Activating AMR in BSC

With the EQY command you modify the BTS Adaptive Multi Rate Speech
Codec (AMR) parameters in the BSDATA. The command is optional and
is supported by the following BTS generation types: Nokia Talk-Family,
Nokia PrimeSite, Nokia MetroSite and Nokia UltraSite.
4.

Modify AMR signal quality threshold parameters of the BTS (EHB,


EHC and EHO commands)
With the EHB command you modify the AMR signal quality threshold
parameters of the BTS in the BSDATA. The command is optional.

5.

Modify AMR signal quality threshold parameters related to PC (EUB,


EUC and EUO commands)
With the EUB command you modify the AMR signal quality threshold
parameters related to power control in the BSDATA. The command is
optional.

6.

Define the AMR other parameters within the BSS (EEM and EEO
commands)

7.

Make a call via the BSC that has enhanced circuit allocation support

8.

Perform adaptive multi-rate speech codec test

9.

Make a call using a mobile station supporting multi-rate speech codec


Expected outcome
.

.
.

Enhanced A-interface allocation working if the call via the BSC that
has circuit allocation support is successful.
Adaptive multi-rate test.
In the tests, the speech with adaptive multi-rate speech coding is
successful when acceptable speech quality is achieved and no alarms
are given in the system, which relate to the adaptive multi-rate
functioning. The selected A-interface resource can be checked for
example from call record information (MMI: MCJ).

Further information

Overview of planning AMR

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Deactivating AMR

Deactivating AMR
The feature cannot be switched off, but it is possible to create the BSC without
using reversed circuit allocation.
Steps

1.

Lock the BSC


ZEDS:NO=<BSC_NO>:L;

2.

Set the circuit allocation by the BSS to OFF in the BSC


This command is executed in the MSC.
ZEDH:NO=<BSC_NO>:OFF;
After the feature is switched off, the BSC cannot set the unlocked state
because the CGR direction is IN. If the BSC should be used like an
ordinary BSC, CGR pcm-tsl's state must be changed to NU state and after
that the CGR can be deleted.

3.

Create the BSC like an ordinary BSC

4.

It is possible to set Adaptive multi-rate speech codec support OFF in


the used BSSAP version
ZEDT:VER=<used BSSAP version>:F,50,0;

5.

Test the deactivation by clearing test calls

Further information

Overview of planning AMR

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