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No.

47

No.47
Shipbuilding and Repair Quality Standard
(1996)
Part A

Shipbuilding and Repair Quality Standard for New Construction

Part B

Repair Quality Standard for Existing Ships

Appendix - Referenced IACS Unified Requirements

47-1
IACS Rec. 1996

___________________________________________________________________________

Part A Shipbuilding and


Repair Quality Standard for
New Construction
___________________________________________________________________________

PART A - SHIPBUILDING AND REPAIR QUALITY STANDARDS FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION


1. Scope
2. General requirements for new construction
3. Qualification of personnel and procedures
3.1 Qualification of welders
3.2 Approval of welding procedures
3.3 Qualification of NDE operators
4. Materials
4.1 Materials for structural members
4.2 Under thickness tolerances
4.3 Surface conditions
5. Cutting
5.1 Gas cutting
5.2 Plasma arc cutting
5.3 Laser beam cutting
6. Fabrication and fairness
6.1 Flange longitudinals and flange brackets
6.2 Built-up sections
6.3 Corrugated bulkheads
6.4 Pillars, brackets and stiffeners
6.5 Maximum heating temperature on surface for line heating
6.6 Block assembly
6.7 Special sub-assembly
6.8 Shape
6.9 Fairness of plating between frames
6.10 Fairness of plating with frames
7. Alignment
8. Welding
8.1 Typical butt weld plate edge preparation (manual welding)
8.2 Typical fillet weld plate edge preparation (manual welding)
8.3 Typical butt and fillet weld profile (manual welding)
8.4 Lap, plug and slot welding
8.5 Distance between welds
8.6 Automatic welding
9. Repair
9.1 Typical misalignment repair
9.2 Typical butt weld plate edge preparation repair (manual welding)
9.3 Typical fillet weld plate edge preparation repair (manual welding)
9.4 Typical fillet and butt weld profile repair (manual welding)
9.5 Distance between welds repair
9.6 Erroneous hole repair
9.7 Repair by insert plate
9.8 Weld surface repair
REFERENCES
1. IACS Bulk Carriers - Guidelines for Surveys, Assessment and Repair of Hull Structure
2. TSCF Guidelines for the inspection and maintenance of double hull tanker structures
3. TSCF Guidance manual for the inspection and condition assessment of tanker structures
4. IACS UR W7 Hull and machinery steel forgings
5. IACS UR W8 Hull and machinery steel castings
6. IACS UR W11 Normal and higher strength hull structural steel
7. IACS UR W13 Allowable under thickness tolerances of steel plates and wide flats
8. IACS UR W14 Steel plates and wide flats with improved through thickness properties
9. IACS UR W17 Approval of consummables for welding normal and higher strength hull structural steels
10. IACS UR Z10.1 Hull surveys of oil tankersand Z10.2 Hull surveys of bulk carriers Annex I
11. IACS Recommendation No. 12 Guidelines for surface finish of hot rolled plates and wide flats
13. IACS Recommendation No. 20 Guide for inspection of ship hull welds

1. Scope
1.1 This standard provides guidance on shipbuilding quality standards for the hull structure during new
construction and the repair standard where the quality standard is not met.
Whereas the standard generally applies to
- conventional ship types,
- parts of hull covered by the rules of the Classification Society,
- hull structures constructed from normal and higher strength hull structural steel,
the applicability of the standard is in each case to be agreed upon by the Classification Society.
The standard does generally not apply to the new construction of
- special types of ships as e.g. gas tankers
- structures fabricated from stainless steel or other, special types or grades of steel
1.2 The standard covers typical construction methods and gives guidance on quality standards for the most
important aspects of such construction. Unless explicitly stated elsewhere in the standard, the level of
workmanship reflected herein will in principle be acceptable for primary and secondary structure of conventional
designs. A more stringent standard may however be required for critical and highly stressed areas of the hull, and
this is to be agreed with the Classification Society in each case. In assessing the criticality of hull structure and
structural components, reference is made to ref. 1, 2 and 3.
1.3 Details relevant to structures or fabrication procedures not covered by this standard are to be approved by the
Classification Society on the basis of procedure qualifications and/or recognised national standards.
1.4 It is intended that these standards provide guidance where established shipbuilding or national standards
approved by the Classification Society do not exist.
1.5 For use of this standard, fabrication fit-ups, deflections and similar quality attributes are intended to be
uniformly distributed about the nominal values. The shipyard is to take corrective action to improve work
processes that produce measurements where a skewed distribution is evident. Relying upon remedial steps that
truncate a skewed distribution of the quality attribute is unacceptable.
2. General requirements for new construction
2.1 In general, the work is to be carried out in accordance with the Classification Society Rules and under the
supervision of the Surveyor to the Classification Society
2.2 Provisions are to be made for proper accessibility, staging, lighting and ventilation. Welding operations are to
be carried out under shelter from rain, snow and wind.
2.3 Welding of hull structures is to be carried out by qualified welders, according to approved and qualified
welding procedures and with welding consumables approved by the Classification Society, see Section 3. Welding
operations are to be carried out under proper supervision by the shipbuilder.

3. Qualification of personnel and procedures


3.1 Qualification of welders
3.1.1 Welders are to be qualified in accordance with the procedures of the Classification Society or to a recognised
national or international standard, e.g. EN 287, ISO 9606, ASME Section IX, ANSI/AWS D1.1. Recognition of
other standards is subject to submission to the Classification Society for evaluation. Subcontractors are to keep
records of welders qualification and, when required, furnish valid approval test certificates.
3.1.2 Welding operators using fully mechanised or fully automatic processes need generally not pass approval
testing provided that the production welds made by the operators are of the required quality. However, operators
are to receive adequate training in setting or programming and operating the equipment Records of training and
production test results shall be maintained on individual operators files and records, and be made available to the
Classification Society for inspection when requested.
3.2 Qualification of welding procedures
Welding procedures are to be qualified in accordance with the procedures of the Classification Society or a
recognised national or international standard, e.g. EN288, ISO 9956, ASME Section IX, ANSI/AWS D1.1.
Recognition of other standards is subject to submission to the Classification Society for evaluation. The welding
procedure should be supported by a welding procedure qualification record. The specification is to include the
welding process, types of electrodes, weld shape, edge preparation, welding techniques and positions.
3.3 Qualification of NDE operators
3.3.1 Personnel performing non-destructive examination for the purpose of assessing quality of welds in
connection with new construction covered by this standard, are to be qualified in accordance with Classification
Society rules or to a recognised international or national qualification scheme. Records of operators and their
current certificates are to be kept and made available to the Surveyor for inspection.
4.

Materials

4.1

Materials for Structural Members

All materials, including weld consummables, to be used for the structural members are to be approved by the
Classification Society as per the approved construction drawings and meet the respective IACS Unified
Requirements. Additional recommendations are contained in the following paragraphs.
All materials used should be manufactured at a works approved by the Classification Society for the type and
grade supplied.
4.2

Under Thickness Tolerances

The maximum permissible under thickness tolerance, for hull structural plates and wide flats with thicknesses of
5mm and over, for both normal and high strength steels, is -0.3mm. The thickness is to be measured at random
locations whose distance from an edge shall be at least 10mm. Local surface depressions resulting from
imperfections and ground areas resulting from the elimination of defects may be disregarded provided the
imperfections or grinding are in accordance with the requirements of Section 4.3 Surface Conditions.

4.3

Surface Conditions

4.3.1

Definitions
Minor Imperfections:

pittings, rolled-in scale, indentations, roll marks, scratches and


grooves
Defects:
Cracks, shells, sand patches, sharp edged seams and minor
imperfections not exceeding the limits of table 1 in case that the
sum of the influenced area exceeds 5% of the total surface
in question
Depth of Imperfections or defects: the depth is to be measured from the surface of
the product
4.3.2

Unrepaired Conditions

Minor imperfections, in accordance with the limits described in Table 1, are permissible and may be left
unrepaired.
4.3.3

Repairs of Defects

Defects are to be repaired by grinding or welding irrespective of their size and number. Repair by grinding may
be carried out over the entire surface up to a depth equal to the under thickness tolerances given in para.4.2.
The sum of the repairs by welding and of the repairs by grinding, reducing the nominal thickness by more than
0.3mm, shall not exceed 2% of the total surface in question.
4.3.4

Repairs by Grinding

For ground areas with a thickness less than the minimum permissible thickness stated in para.4.2, the nominal
thickness is not to be reduced by more than 7% or 3mm, whichever is the lesser. Each single ground area is not
to exceed 0.25m2.
The defects are to be completely removed by grinding. Complete elimination of the defects is to be verified by a
magnetic particle or dye penetrant test procedure. The ground areas must have smooth transitions to the
surrounding surface.
4.3.5

Repairs by welding

Local defects, which cannot be repaired by grinding, may be repaired by chipping and/or grinding followed by
welding in accordance with the qualified procedures approved by the Classification Society concerned.
Any single welded area is not to exceed 0.125m2. The weld preparation should not reduce the thickness of the
product below 80% of the nominal thickness. Welding is to be completed with one layer of weld bead in excess,
which is subsequently to be ground smooth, level with the plate surface. The soundness of the repair is to be
verified by ultrasonic, magnetic particle or dye penetrant methods.

Plate Thickness

Surface
Area
N + 0.1
3 t < 8mm
N
N - 0.1
N - 0.2
N - 0.3
N + 0.2
8 t < 25mm
N + 0.1
N
N - 0.1
N - 0.2
N - 0.3
N + 0.3
25 t <40mm
N + 0.2
N + 0.1
N
N - 0.1
N - 0.2
N - 0.3
N + 0.5
40 t <80mm
N + 0.4
N + 0.3
N + 0.2
N + 0.1
N
N - 0.1
N - 0.2
N - 0.3
N + 0.6
80 t<150mm
N + 0.5
N + 0.4
N + 0.3
N + 0.2
N + 0.1
N
N - 0.1
N - 0.2
N - 0.3
N - Nominal Plate Thickness

100%

15%

5%

2%

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

0.4
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.8
0.7
-

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

Table 1 Limits for minor imperfections left unrepaired

4.3.6

Further Defects

4.3.6.1 Lamination
Investigation to be carried out at the steelmill into the cause and extent of the laminations. Severe lamination is to
be repaired by a local insert plates. The minimum breadth of the plate to be repaired by insert is to be:

1600mm for shell and strength deck plating in way of cruciform or T-joints,
800mm for shell, strength deck plating and other primary members,
300mm for other structural members.

Local limited lamination may be repaired by chipping and/or grinding followed by welding in accordance with
sketch (a). In case where the local limited lamination is near the plate surface, the repair may be carried out as
shown in sketch (b). For limitations see paragraph 4.3.5.

(b)

(a)

4.3.6.2 Weld Spatters


Loose weld spatters are to be removed completely by grinding to clean metal (see Table 9.13) on:

shell plating
deck plating on exposed decks
in tanks for chemical cargoes
in tanks for fresh water and for drinking water
in tanks for lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, including service tanks

5.

Cutting

5.1

Gas Cutting

The deviation u of cut edges (see sketch (a)), from a right angle or from a required slope, and the roughness of
the cut edges R, is to meet the following requirements:
Mechanised Gas Cutting

Manual Gas Cutting: Free Edges

Cut Thickness

Standard

Limit

a20mm

u=0.6mm
R=100m

u=1.2mm
R=150m

Strength Members

Standard

Limit

u=1.5mm
R=150m

u=1.5mm
R=300m

u=1.5mm
R=300m

u=1.5mm
R=500m

Others
a>20mm

u=0.75mm
R-100m

u=1.5mm
R=150m

Manual Gas Cutting: Welding Edges


Standard

Limit

Strength Members

u=1.5mm
R=400m

u=1.5mm
R=800m*

Others

u=1.5mm
R=800m*

u=1.5mm
R=1500m*

Individual non-sharp notches caused by torch failures (scouring) are not to be greater than 3mm in depth. Deeper
scores should be removed by grinding.
* Unless the welding procedure needs smaller tolerances.
u

u
(a) deviation u from a right angle or from a required slope

5.2

Plasma Arc Cutting

The deviation u of the cut edge (see sketch (a)), from a right angle or from a required slope, and the roughness of
the cut edge R, is to meet the following requirements:
Mechanised Plasma Arc Cutting
Cut Thickness

Standard

Limit

a20mm

u=1.0mm
R=100m

u=1.5mm
R=150m

a>20mm

u=0.75mm
R=100m

u=1.5mm
R=150m

The tolerances for manual cutting are to be agreed by the Classification Society concerned.
5.3 Laser Beam Cutting
The standard range and the tolerance limits for the deviation from a right angle or from a required slope of the
cut edges and the roughness of the cut edges are to be agreed by the Classification Society concerned.

6. Fabrication and fairness


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10

Flanged longitudinals and flanged brackets (see Table 6.1)


Built-up sections (see Table 6.2)
Corrugated bulkheads (see Table 6.3)
Pillars, brackets and stiffeners (see Table 6.4)
Maximum heating temperature on surface for line heating (see Table 6.5)
Block assembly (see Table 6.6)
Special sub-assembly (see Table 6.7)
Shape (see Table 6.8 and 6.9)
Fairness of plating between frames (see Table 6.10)
Fairness of plating with frames (see Table 6.11)

7. Alignment
The quality standards for alignment of hull structural components during new construction are shown in Tables
7.1, 7.2 and 7.3. The classification society may require a closer construction tolerance in areas requiring special
attention, as follows:

Regions exposed to high stress concentrations


Fatigue prone areas
Detail design block erection joints
Higher tensile steel regions

8. Welding Details
8.1 Typical butt weld plate edge preparation (manual welding) - see Table 8.1 and 8.2
8.2 Typical fillet weld plate edge preparation (manual welding) - see Table 8.3 and 8.4
8.3 Typical butt and fillet weld profile (manual welding) - see Table 8.5
8.4 Lap, plug and slot welding - see Table 8.6
8.5 Distance between welds - see Table 8.7
8.6 Automatic welding - see Table 8.8
9. Repair
9.1 Typical misalignment repair - see Tables 9.1 to 9.3
9.2 Typical butt weld plate edge preparation repair (manual welding) - see Table 9.4 and 9.5
9.3 Typical fillet weld plate edge preparation repair (manual welding) - see Tables 9.6 to 9.8
9.4 Typical fillet and butt weld profile repair (manual welding) - see Table 9.9
9.5 Distance between welds repair - see Table 9.10
9.6 Erroneous hole repair - see Table 9.11
9.7 Repair by insert plate - see Table 9.12
9.8 Weld surface repair - see Table 9.13

TABLE 6.1 - FLANGED LONGITUDINALS AND BRACKETS


Detail

Standard

Limit

Remarks

Breadth of flange
a

b
+ 3 mm

+ 5 mm

compared to correct size


Angle between flange and web
a

+ 3 mm

+ 5 mm

+ 10 mm

+ 25 mm

per 100 mm of a

compared to template

Straightness in plane of flange


and web

per 10 m

TABLE 6.2 - BUILT UP SECTIONS


Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Frames and longitudinal

+ 1.5 mm

+ 3 mm

per 100 mm of a

Distortion of face plate


a
d

d < 3 + a/100 mm

d < 5 + a/100 mm

Distortion of girder and transverse


at upper edge and flange

+5 mm

+8 mm

per span between


primary members

TABLE 6.3 - CORRUGATED BULKHEADS


Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Mechanical bending

Material to be suitable for


cold flanging (forming)
and welding in way of
radius

R > 3t mm

Depth of corrugation

+ 3 mm

+ 6 mm

Breadth of corugation web

+ 3 mm

+ 6 mm

Breadth of corrugation

+ 3 mm

Pitch and depth of swedged


corrugated bulkhead compared
with correct value

h : + 2.5 mm

+ 6 mm

h : + 5 mm

Where it is not aligned with other bulkheads


h

P : + 6 mm

P : + 9 mm

Where it is aligned with other bulkheads


P

P
P : + 2 mm

P : + 3 mm

TABLE 6.4 - PILLARS, BRACKETS AND STIFFENERS


Detail

Standard

Limit

4 mm

6 mm

+ D/200 mm

+ D/150 mm

max. + 5 mm

max. 7.5 mm

Pillar (between decks)

Cylindrical structure diameter


(pillars, masts, posts, etc.)

Tripping bracket and small stiffener,


distortion at the part of free edge

a
t
a < t/2 mm

Snipe end of secondary face plates


and stiffeners

max. 8mm

0 = 300

H = 15 mm

+ 5 mm
- 5 mm

D = 25 mm

+ 10 mm
- 5 mm

F = 15 mm

+ 5 mm

0
F

Remarks

TABLE 6.5 - MAXIMUM HEATING TEMPERATURE ON SURFACE FOR


LINE HEATING FOR PLATE FORMING
Item

Standard

Conventional
Process
AH32-EH32 &
AH36-EH36

Water cooling just


after heating

under 650C

TCMP type
AH32-EH32 &
AH36-EH36
(Ceq.>0.38%)

Air cooling after


heating

under 900C

Air cooling and


subsequent water
cooling after
heating

under 900C (starting


temperature of water
cooling to be under
500C)

TMCP type
AH32-DH32 &
AH36-DH36
(Ceq.0.38%)

Water cooling just


after heating or air
cooling

under 1000C

TMCP type
EH32 & EH36
(Ceq.0.38%)

Water cooling just


after heating or air
cooling

under 900C

NOTE:

Ceq = C +

Mn
Cr + Mo + V
Ni + Cu
+
+
(%)
6
5
15

Limit

Remarks

TABLE 6.6 - BLOCK ASSEMBLY


Item

Standard

Limit

Remarks

Flat Plate Assembly


Length and Breadth

2.5mm

5mm

Distortion

10mm

20mm

Squareness

5mm

10mm

5mm

10mm

Length and Breadth

2.5mm

5mm

Measured along

Distortion

10mm

20mm

the girth

Squareness

10mm

15mm

5mm

10mm

2.5m

5mm

Distortion

10mm

20mm

Squareness

5mm

10mm

5mm

10mm

10mm

20mm

5mm

10mm

Length and Breadth

2.5mm

5mm

measured along

Distortion

10mm

20mm

with girth

Squareness

10mm

15mm

5mm

10mm

15mm

25mm

7mm

15mm

Deviation of interior members from plate

Curved plate assembly

Deviation of interior members from plate

Flat cubic assembly


Length and Breadth

Deviation of interior members from plate


Twist
Deviation between upper and lower plate

Curved cubic assembly

Deviation of interior members from plate


Twist
Deviation between upper and lower plate

TABLE 6.7 - SPECIAL SUB-ASSEMBLY


Item

Standard

Limit

Distance between upper/lower gudgeon

5mm

10mm

Distance between aft edge of boss and aft


peak bulkhead

5mm

10mm

Twist of sub-assembly of stern frame

5mm

10mm

Deviation of rudder from shaft centre line

4mm

8mm

Twist of rudder plate

6mm

10mm

Flatness of top plate of main engine bed

5mm

10mm

Breadth and length of top plate of main


engine bed

4mm

6mm

Remarks

TABLE 6.8 - SHAPE


Detail

Standard

Limit

Remarks

Deformation for the whole length

+ 50 mm

Deformation for the distance between


two adjacent bulkheads

+ 15 mm

Cocking-up of fore body

+ 30 mm

Cocking-up of aft-body

+ 20 mm

Rise of floor amidships

CL
+ 15 mm

per 100 m against


the line of keel
sighting

TABLE 6.9 - SHAPE


Item

Length between perpendiculars

Standard
50
per 100m

Limit

Remarks

Applied to
ships of 100
metre length
and above.
For the
convenience of
the
measurement
the point where
the keel is
connected to
the curve of the
stern may be
substituted for
the fore
perpendicular
in the
measurement
of the length.

Length between aft edge of boss and


main engine

25mm

Moulded breadth at midship

15mm

Applied to
ships of 15
metre breadth
and above.
Measured on
the upper deck.

Moulded depth at midship

10mm

Applied to
ships of 10
metre depth
and above.

TABLE 6.10 - FAIRNESS OF PLATING BETWEEN FRAMES


Item

Shell plate

Parallel part
(side & bottom shell)

4mm

Fore and aft part

5mm

Tank top plate

Bulkhead

Strength deck

Standard

4mm

Limit

Remarks

8mm

Longl. bulkhead
Trans. bulkhead
Swash bulkhead

6mm

Parallel part

4mm

Fore and aft part

6mm

9mm

Covered part

7mm

9mm

Bare part

6mm

8mm

Second deck
d

Covered part

7mm

9mm
s

Forecastle deck
poop deck

Bare part

4mm

8mm
300 < s < 1000

Covered part

6mm

9mm

Bare part

4mm

6mm

Covered part

7mm

9mm

Outside wall

4mm

6mm

Inside wall

6mm

8mm

Covered part

7mm

9mm

Interior member (web of girder, etc)

5mm

7mm

Floor and girder in double bottom

5mm

7mm

Super structure
deck

House wall

TABLE 6.11 - FAIRNESS OF PLATING WITH FRAMES


Item

Standard

Limit

Parallel part

2 /1000mm

3 /1000mm

Fore and aft part

3 /1000mm

4 /1000mm

Strength deck
(excluding
cross deck) and
top plate of
double bottom

3 /1000mm

4 /1000mm

Bulkhead

4 /1000mm

5 /1000mm

Others

5 /1000mm

6 /1000mm

Shell plate

lm
l = span of frame
(minimum l = 3 m)
d

Remarks

To be measured
between on trans.
space (min. l=3m)

TABLE 7.1 - ALIGNMENT


Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Alignment of butt welds


t

a < 0.15t strength


a < 0.2t other

a < 3.0 mm

a
Alignment of fillet welds

a) strength and higher


tensile
a < t1/3 measured
on the median

t3
t1

a1

t2

a1 < (5t1 - 3t2)/6


measured on the
heel line
b) other

t1 < t2

a < t1/2 measured


on the median
a1 < (2t1 - t2)/2
measured on the
heel line

Alignment of fillet welds


a) strength and higher
tensile steel
a < t1/3 measured
on the median
a
b) other

a1 < t1/2 measured


on the heel line
a1
t1

Where t3 is less than


t1, then t3 should be
subsituted for t1 in
the standard

TABLE 7.2 - ALIGNMENT


Standard

Detail

Limit

Alignment of flange of T-longitudinal

a < 0.04b strength


a

a = 8.0 mm

Alignment of height of T-bar,


L-angle bar or bulb
a

t
Primary members
a < 0.15t
3.0 mm
Secondary members
a < 0.20t

Alignment of panel stiffener

d < L/50

Gap between bracket/intercostal and


stiffener

a < 2.0 mm

Alignment of lap welds


a
a < 2.0 mm
a

3 mm

Remarks

TABLE 7.3 - ALIGNMENT


Detail

Standard

Gap between beam and frame

a
a < 2.0 mm

Position of scallop

d > 75 mm

d
Gap around stiffener cut-out

s < 2.0 mm

Limit

Remarks

TABLE 8.1 -TYPICAL BUTT WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION (MANUAL WELDING)
Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Square butt

t < 5 mm
G = 3 mm

see Note 1

G
Single bevel butt
0
t > 5 mm
G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm
= 500 - 700

see Note 1

R
G
Double bevel butt
0

t > 19 mm
G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm
= 500 - 700

see Note 1

R
G

Double vee butt, uniform bevels


0
G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm
= 500 - 700

see Note1

t
G

Double vee butt, non-uniform bevel


G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm
6 < h < t/3 mm
= 500
= 900

0
t

see Note 1

R
G
0
NOTE 1
Different plate edge preparation may be accepted or approved by the Classification Society on the basis
of an appropiate welding procedure specification.
For welding procedures other that manual welding, see paragraph 3.2 Qualification of weld procedures

TABLE 8.2 - TYPICAL BUTT WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION (MANUAL WELDING)
Detail

Standard

Limit

Remarks

Single vee butt, one side welding with


backing strip (temporary or permanent)

G = 3 - 9 mm
= 300 - 450

see Note 1

Single vee butt


0
t

G < 3 mm
= 500 - 700
R < 3 mm

see Note 1

R
G

NOTE 1
Different plate edge preparation may be accepted or approved by the Classification Society on the basis
of an appropiate welding procedure specification.
For welding procedures other that manual welding, see paragraph 3.2 Qualification of weld procedures

TABLE 8.3 - TYPICAL FILLET WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION (MANUAL WELDING)
Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Tee Fillet
t
see Note 1

G < 2 mm
G

Small angle fillet

= 500 - 700
= 700 - 900
G < 2 mm

see Note 1

Single bevel tee with permanent


backing
t
G < 4 - 6 mm
o

o = 30o - 450
G

Not normally for


strength members
also see Note 1

Single bevel tee


t
R
0

G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm
= 500

see Note 1

NOTE 1
Different plate edge preparation may be accepted or approved by the Classification Society on the basis
of an appropiate welding procedure specification.
For welding procedures other that manual welding, see paragraph 3.2 Qualification of weld procedures

TABLE 8.4 - TYPICAL FILLET WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION (MANUAL WELDING)
Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Single J tee
t

G = 2.5 - 4 mm
r = 12 - 15 mm
R = 3mm
> 350

see Note 1

Double bevel tee symmetrical

t
t > 19 mm
G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm
= 500

see Note 1

Double bevel tee assymetrical


t
R
500

500

t > 19 mm
G < 3 mm
R < 3 mm

see Note1

Double J bevel symmetrical

t
R

G = 2.5 - 4 mm
R < 3 mm
r = 12 - 15 mm
> 350

see Note 1

NOTE 1
Different plate edge preparation may be accepted or approved by the Classification Society on the basis
of an appropiate welding procedure specification.
For welding procedures other that manual welding, see paragraph 3.2 Qualification of weld procedures

TABLE 8.5 -TYPICAL BUTT AND FILLET WELD PROFILE (MANUAL WELDING)
Detail

Standard

Limit

< 60o
h < 0.2R

maximum
h 6 mm

Remarks

Butt weld toe angle


t

Butt weld undercut


D

D = 0 mm

0.5 mm

Fillet weld leg length

a
450

s = leg length
a = throat depth

s > 0.9sd
a > 0.9ad

sd = design s
ad = design a

over short
weld lengths

Fillet weld toe angle


0

< 900

Fillet weld undercut

D = 0 mm

0.5 mm

in areas of stress
concentration and fatigue,
the Class Society may
require a lesser angle

TABLE 8.6 -TYPICAL LAP, PLUG AND SLOT WELDING (MANUAL WELDING)
Standard

Detail

Limit

Remarks

Fillet weld in lap joint


b

t1

t2
b = 2t2 + 25
t 1 > t2
location of lap joint to
be approved by the
Classification Society

Fillet weld in joggled lap joint


b

t2

t1
b > 2t2 + 25 mm

t 1 > t2
Plug welding
l

t < 12 mm

L
q

R
t

l
R
q
G
L

12 < t < 25 mm

60 mm
6 mm
40o-50o
12mm

80 mm
0.5t mm
30o
t mm
> 2l

G
Slot welding
l

G
l
L

t < 12 mm

t > 12mm

20 mm
80 mm

2t
100 mm

2l - 3l max. 250 mm

TABLE 8.7 - DISTANCE BETWEEN WELDS


Standard

Detail

Limit

Scallops over weld seams

for r > 30 mm
d > 5 mm
r

Distance between two butt welds

d > 0 mm

Distance between butt weld and


fillet weld

d > 10 mm

Distance between butt welds

for cut-outs
d > 30 mm

d
for margin plates
d > 300 mm

150 mm

Remarks

TABLE 8.8 - AUTOMATIC ARC WELDING


Detail

Standard

Limit

Remarks

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

G
0 < G < 0.8 mm

G < 5 mm

Edge preparation as per


Tables 8.1 and 8.2
SAW may follow WPS
approved by the
Classification Society
see Note 1

TABLE 9.1 - TYPICAL MISALIGNMENT REPAIR


Repair standard

Detail

Remarks

Strength members
a > 0.15t1 or a > 3 mm
release and adjust

Alignment of butt joints


t

Others
a > 0.2t1 or a > 3 mm
release and adjust

a) strength and higher tensile steel

Alignment of fillet welds


t3
t1
t2
a

t1/3 < a < t1/2 - generally increase


weld throat by 10%
a > t1/2 - release and adjust over a minimum
of 50a
b) Other
a > t1/2 - release and adjust over a minimum
of 30a

t 1 < t2

Alignment of flange of T-longitudinal


L

When 0.04b < a < 0.08b, max. 8 mm


grind corners to smooth taper over a
minimum distance L=3a
When a > 0.08b or 8 mm
release and adjust over minimum L=50a

When 3 mm < a < 6 mm


building up by welding
When a > 6 mm
release and adjust over minimum L=50a
for primary structure and L=30a elsewhere

Alignment of height of T-bar,


L-angle bar or bulb
a

Alignment of lap welds


a

2 mm < a < 5 mm
weld leg length to be increased by the same
amount as increase in gap

a
a > 5 mm
members to be re-aligned

Where t3 is less
than t1, then t3
should be substituted
for t1 in standard

TABLE 9.2 - TYPICAL MISALIGNMENT REPAIR


Repair standard

Detail

Gap between bracket/intercostal and


stiffener

Remarks

When 2 mm < a < 5 mm


weld leg length to be increased by
increase in gap
When 5 mm < a < 10 mm
chamfer 300 - 400 and build up
with welding

When a > 10 mm
increase gap to 50mm and fit
collar plate

t1

b
t > t1
b = (2t + 25) mm, min. 50 mm

Gap between beam and frame

a
a > 2 mm - release and adjust

TABLE 9.3 - MISALIGNMENT REPAIR


Repair standard

Detail

When d < 75 mm, web plate to be


cut between scallop and slot, and
collar plate to be fitted

Position of scallop

b (min. 50mm)

OR fit smal collar over scallop


d

OR fit collar plate over scallop

When 2 mm < s < 5 mm


weld leg length to be increased as much
as increase in gap opening over 2 mm

Gap around stiffener cut-out

When 5 mm < s < 10 mm


nib to be chamfered and built up by
welding
s

s
s
When s > 10 mm
cut off nib and fit collar plate with
same height as nib
b

20 mm < b < 50 mm

Remarks

TABLE 9.4 - TYPICAL BUTT WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION REPAIR (MANUAL WELDING)
Repair standard

Detail
Square butt

When G < 10 mm
chamfer to 450 and build up by
welding

When G > 10 mm
build up with backing strip; remove,
back gouge and seal weld;
or, insert plate, min. width 300 mm

G
Single bevel butt
0
t

R
G

Double bevel butt


0
When 3 mm < G < 3t/2 mm (maximum
25mm)

R
G

Double vee butt, uniform bevels

build up gap with welding on


one or both sides of preparation, with
possible use of backing strip as
necessary, to maximum t/2.
where a backing strip is used, the backing strip
is to be removed, the weld back gouged, and a
sealing weld made

max. t/2

t
G

When G > 25 mm or 3t/2


an insert plate, of minimum width
300mm, to welded in place

Double vee butt, non-uniform bevel


0
t

300 mm

R
G
0

Remarks

TABLE 9.5 - TYPICAL BUTT WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION REPAIR (MANUAL WELDING)
Detail

Repair Standard

Single vee butt, one side welding


with backing strip

When G < 25 mm or G < t/2


build up edge preparation on one or
both sides, grind edge preparation,
weld with backing strip, remove
backing strip, back gouge,
and back weld

0
t

G
When G > 25 mm
insert plate, min. width 300mm

300 mm

Single vee butt, one side welding


0
When 3 mm < G < 3t/2 mm (maximum
25mm)

build up gap with welding on


one or both sides of preparation, with
possible use of backing strip as
necessary, to maximum t/2.

Where a backing strip is used, the backing


strip is to be removed, the weld back gouged,
and a sealing weld made
max. t/2

Single vee butt


When G > 25 mm or t/2
an insert plate, of minimum width
300mm, to welded in place

0
t

R
G

300 mm

Remarks

TABLE 9.6 - TYPICAL FILLET WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION REPAIR (MANUAL WELDING)

Remarks

Repair standard

Detail

2 mm < G < 5 mm - leg length


increased to Rule leg + (G - 2)

Tee Fillet

t
5 mm < G < 16 mm - chamfer to
300 to 450, build up with welding,
on one side, with or without backing
strip, grind and weld

300- 450
G

G > 16 mm or G > 1.5t - new plate


to be inserted (min. 300mm)

300 mm
minimum

Liner treatment
a

t2
G

t1

t2 < t < t 1
G < 2 mm
a = 5 mm + fillet leg length

Not to be used in
cargo area or areas
of tensile stress
perpendicular to
liner

TABLE 9.7 - TYPICAL FILLET WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION REPAIR (MANUAL WELDING)
Repair standard

Detail

3 mm < G < 5 mm
build up weld

Single bevel tee


t
R
0

Remarks

5 mm < G < 16 mm - build up with


welding, with or without backing
strip, remove backing strip if used,
back gouge and back weld
t

G > 16 mm - new plate to be


inserted of minimum width 300mm

300 mm
minimum

TABLE 9.8 -TYPICAL FILLET WELD PLATE EDGE PREPARATION REPAIR (MANUAL WELDING)
Repair standard

Detail
Single J tee

Remarks

as single bevel tee


t
R

Double bevel tee symmetrical

t
R
0

G
When 3 mm < G < 16 mm
build up with welding using ceramic
or other approved backing bar,
remove, back gouge and back weld

Double bevel tee assymetrical


t
R
500

500

When G > 16 mm - insert plate of


minimum height 300mm to be fitted

Double J bevel symmetrical

t
R
0
r

300 mm
min.

TABLE 9.9 - TYPICALFILLET AND BUTT WELD PROFILE REPAIR (MANUAL WELDING)
Detail

Repair standard

Remarks

Fillet weld leg length

a
450

Increase leg or throat by


welding over

Fillet weld toe angle


0
> 900 grinding, and welding,
where necessary, to make
< 900

Short beads, less than


50 mm, to be avoided
in higher tensile steel

Butt weld toe angle


t

h
> 900 grinding, and welding,
where necessary, to make
< 900

R
Butt weld undercut
D

Where 0.5 < D < 1 mm


undercut to be ground smooth
(localised only)
Fillet weld undercut

Where D > 1 mm
undercut to be filled by welding

Microgrooves of ground
edge to be parallel to main
stress direction

TABLE 9.10 - DISTANCE BETWEEN WELDS REPAIR


Detail

Repair standard

Scallops over weld seams

Hole to be cut and ground smooth to


obtain distance

Remarks

TABLE 9.11 - ERRONEOUS HOLE REPAIR


Detail

Remarks

Repair standard

Holes made erroneously D < 200 mm

Strength members
open hole to minimum 75 mm dia.,
fit and weld spigot piece

D
G

t1

Fillet weld to be made


after butt weld

l
= 300 - 400
G = 4 - 6 mm
1/2 t < t1 < t
l = 50 mm

The fiting of spigot pieces


in areas of high stress
concentration or fatigue
is to be approved by the
Classification Society

OR
open hole to over 300 mm and fit
insert plate
Other members
open hole to over 300 mm and fit
insert plate
OR fit lap plate
t2
t1

t 1 = t2

Holes made erroneously D > 200 mm

L = 50 mm, min

Strength members
open hole to over 300 mm and fit
insert plate

D
Other members
open hole to over 300 mm and fit
insert plate
OR fit lap plate
t2
t1

t 1 = t2

L = 50 mm, min

TABLE 9.12 - REPAIR BY INSERT PLATE


Repair standard

Detail

Remarks

Repair by insert plate

(2)
L
L = 300 mm minimum

(2)
B

B = 300 mm minimum
R = 5t mm
100 mm minimum

(1)

(1) seam with insert piece is to be


welded first

(2)

(2)
B
R

(2) original seam is to be released


and welded over for a minimum
of 100 mm

(1 )

Repair of built section by insert plate

Lmin

(3)

( 3)

(2)

( 1)
150

150

Lmin > 300 mm

(4 )

Welding sequence

(3 )
(1)

(4)

( 4)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Web butt weld scallop to be


filled during final pass (4)

TABLE 9.13 - WELD SURFACE REPAIR


Detail
Weld spatter

Repair standard

1. Remove spatter observed before


blasting with scraper or chipping
hammer, etc.

Remarks

In principal, no
grinding is applied
to weld surface

2. For spatter observed after blasting:


a) Remove with a chipping hammer,
scraper, etc.
b) For spatter not easily removed
with a chipping hammer, scraper,
etc., grind the sharp angle of
spatter to make it obtuse

Irregularity of manual weld

h < 3 mm

When the surface irregularity exceeds


3mm, apply grinding until the
irregularity becomes less than 3mm

Arc strike
Remove the hardened zone by grinding

This repair standard


is applicable to fillet
welds also

___________________________________________________________________________

Part B Repair Quality Standard


for Existing Ships
___________________________________________________________________________

PART B -SHIPBUILDING AND REPAIR QUALITY STANDARD FOR EXISTING SHIPS


CONTENTS:
1. Scope
2. General requirements to repairs and repairers
3. Qualification of personnel
3.1 Qualification of welders
3.2 Qualification of welding procedures
3.3 Qualification of NDE operators
4. Materials
4.1 General requirements to materials
4.2 Equivalency of material grades
5. General requirements to welding
5.1 Correlation of welding consumables to hull structural steels
5.2 General requirements to preheating and drying out
5.3 Dry welding on hull plating below the waterline of vessels afloat
6. Repair quality standard
6.1 Welding, general
6.2 Renewal of plates
6.3 Doubler on plates
6.4 Renewal of internals/stiffeners
6.5 Renewal of internals/stiffeners - transitions inverted angles/bulb profiles
6.6 Termination of straps
6.7 Welding of pitting corrosion
6.8 Welding repairs of cracks
6.9 Grinding of shallow cracks
REFERENCES
1. IACS Bulk Carriers - Guidelines for Surveys, Assessment and Repair of Hull Structure
2. TSCF Guidelines for the inspection and maintenance of double hull tanker structures
3. TSCF Guidance manual for the inspection and condition assessment of tanker structures
4. IACS UR W 11 Normal and higher strength hull structural steels
5. IACS UR W 13 Allowable under thickness tolerances of steel plates and wide flats
6. IACS UR W 17 Approval of consumables for welding normal and higher strength hull structural steels
7. IACS Z 10.1 Hull surveys of oil tankers and Z 10.2 Hull surveys of bulk carriers Table IV
8. IACS UR Z 13 Voyage repairs and maintenance
9. IACS Recommendation 12 Guidelines for surface finish of hot rolled steel plates and wide flats
10. IACS Recommendation 20 Guide for inspection of ship hull welds

1. Scope
1.1 This standard provides guidance on quality of repair of hull structures. The standard covers permanent
repairs of existing ships.
Whereas the standard generally applies to
- conventional ship types,
- parts of hull covered by the rules of the Classification Society,
- hull structures constructed from normal and higher strength hull structural steel,
the applicability of the standard is in each case to be agreed upon by the Classification Society.
The standard does generally not apply to repair of
- special types of ships as e.g. gas tankers
- structures fabricated from stainless steel or other, special types or grades of steel

1.2 The standard covers typical repair methods and gives guidance on quality standard on the most important
aspects of such repairs. Unless explicitly stated elsewhere in the standard, the level of workmanship reflected
herein will in principle be acceptable for primary and secondary structure of conventional design. A more
stringent standard may however be required for critical and highly stressed areas of the hull, and is to be agreed
with the Classification Society in each case. In assessing the criticality of hull structure and structural
components, reference is made to ref. 1, 2 and 3.
1.3 Restoration of structure to the original standard may not constitute durable repairs of damages originating
from insufficient strength or inadequate detail design. In such cases strengthening or improvements beyond the
original design may be required. Such improvements are not covered by this standard, however it is referred to
ref. 1, 2 and 3.
2. General requirements for repairs and repairers
2.1 In general, when hull structure covered by classification is to be subjected to repairs, the work is to be carried
out under the supervision of the Surveyor to the Classification Society. Such repairs are to be agreed prior to
commencement of the work.
2.2 Repairs are to be carried out by workshops, repair yards or personnel who have demonstrated their capability
to carry out hull repairs of adequate quality in accordance with the Classification Societys requirements and this
standard.
2.3 Repairs are to be carried out under working conditions that facilitate sound repairs. Provisions are to be made
for proper accessibility, staging, lighting and ventilation. Welding operations are to be carried out under shelter
from rain, snow and wind.
2.4 Welding of hull structures is to be carried out by qualified welders, according to approved and qualified
welding procedures and with welding consumables approved by the Classification Society, see Section 3. Welding
operations are to be carried out under proper supervision of the repair yard.
2.5 Where repairs to hull which affect or may affect classification are intended to be carried out during a voyage,
complete repair procedure including the extent and sequence of repair is to be submitted to and agreed upon by
the Surveyor to the Classification Society reasonably in advance of the repairs. See Ref. 8.
3. Qualification of personnel
3.1 Qualification of welders
3.1.1 Welders are to be qualified in accordance with the procedures of the Classification Society or to a recognised
national or international standard, e.g. EN 287, ISO 9606, ASME Section IX, ANSI/AWS D1.1. Recognition of
other standards is subject to submission to the Classification Society for evaluation. Repair yards and workshops
are to keep records of welders qualification and, when required, furnish valid approval test certificates.
3.1.2 Welding operators using fully mechanised of fully automatic processes need generally not pass approval
testing, provided that production welds made by the operators are of the required quality. However, operators are
to receive adequate training in setting or programming and operating the equipment. Records of training and
production test results shall be maintained on individual operators files and records, and be made available to the
Classification Society for inspection when requested.
3.2 Qualification of welding procedures
Welding procedures are to be qualified in accordance with the procedures of the Classification Society or a
recognised national or international standard, e.g. EN288, ISO 9956, ASME Section IX, ANSI/AWS D1.1.
Recognition of other standards is subject to submission to the Classification Society for evaluation. The welding
procedure should be supported by a welding procedure qualification record. The specification is to include the
welding process, types of electrodes, weld shape, edge preparation, welding techniques and positions

3.3 Qualification of NDE operators


3.3.1 Personnel performing non destructive examination for the purpose of assessing quality of welds in
connection with repairs covered by this standard, are to be qualified in accordance with the Classification Society
rules or to a recognised international or national qualification scheme. Records of operators and their current
certificates are to be kept and made available to the Surveyor for inspection.
4. Materials
4.1. General requirements for materials
4.1.1 The requirements for materials used in repairs are in general the same as the requirements for materials
specified in the Classification Societys rules for new constructions, (ref. 5)
4.1.2 Replacement material is in general to be of the same grade as the original approved material. Alternatively,
material grades complying with recognised national or international standards may be accepted by the
Classification Societies provided such standards give equivalence to the requirements of the original grade or are
agreed by the Classification Society. For assessment of equivalency between steel grades, the general requirements
and guidelines in Section 4.2 apply.
4.1.3 Higher tensile steel is not to be replaced by steel of a lesser strength unless specially approved by the
Classification Society.
4.1.4 Normal and higher strength hull structural steels are to be manufactured at works approved by the
Classification Society for the type and grade being supplied.
4.1.5 Materials used in repairs are to be certified by the Classification Society applying the procedures and
requirements in the rules for new constructions. In special cases, and normally limited to small quantities,
materials may be accepted on the basis of alternative procedures for verification of the materials properties. Such
procedures are subject to agreement by the Classification Society in each separate case.
4.2. Equivalency of material grades
4.2.1 Assessment of equivalency between material grades should at least include the following aspects;
- heat treatment/delivery condition
- chemical composition
- mechanical properties
- tolerances
4.2.2 When assessing the equivalence between grades of normal or higher strength hull structural steels up to
and including grade E40 in thickness limited to 50 mm, the general requirements in Table 4.1 apply.
4.2.3 Guidance on selection of steel grades to certain recognised standards equivalent to hull structural steel
grades specified in Classification Societies rules is given in Table 4.2
5. General requirements to welding
5.1 Correlation of welding consumables with hull structural steels
5.1.1 For the different hull structural steel grades welding consummables are to be selected in accordance with
IACS UR W17 (see Ref.5).
5.2 General requirements to preheating and drying out
5.2.1 The need for preheating is to be determined based on the chemical composition of the materials, welding
process and procedure and degree of joint restraint.
5.2.2 A minimum preheat of 50o C is to be applied when ambient temperature is below 0C. Dryness of the
welding zone is in all cases to be ensured.

5.2.3 Guidance on recommended minimum preheating temperature for higher strength steel is given in Table 5.1.
For automatic welding processes utilising higher heat input e.g. submerged arc welding, the temperatures may be
reduced by 50o C. For re-welding or repair of welds, the stipulated values are to be increased by 25 o C.

Items to be
considered
Chemical
composition

Requirements

Comments

- C; equal or lower
- P and S; equal or lower
- Mn; approximately the same but
not exceeding 1.6%
- Fine grain elements; in same
amount
- Deoxidation practice

The sum of the elements, e.g. Cu, Ni, Cr and Mo


should not exceed 0.8%

Mechanical
properties

- Tensile strength; equal or higher


- Yield strength; equal or higher
- Elongation; equal or higher
- Impact energy; equal or higher at
same or lower temperature, where
applicable

Actual yield strength should not exceed


Classification Society Rule minimum
requirements by more than 80 N/mm2

Condition of
supply

Same or better

Tolerances

- Same or stricter

Heat treatment in increasing order;


- as rolled (AR)
- controlled rolled (CR)
- normalised (N)
- thermo-mechanically rolled (TM)1)
- quenched and tempered (QT)1)
1) TM- and QT-steels are not suitable for
hot forming
Permissible under thickness tolerances;
- plates: 0.3 mm
- sections: according to recognised
standards

Table 4.1 Minimum extent and requirements to assessment of equivalency between normal or higher
strength hull structural steel grades

5.3 Dry welding on hull plating below the waterline of vessels afloat
5.3.1. Welding on hull plating below the waterline of vessels afloat is acceptable only on normal and higher
strength steels with specified yield strength not exceeding 355 MPa and only for local repairs. Welding involving
other high strength steels or more extensive repairs against water backing is subject to special consideration and
approval by the Classification Society of the welding procedure.
5.3.2. Low-hydrogen electrodes or welding processes are to be used when welding on hull plating against water
backing. Coated low-hydrogen electrodes used for manual metal arc welding should be properly conditioned to
ensure a minimum of moisture content.
5.3.3 In order to ensure dryness and to reduce the cooling rate, the structure is to be preheated by a torch or
similar prior to welding, to a temperature of minimum 5oC or as specified in the welding procedure.

Table 4.2

Guidance on steel grades comparable to the normal and high strength hull structural steel grades given in Classification Society rules

Steel grades according to Classification Societies rules (ref. 5)

Grade

A
B
D
E
A 27
D 27
E 27
A 32
D 32
E 32
A 36
D 36
E 36
A 40
D 40
E 40

Yield
stress

Tensile
strength

Elongation

ReH
min.
N/mm2

Rm

A5
min.
%

N/mm2

235

400 - 502

22

265

400 - 530

22

315

440 - 590

22

355

490 - 620

21

390

510 - 650

20

Comparable steel grades


Average impact
energy
Temp.
J, min.
C
+20
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40

L
27
27
27

T
20
20
20

27

20

31

22

34

24

41

27

ISO
630-80
4950/2/3
1981

EN

ASTM

JIS

EN 10025-93
EN 10113-93

A 131

G 3106

Fe 360B
Fe 360C
Fe 360D
Fe 430C
Fe 430D
Fe 510C
Fe 510D
E355E
E390CC
E390DD
E390E

S235JRG2
S235J0
S235J2G3
S275NL/ML
S275J0G3
S275N/M
S275NL/ML
S355N/M
S355N/M
S355NL/ML
S420N/M
S420N/M
S420NL/ML

A
B
D
E
AH32
DH32
EH32
AH36
DH36
EH36
AH40
DH40
EH40

SM41B
SM41B
(SM41C)
SM50B
(SM50C)
SM53B
(SM53C)
(SM58)
-

Note : In selecting comparable steels from this table, attention should be given to the requirements of Table 4.1 and the dimension requirements of the product with respect
to Classification Society rules.

Carbon equivalent
1)

Ceq 0.39
Ceq 0.41
Ceq 0.43
Ceq 0.45
Ceq 0.47
Ceq 0.50

Recommended minimum preheat temperature ( 0 C )


tcomb 50 mm 2)
50 mm<tcomb 70 mm 2)
50
75
50
50
100
100
125
125
150
Table 5.1 Preheating temperature

NOTES
1) Ceq = C +

Mn
Cr + Mo + V
Ni + Cu
+
+
(%)
6
5
15

2) Combined thickness tcomb = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 , see figure

t3
=

t1

t2

t1

t2
t4

tcomb >70 mm 2)

100
125
150
175

6. Repair quality standard


6.1 Welding, general
d

Fig. 6.1 Groove roughness

Item
Material Grade

Standard
Same as original or
higher

Limit

Welding Consumables

IACS UR-W17
(ref. 6)

Groove / roughness

See note and Fig. 6.1

Approval according. to
equivalent
international standard
d < 1.5 mm

Grind smooth

Pre-Heating

See Table 5.1

Welding with water on


the outside

See Section 5.3

Steel temperature not


lower than 5oC
Acceptable for normal
and high strength
steels

-Moisture to be
removed by a heating
torch

Alignment

As for new
construction

Weld finish

IACS guide for


inspection of ship hull
welds (ref. 10)
IACS guide (ref. 10)

NDE

At random with extent


to be agreed with
attending surveyors

NOTE :
Slag, grease, loose mill scale, rust and paint, other than primer, to be removed.

Remarks
See Section 4

6.2 Renewal of plates

3
2

1
R = 5 x plate thickness
min. 100mm

100mm

100mm

Fig 6.2 Welding sequence for inserts

Item
Size insert

Standard
Min. 300x300mm
R = 5 x thickness
Circular inserts:
Dmin=200mm

Material grade

Same as original or
higher

See Section 4.

Edge Preparation

As for new
construction

Welding sequence

See fig.6.2
Weld sequence is
1 2 3 4

In case of non
compliance increase
the amount of NDE
For primary members
sequence 1 and 2
transverse to the main
stress direction

Alignment

As for new
construction

Weld finish

IACS guide for


inspection of ship hull
welds (ref. 10)
IACS guide (ref. 10)

NDE

Limit
Min. 200x200mm
Min R = 100 mm

Remarks

6.3 Doublers on plating

Local doublers are normally only allowed as temporary repairs, except as original compensation for openings,
within the main hull structure.

ld
Slot weld throat

Pitch
t
Size of
slot

Fig. 6.3 Doublers on plates


Item
Existing plating

Standard

Limit
General: t > 5 mm

Extent/size

Rounded off corners.

min 300x300mm
R > 50mm

Thickness of doubler (td)

td tp (tp = original
thickness of existing
plating )
Same as original plate

Material grade
Edge preparation

As for [newbuilding]
new construction

Welding

As for [newbuilding]
new construction
Circumferencial and in
slots: 0.6 x td
Normal size of slot:
(80-100) x 2 td

Weld size(throat thickness)


Slot welding

NDE

Distance from doubler


edge and between slots:
d < 15 td
IACS
Recommendation 20
( Ref. 10)

Remarks
For areas where
existing plating is less
than 5mm plating a
permanent repair by
insert is to be carried
out.

td > tp/3

See Section 4
Doublers welded on
primary strength
members: (Le: leg
length)
when t > Le + 5mm,
the edge to be tapered
(1:4)
Welding sequence
similar to insert plates.

Max pitch between


slots 200mm

dmax = 500mm

For doubler extended


over several supporting
elements, see figure 6.3

6.4 Renewal of internals/stiffeners


Min. size of insert

Release fillet weld over


a distance d prior to
welding sector 3

2
3
d

Fig 6.4 Welding sequence for inserts of stiffeners

Item
Size insert

Standard
Min. 300 mm

Material grade

Same as original or
higher

Edge Preparation

As for new
construction.
Fillet weld stiffener
web/plate to be released
over min. d = 150 mm

Welding sequence

See fig.6.4 .
Weld sequence is
1 2 3

Alignment

As for new
construction

Weld finish

IACS guide for


inspection of ship hull
welds (ref. 10)
IACS guide (ref. 10)

NDE

Limit
Min. 200mm

Remarks

See Section 4.

6.5 Renewal of internals/stiffeners - transitions inverted angle/bulb profile

The application of the transition is allowed for secondary structural elements.

b1

1:4

h1

t1

15o

t2
15o

tf

bf

h2

1:4

tf2
b2

Transition angle

Fig. 6.5 Transition between inverted angle and bulb profile

Item
(h1 - h2)

Standard
< 0.25 x b1

| t1 - t2|

2 mm

Transition angle

15 degrees

Flanges

tf = tf2
bf = bf2
4 x h1

Length of flatbar
Material

Limit

Remarks

Without tapering
transition.
At any arbitrary section

See Section 4.

6.6 Termination of straps


Assymmetrical arrangement

Strap

b
Increased throat
thickness
Taper /b > 3

Symmetrical arrangement
Increased throat
thickness
Strap

b
Taper /b > 3

Fig. 6.6 Termination of straps

Item
Tapering

Standard
/b > 3

Limit

Radius
Material

0.1 x b

min 30mm

Weld size

Welding

Welding sequence
from middle towards
the free ends

Remarks
Special consideration
to be drawn to design
of strap terminations in
fatigue sensitive areas.
See paragraph 2.0
General requirement to
materials.
Depending on number
and function of straps.
Throat thickness to be
increased 15 % toward
ends.
See sketch. For
welding of lengths >
1000mm step welding
to be applied.

6.7 Welding of pitting corrosion


NOTES:
Shallow pits may be filled by applying coating or pit filler. Pits can be defined as shallow when their depth is less
than 1/3 of the orginal plate thickness.

Welding direction
Grind flush
Start outside pit

Finish outside pit

Fig. 6.7 Welding of pits

Item
Extent/depth

Standard
Pits/grooves are to be
welded flush with the
original surface.

Cleaning

Heavy rust to be
removed
See Table 5.1

Pre-Heating

Welding sequence
Weld finish

NDE

Reverse direction for


each layer
IACS guide for
inspection of ship hull
welds (ref. 10)
IACS guide (ref. 10)

Reference is made to TSCF Guidelines, Ref. 2 & 3.

Limit
If deep pits or grooves
are clustered together
or remaining thickness
is less than 6 mm, the
plate should be
renewed.

Remarks
See also IACS
Recommendation 12
( Ref.9)

Required when
ambient
temperature < 5oC

Always use propane


torch or similar to
remove any moisture
See also IACS guide
no. 12

Min. 10% extent

Preferably MPI

6. 8 Welding repairs for cracks


Tab

Fig. 6.8.a Step back technique

Fig 6.8.b End crack termination

Fig 6.8.c Welding sequence for cracks with length less than 300 mm
o

Fig. 6.8.d Groove preparation


(U-groove left and V-groove right)

Item
Groove preparation

Standard
=45-60o
r= 5 mm

Termination

Termination to have
slope 1:3

Extent

On plate max. 400 mm


length. Vee out 50 mm
past end of crack
See fig 6.9.c for
sequence and direction

Welding sequence

Weld finish

NDE

IACS guide for


inspection of ship hull
welds (ref. 10)
IACS guide (ref.10)

Limit

On plate max 500


mm. Linear crack,
not branched
For cracks longer
than 300 mm stepback technique
should be used Fig
6.9.a

100 % MP or PE of
groove

Remarks
For through plate cracks as
for newbuilding. Else see
fig 6.9.d
For cracks ending on edges
weld to be terminated on a
tab see Fig 6.9.b

Always use low hydrogen


welding consumables

100 % surface crack


detection + UE or RE for
butt joints

6.9 Grinding of shallow cracks


Disk grinder

Rotary burr grinder

Main stress direction

Final grinding direction

Max. grinding
depth

Fig 6.9 Grinding


Item
Extent

Standard
For short cracks only
max. 4 t
t = Plate thickness

Limit
Max. length
100 mm

Remarks
See also IACS
recommendation 12,
(ref. 9)

Grinding direction

Final grinding
microgrooves parallel
to main stress direction

Grinding always to be
finished by a rotating
burr and not a disk
grinder

Grinding depth

Max. 0.2 t
t = Plate thickness
IACS guide for
inspection of ship hull
welds (ref. 10)

Always smooth
transition
100 % MPI

NDE

___________________________________________________________________________

Appendix - Referenced IACS


Unified Requirements
___________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX - REFERENCED IACS UNIFIED REQUIREMENTS


CONTENTS
IACS UR W7 Hull and machinery steel forgings
IACS UR W8 Hull and machinery steel castings
IACS UR W11 Normal and higher strength hull structural steel
IACS UR W13 Allowable under thickness tolerances of steel plates and wide flats
IACS UR W14 Steel plates and wide flats with improved through thickness properties
IACS UR W17 Approval of consumables for welding normal and higher strength hull structural steels
IACS UR Z10.1 Survey of oil tankersand Z10.2 Survey of Bulk Carriers Annex I
IACS UR Z13 Voyage repairs and maintenance
IACS Recommendation 12 Guidelines for surface finish of hot rolled steel plates and wide flats
IACS Recommendation 20 Guide for inspection of ship hull welds

W7

W7
(1978)

Hull and machinery steel forgings


W7.1 Scope
(1978)
W7.1.1 All important steel forgings, as defined in the relevant construction Rules, are to be
manufactured and tested in accordance with the requirements of the following paragraphs. These
requirements are also applicable to rolled slabs and billets used as a substitute for forgings and to rolled
bars used for the manufacture (by machining operations only) of shafts, bolts, studs and other
components of simple shape.
W7.1.2 These requirements are applicable only to steel forgings where the design and acceptance tests
are related to mechanical properties at ambient temperature. For other applications, additional
requirements may be necessary especially when the forgings are intended for service at low or elevated
temperatures.
W7.1.3 Alternatively, forgings which comply with national or proprietary specifications may be
accepted provided such specifications give reasonable equivalence to these requirements or are otherwise
specially approved or required by the Classification Society.

W7.1.4 Where small and identical forgings are produced in large quantities the manufacture may adopt
alternative procedures for testing and inspection subject to the approval of the Classification Society.
W7.2 Manufacture
(1978)
W7.2.1 All important forgings are to be made at works where the manufacturer has demonstrated to the
satisfaction of the Classification Society that the necessary manufacturing and testing facilities are
available and are supervised by qualified personnel. A programme of approval tests may be required in
accordance with the procedures of individual Societies.
W7.2.2 The steel used in the manufacture of forgings is to be made by the open hearth, electric or basic
oxygen process or by other processes approved by the Classification Society.

IACS Req. 1980

W7.2.3

W7
contd

W7.2.3 Adequate top and bottom discards are to be made to ensure freedom from piping and harmful
segregations in the finished forgings.
W7.2.4 The plastic deformation is to be such as to ensure soundness, uniformity of structure and
satisfactory mechanical properties after heat treatment. For components where the fibre deformation is
mainly longitudinal, the total reduction ratio is generally to be in accordance with Table 1.
Table 1

Method of manufacture
Made directly from ingots or from forged
blooms or billets
Made from rolled products

Total
reduction ratio
3:1 where L>D
1,5:1 where LD
4:1 where L>D
2:1 where LD

NOTES

1. L and D are the length and diameter respectively of the part of


the forging under consideration.
2. The reduction ratio is to be calculated with reference to the
average cross-sectional area of the ingot. Where an ingot is
initially upset, this reference area may be taken as the average
cross-sectional area after this operation.
3. For rolled bars used as a substitute for forgings (see W7.1.1)
the reduction ratio is to be not less than 6:1.

W7.2.5 Where disc type forgings such as gear wheels are made by upsetting, the thickness of any part
of the disc is to be not more than one half of the length of the billet from which it was formed provided
that this billet has received an initial forging reduction of not less than 1,5:1. Where the piece used has
been cut directly from an ingot or where the billet has received an initial reduction of less than 1,5:1, the
thickness of any part of the disc is to be not more than one third of the length of the original piece.
W7.2.6 Rings and other types of hollow forgings are to be made from pieces cut from ingots or billets
and which have been suitably punched, bored or trepanned prior to expanding or drawing on a suitable
mandrel. Alternatively, pieces from hollow cast iron ingots may be used. The wall thickness of the
forging is to be not more than one half of the thickness of the prepared hollow piece from which it was
formed. Where this is not practicable the forging procedure is to be such as to ensure that adequate work
is given to the piece prior to punching, etc. This may be either longitudinal or upset working of not less
than 2:1.
W7.2.7 For certain components, where grain flow is required in the most favourable direction having
regard to the mode of stressing in service, the proposed method of manufacture may require special
approval by the Classification Society. In such cases, tests may be required to demonstrate that a
satisfactory structure and grain flow are obtained.
W7.2.8 The shaping of forgings or rolled slabs and billets by flame cutting, scarfing or arc-air gouging
is to be undertaken in accordance with recognized good practice and, unless otherwise approved, is to be
carried out before the final heat treatment. Preheating is to be employed when necessitated by the
composition and/or thickness of the steel.
For certain components, subsequent machining of all flame cut surfaces may be required.
W7.2.9 When two or more forgings are joined by welding to form a composite component, details of
the proposed procedure are to be submitted for approval. Welding procedure tests may be required.

IACS Req. 1980

IACS Req. 1986

W7.3

W7.3 Quality of forgings


(1978)

W7.3.1 All forgings are to be free from surface or internal defects which would be prejudicial to their
proper application in service.
W7.4 Chemical composition
(1978)
W7.4.1 All forgings are to be made from killed steel and the chemical composition is to be appropriate
for the type of steel, dimensions and required mechanical properties of the forgings being manufactured.
W7.4.2 Details of the proposed chemical composition for alloy steel forgings are to be submitted for
approval.
W7.4.3 For carbon and carbon-manganese steel forgings the chemical composition of ladle samples is
to comply with the following overall limits:
Carbon
0,60% max.
Silicon
0,45% max.
Manganese
0,30/1,50%
Sulphur
0,040% max.
Phosphorus
0,040% max.
Residual elements:
Copper
Chromium
Molybdenum
Nickel

0,30% max.
0,30% max.
0,15% max.
0,40% max.

W7.4.4 For alloy steel forgings the chemical composition of ladle samples is to include the content of
all alloying elements and is to comply with the following overall limits and the requirements of the
approved specifications:
Carbon
0,45% max.
Silicon
0,45% max.
Sulphur
0,035% max.
Phosphorus
0,035% max.
W7.4.5 At the option of the manufacturer, suitable grain refining elements such as aluminium, niobium
or vanadium may be added. The content of such elements is to be reported in the ladle analysis.
W7.4.6 Where steel forgings are intended for welded construction the proposed chemical composition
is subject to approval by the Classification Society.

W7
contd

W7.5 Heat treatment (including surface hardening and straightening)


(1978)
W7.5.1 At an appropriate stage of manufacture, after completion of all hot working operations, forgings
are to be suitably heat treated to refine the grain structure and to obtain the required mechanical
properties.

W7.5.2 Except as provided in W5.5.7 and W5.5.8 forgings are to be supplied in one of the following
conditions:
(a)
Carbon and carbon-manganese steels Fully annealed
Normalized
Normalized and tempered
Quenched and tempered
(b)
Alloy steels
Quenched and tempered
For all types of steel the tempering temperature is to be not less than 550C.

IACS Req. 1980

W7.5.3

W7
contd

W7.5.3 Alternatively, alloy steel forgings may be supplied in the normalized and tempered condition, in
which case the specified mechanical properties are to be agreed with the Classification Society.
W7.5.4 Heat treatment is to be carried out in properly constructed furnaces which are efficiently
maintained and have adequate means for control and recording of temperature. The furnace dimensions
are to be such as to allow the whole forging to be uniformly heated to the necessary temperature. In the
case of very large forgings alternative methods of heat treatment will be specially considered by the
Classification Society.
W7.5.5 If for any reasons a forging is subsequently heated for further hot working the forging is to be
re-heat treated.
W7.5.6 Where it is intended to surface harden forgings, full details of the proposed procedure and
specification are to be submitted for the approval of the Classification Society. For the purposes of this
approval, the manufacture may be required to demonstrate by test that the proposed procedure gives a
uniform surface layer of the required hardness and depth and that it does not impair the soundness and
properties of the steel.
W7.5.7 Where induction hardening or nitriding is to be carried out after machining, forgings are to be
heat treated at an appropriate stage to a condition suitable for this subsequent surface hardening.
W7.5.8 Where carburizing is to be carried out after machining forgings are to be heat treated at an
appropriate stage (generally either by full annealing or by normalizing and tempering) to a condition
suitable for subsequent machining and carburizing.

W7.5.9 If any straightening operation is performed after the final heat treatment consideration should
be given to a subsequent stress relieving heat treatment in order to avoid the possibility of harmful
residual stresses.
W7.6 Mechanical tests
(1978)
W7.6.1 Test material, sufficient for the required tests and for possible re-test purposes, is to be provided
with a cross-sectional area of not less than that part of the forging which it represents. This test material
is to be integral with each forging except as provided in W7.6.7 and W7.6.10.
W7.6.2 For the purpose of these requirements a set of tests is to consist of one tensile test specimen
and, when required, three impact test specimens. When impact tests are required, either Charpy V-notch
or Charpy U-notch test specimens may be used at the option of the manufacturer, unless otherwise
specified by the Classification Society.
W7.6.3 Test specimens are to be cut with their axes either mainly parallel (longitudinal test) or mainly
perpendicular (transverse test) to the principal direction of fibre deformation.
W7.6.4 The location of the axes of test specimens with regard to the distance below the surface of the
forging is to be in accordance with the requirements of individual Classification Societies.
W7.6.5 Except as provided in W7.6.10 the number and direction of tests is to be as follows.
(a)

Hull components such as rudderstocks, pintles etc. General machinery components such as
shafting, connecting rods, etc.
One set of tests is to be taken from the end of each forging in a longitudinal direction except that,
at the discretion of the manufacture and if agreed by the Surveyor, the alternative directions or
positions as shown in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 may be used. Where a forging exceeds both 4 tonnes in mass
and 3m in length one set of tests is to be taken from each end. These limits refer to the 'as forged'
mass and length but excluding the test material.

IACS Req. 1980

W7.6

W7
contd

Test position A
(longitudinal)

Test position B
(transverse)

Fig. 1 Plain shaft


Test position B
(longitudinal)
(through bolt hole)

Test position C
(transverse)

Test position A
(longitudinal)

Fig. 2 Flanged shaft


Test position B
(transverse)

Test position C
(transverse)

Test position B
(longitudinal)

Test position D
(transverse)

Fig. 3 Flanged shaft with collar

(b)

Pinions
Where the finished machined diameter of the toothed portion exceeds 200mm one set of tests is to
be taken from each forging in a transverse direction adjacent to the toothed portion (test position
B in Fig. 4). Where the dimensions preclude the preparation of tests from this position, tests in a
transverse direction are to be taken from the end of the journal (test position C in Fig. 4). If
however, the journal diameter is 200mm or less the tests are to be taken in a longitudinal direction
(test position A in Fig. 4). Where the finished length of the toothed portion exceed 1,25m, one set
of tests is to be taken from each end.

IACS Req. 1980

W7.6

Test position B
(transverse)

Test position B
(transverse)

Test position C
(transverse)

Test position A
(longitudinal)
L = length of toothed portion
D = diameter of toothed portion
d = jornal diameter

Fig. 4 Pinion

Test Position A
(transverse)





W7
contd

Test position B
(transverse)

Fig. 5 Gear wheel

Test Position A
(equivalent to longitudinal, see W7.6.3)

Test position B
(equivalent to longitudinal, see W7.6.3)

Fig. 6

Gear rim (made by expanding)

IACS Req. 1980

W7

W7
contd

Test position B
(transverse)



Test position A
(transverse)

Fig. 7 Pinion sleeve

Test position A
(longitudinal)

Test position B
(longitudinal)

Coupling end

Fig. 8

Test position C
(transverse)

Solid forged crankshaft

Small pinions
Where the finished diameter of the toothed portion is 200mm or less one set of tests is to be taken
in a longitudinal direction (test position A in Fig. 4).

(d)

Gear wheels
One set of tests is to be taken from each forging in a transverse direction (test position A or B in
Fig. 5).

(e)

Gear wheel rims (made by expanding)


One set of tests is to be taken from each forging (test position A or B in Fig. 6). Where the
finished diameter exceeds 2,5m or the mass (as heat treated by excluding test material) exceeds 3
tonnes, two sets of tests are to be taken from diametrically opposite positions (test positions A and
B in Fig. 6).

(f)

Pinion sleeves
One set of tests is to be taken from each forging in a transverse direction (test position A or B in
Fig. 7). Where the finished length exceeds 1,25m one set of tests is to be taken from each end.

(g)

Crankwebs
One set of tests is to be taken from each forging in a transverse direction.

IACS Req. 1980

(c)

W7.6

(h)

Solid forged crankshafts


One set of tests is to be taken in a longitudinal direction from the coupling end of each
forging (test position A in Fig. 8).
Where the mass (as heat treated but excluding test material) exceeds 3 tonnes tests in a
longitudinal direction are to be taken from each end (test positions A and B in Fig. 8). Where,
however, the crankthrows are formed by machining or flame cutting, the second set of tests is to
be taken in a transverse direction from material removed from the crankthrow at the end opposite
to the coupling (test position C in Fig. 8).

W7.6.6 For combined web and pin crankshaft forgings and other forgings where the method of
manufacture has been specially approved in accordance with W7.2.7, the number and position of test
specimens is to be agreed with the Classification Society having regard to the method of manufacture
employed.
W7.6.7 When a forging is subsequently divided into a number of components, all of which are heat
treated together in the same furnace charge, for test purposes this may be regarded as one forging and the
number of tests required is to be related to the total length and mass of the original multiple forging.
W7.6.8 Except for components which are to be carburized or as otherwise specially agreed, test
material is not to be cut from a forging until all heat treatment has been completed.
W7.6.9 When forgings are to be carburized after machining, sufficient test material is to be provided for
both preliminary tests at the forge and for final tests after completion of carburizing.
For this purpose duplicate sets of test material are to be taken from positions as detailed in W7.6.5,
except that irrespective of the dimensions or mass of the forging, tests are required from one position
only and, in the case of forgings with integral journals, are to be cut in a longitudinal direction.
This test material is to be machined to a diameter of D/4 or 60mm, whichever is less, where D is the
finished diameter of the toothed portion.
For preliminary tests at the forge one set of test material is to be given a blank carburizing and heat
treatment cycle simulating that which subsequently will be applied to the forging.
For final acceptance tests, the second set of test material is to be blank carburized and heat treated along
with the forgings which they represent.
At the discretion of the forgemaster or gear manufacture test samples of larger cross section may be
either carburized or blank carburized, but these are to be machined to the required diameter prior to the
final quenching and stress relieving heat treatment.
Alternative procedures for testing of forgings which are to be carburized may be specially agreed with
the Classification Society.
W7.6.10 Where a number of small forgings of about the same size are made from one cast and heat
treated in the same furnace charge, batch testing procedures may be adopted using one of the forgings for
test purposes or alternatively using separately forged test samples. These test samples are to have a
reduction ratio similar to that used for the forgings which they represent. They are to be properly
identified and heat treated along with the forgings. In such cases at least one set of tests is to be taken
from each batch. Hardness tests may additionally be required for certain types of forgings. (See
W7.7.7.6).
W7.6.11 A batch testing procedure may also be used for hot rolled bars, not exceeding 250mm diameter,
which are intended for the manufacture (by machining operations only) of straight shafting, bolts, studs
and other components of similar shape. A batch is to consist of either:
(i)
material from the same piece or rolled length provided that where this is cut into individual
lengths, these are all heat treated in the same furnace charge, or
(ii)
bars of the same diameter and cast, heat treated in the same furnace charge and with a total mass
not exceeding 2,5 tonnes.
W7.6.12 Tensile and impact test specimens are to be machined to the dimensions given in W2.

W7.6.13 All tensile and impact tests are to be carried out at ambient temperature (generally 18-25C)
using test procedures in accordance with W3. Unless otherwise agreed all tests are to be carried out in the
presence of the Surveyors.

W7
contd

IACS Req. 1980

W7.7

W7
contd

W7.7 Mechanical properties


(1980)
W7.7.1 Tables 2 and 3 give the minimum requirements for yield stress, elongation, reduction of area
and impact test energy values corresponding to different strength levels but it is not intended that these
should necessarily be regarded as specific grades. The strength levels have been given in multiples of
40N/mm2, or 50 N/mm2 in case of alloy steels, to facilitate interpolation for intermediate values of
specified minimum tensile strength.
The requirements given in these Tables relate to test specimens taken from subsurface positions, i.e. with
their axis at a distance from the surface of up to 10% of the diameter or thickness. Where test specimens
are taken at a greater distance from the surface (see W7.6.4) the values given in the Tables may be
modified at the discretion of individual Classification Societies.
W7.7.2 Forgings may be supplied to any specified minimum tensile strength selected within the general
limits detailed in Tables 2 or 3 but subject to any additional requirements of the relevant construction
Rules.

W7.7.3 The results of all tensile tests are to comply with the requirements of Tables 2 or 3 appropriate
to the type of steel, specified minimum tensile strength and the direction of test.
Table 2. Mechanical properties: carbon and carbon-manganese steel forgings
Specified
minimum
tensile
strength
(N/mm2)(1), (2)

Yield
stress
(N/mm2)
min.

Elongation
on 5,65 S0
(%) min.

Reduction
of area
(%) min.

Charpy test average


energy (J) min.(3)

Hardness
(Brinell)(4)

V-notch

U-notch

360
400
440
480

180
200
220
240

28
26
24
22

20
19
18
16

50
50
50
45

35
35
35
30

32
32
32
32

18
18
18
18

30
30
30
30

20
20
20
20

95-135
110-150
125-160
135-175

520
560
600
640

260
280
300
320

21
20
18
17

15
14
13
12

45
40
40
40

30
27
27
27

25
25
18
18

15
15
12
12

25
25
20
20

17
17
15
15

150-185
160-200
175-215
185-230

680
720
760

340
360
380

16
15
14

12
11
10

35
35
35

24
24
24

18
18
18

12
12
12

20
20
20

15
15
15

200-240
210-250
225-265

L denotes longitudinal test specimen; T denotes transverse test specimen.


NOTES

1. For intermediate values of specified minimum tensile strength, the minimum values for yield stress,
elongation, reduction of area and impact energy may be obtained by interpolation.
2. The following ranges for tensile strength may be additionally specified:
specified minimum tensile strength < 600 N/mm2 600 N/mm2
tensile strength range
120 N/mm2
150 N/mm2
3. When impact tests are required they are to be carried out at ambient temperature (18-25C) and
unless otherwise specified either Charpy V-notch or Charpy U-notch test specimens may be used at
the option of the manufacturer.
4. The hardness values are typical and are given for information purposes only.

IACS Req. 1980

W7.7

W7
contd

Table 3. mechanical properties: Alloy steel forgings (quenched and tempered)


Specified
minimum
tensile
strength
(N/mm2)(1), (2)

Yield
stress
(N/mm2)
min.(3)

Elongation
on 5,65 S0
(%) min.

Reduction
of area
(%) min.

Charpy test average


energy (J) min.(4)

Hardness
(Brinell)(5)

V-notch

U-notch

600
650
700
750

420
450
480
530

18
17
16
15

14
13
12
11

50
50
45
45

35
35
30
30

41
32
32
32

24
22
22
20

35
30
30
30

24
23
23
22

175-215
190-235
205-245
215-260

800
850
900
950

590
640
690
750

14
13
13
12

10
9
9
8

40
40
40
35

27
27
27
24

32
27
27
25

20
18
18
16

30
26
26
25

22
20
20
18

235-275
245-290
260-320
275-340

1000
1050
1100

810
870
930

12
11
11

8
7
7

35
35
35

24
24
24

25
21
21

16
13
13

25
23
23

18
15
15

290-365
310-375
320-385

L denotes longitudinal test specimen; T denotes transverse test specimen.


NOTES

1. For intermediate values of specified minimum tensile strength, the minimum values for yield stress,
elongation, reduction of area and impact energy may be obtained by interpolation.
2. The following ranges for tensile strength may be additionally specified:
specified minimum tensile strength < 900 N/mm2 900 N/mm2
tensile strength range
150 N/mm2
200 N/mm2
3. The requirement for a minimum yield stress is not applicable to forgings which are intended for
surface hardening by carburizing.
4. When impact tests are required they are to be carried out at ambient temperature (18-25C) and
unless otherwise specified either Charpy V-notch or Charpy U-notch test specimens may be used at
the option of the manufacturer.
5. The hardness values are typical and are given for information purposes.

The average energy value from a set of three impact test specimens is to be not less than the appropriate
value given in Tables 2 or 3. One individual value may be less than the required average value provided
that it is not less than 70% of this average value.
W7.7.4 The requirements of Table 3 are applicable to the general range of alloy steels used in marine
practice and at the discretion of individual Classification Societies may be modified for special types of
alloy steels.
W7.7.5 Where more than one tensile test is taken from a forging the variation in tensile strength is not
to exceed the following:
Difference in tensile
strength (N/mm2)

<600
600 <900
900

70
100
120

Specified minimum tensile


strength (N/mm2)

IACS Req. 1980

W7.7

W7
contd

W7.7.6 At the discretion of individual Classification Societies hardness tests may be required on the
following:
(i)
Gear forgings after completion of heat treatment and prior to machining the gear teeth. The
hardness is to be determined at four positions equally spaced around the circumference of the
surface where teeth will subsequently be cut. Where the finished diameter of the toothed
portion exceeds 2,5m, the above number of test positions is to be increased to eight. Where the
width of a gear wheel rim forging exceeds 1,25m, the hardness is to be determined at eight
positions at each end of the forging.
(ii)
Small crankshaft and gear forgings which have been batch tested. In such cases at least one
hardness test is to be carried out on each forging.
The results from these tests are to be to the satisfaction of the Surveyor and, for information purposes,
typical Brinell hardness values are given in Tables 2 and 3.
W7.7.7 The variation in hardness on an individual forging or in a batch of small forgings is to comply
with the following:
Specified minimum tensile
strength (N/mm2)

Difference hardness
(Brinell number)

<600
600 <900
900

not more than 25


not more than 35
not more than 42

Where other types of hardness tests are used, appropriate values may be obtained from conversion tables.
W7.7.8 Hardness tests may also be required on forgings which have been induction hardened, nitrided
or carburized. For gear forgings these tests are to be carried out on the teeth after, where applicable, they
have been ground to the finished profile. The results of such tests are to comply with the approved
specifications (see W7.5.6).
W7.7.9 Where the result of a tensile test does not comply with the requirements, two additional tests
may be taken. If satisfactory results are obtained from both of these additional tests the forging or batch
of forgings is acceptable. If one or both retests fail the forging or batch of forgings is to be rejected.
W7.7.10 Where the results from a set of three impact test specimens do not comply with the
requirements (see W7.7.3) an additional set of three impact test specimens may be taken provided that
not more than two individual values are less than the required average value and of these not more than
one is less than 70% of this average value. The results obtained are to be combined with the original
results to form a new average which, for acceptance of the forgings or batch forgings, is to be not less
than the required average value.
Additionally, for these combined results not more than two individual values are to be less than the
required average value and of these not more than one is to be less than 70% of this average value.
W7.7.11 The additional tests detailed in W7.7.9 and W7.7.10 are to be taken, preferably from material
adjacent to the original tests, but alternatively from another test position or sample representative of the
forging or batch of forgings.

W7.7.12 At the option of the manufacturer, when a forging or a batch of forgings has failed to meet the
test requirements, it may be re-heat treated and re-submitted for acceptance tests.

IACS Req. 1980

W7.8 - W7.9

W7.8 Inspection
(1978)
W7.8.1 Before acceptance, all forgings are to be presented to the Surveyors for visual examination.
Where applicable, this is to include the examination of internal surfaces and bores. Unless otherwise
agreed the verification of dimensions is the responsibility of the manufacturer.
W7.8.2 When required by the relevant construction Rules, or by the approved procedure for welded
composite components (see W7.2.9) appropriate nondestructive testing is also to be carried out before
acceptance and the results are to be reported by the manufacturer.
All such tests are to be carried out by component operators using reliable and efficiently maintained
equipment. The testing procedures used are to be agreed with the Surveyors.
W7.8.3 Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant testing is to be carried out when the forgings are in the
finished condition. Where current flow methods are used for magnetization, particular care is to be taken
to avoid damaging finished machined surfaces by contact burns from the prods. Unless otherwise agreed,
these tests are to be carried out in the presence of the Surveyor. Acceptance standards for defects found
by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant testing are to be to the satisfaction of the Classification Society
and in accordance with any specific requirements of the approved plan.
W7.8.4 Ultrasonic examination is to be carried out following the final heat treatment and at a stage
when the forgings have been machined to a condition suitable for this type of examination. Both radial
and axial scanning are to be carried out when appropriate for the shape and dimensions of the forging
being examined. Unless otherwise agreed this examination is to be carried out by the manufacturer
although Surveyors may request to be present in order to verify that the examination is being carried out
in accordance with the agreed procedure.
W7.8.5 When required by the conditions of approval for surface hardened forgings (W7.5.6 refers)
additional test samples are to be processed at the same time as the forgings which they represent. These
test samples are subsequently to be sectioned in order to determine the hardness, shape and depth of the
locally hardened zone and which are to comply with the requirements of the approved specification.

W7.8.6 In the event of any forging proving defective during subsequent machining or testing, it is to be
rejected notwithstanding any previous certification.
W7.9 Rectification of defective forgings
(1978)
W7.9.1 Small surface imperfections may be removed by grinding or chipping and grinding. Complete
elimination of these imperfections is to be proved by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination.
At the discretion of the Surveyor, the resulting shallow grooves or depressions can be accepted, provided
that they are blended by grinding.
W7.9.2 Repairs by welding may only be considered in special circumstances and, in general, are
restricted to the rectification of defects of a minor nature in areas of low working stresses.

In such cases, full details of the proposed repair and subsequent inspection procedures are to be
submitted for the approval of the Surveyors prior to commencing the proposed specification. A statement
and/or sketch detailing the extent and location of all repairs, together with details of the post weld heat
treatment and nondestructive examination is to be provided for record purposes. The repair of composite
components formed by welding is to be carried out in accordance with the approved procedure (see
W.7.2.9).

W7
contd

IACS Req. 1980

W7.10 - W7.11

W7
contd

W7.10
(1978)

Identification of forgings

W7.10.1 The manufacturer is to adopt a system of identification which will enable all finished forgings
to be traced to the original cast and the Surveyor is to be given full facilities for so tracing the forgings
when required.
W7.10.2 Before acceptance, all forgings which have been tested and inspected with satisfactory results
are to be clearly marked by the manufacturer. At the discretion of individual Classification Societies any
of the following particulars may be required:
(i)
Steel quality.
(ii)
Identification number, cast number or other marking which will enable the full history of the
forging to be traced.
(ii)
Manufacturer's name or trade mark.
(iv) The Classification Society's name, initials or symbol.
(v)
Abbreviated name of the Classification Society's local office.
(vi) Personal stamp of Surveyor responsible for inspection.

W7.10.3 Where small forgings are manufactured in large numbers, modified arrangements for
identification may be specially agreed with the Classification Society.
W7.11

Certification

W7.11.1 The manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a test certificate or shipping statement giving
the following particulars for each forging or batch of forgings which has been accepted.:
(i)
Purchaser's name and order number.
(ii)
Description of forgings and steel quality.
(iii) Identification number.
(iv) Steelmaking process, cast number and chemical analysis of ladle sample.
(v)
Results of mechanical tests.
(vi) General details of heat treatment.

IACS Req. 1980

W8

Hull and machinery steel castings


W8.1 Scope
(1978)
W8.1.1 All important steel castings, as defined in the relevant construction Rules, are to be
manufactured and tested in accordance with the requirements of the following paragraphs.
W8.1.2 These requirements are applicable only to steel castings where the design and acceptance tests
are related to mechanical properties at ambient temperature. For other applications, additional
requirements may be necessary, especially when the castings are intended for service at low or elevated
temperatures.
W8.1.3 Specific requirements are given for carbon and carbon-manganese steel castings but,
alternatively, castings which comply with national or proprietary specifications may be accepted
provided such specifications give reasonable equivalence to these requirements or are otherwise
specially approved or required by the Classification Society.
W8.1.4 Specific requirements are not given for alloy steel castings and where the use of such materials
is proposed full details of the chemical composition, heat treatment and mechanical properties are to be
submitted for approval of the Classification Society.
W8.1.5 Where small castings are produced in large quantities, the manufacturer may adopt alternative
procedures for testing and inspection subject to the approval of the Classification Society.

W8

W8.2 Manufacture
(1978)

W8.2.1 All important castings are to be made at foundries where the manufacturer has demonstrated to
the satisfaction of the Classification Society that the necessary manufacturing and testing facilities are
available and are supervised by qualified personnel. A programme of approval tests may be required in
accordance with the procedures of individual Classification Societies.
W8.2.2 Steel is to be manufactured by the open hearth, electric or basic oxygen process or by other
processes approved by the Classification Society.
W8.2.3 All flame cutting, scarfing or arc-air gouging to remove surplus metal is to be undertaken in
accordance with recognized good practice and is to be carried out before the final heat treatment.
Preheating is to be employed when necessitated by the chemical composition and/or thickness of the
castings. If necessary, the affected areas are to be either machined or ground smooth.
W8.2.4 For certain components the proposed method of manufacture may require special approval by
the Classification Society.
W8.2.5 Where castings of the same type are produced in regular quantities, the manufacturer is to make
any tests necessary to prove the quality of the prototype castings and is also to make periodical
examinations to verify the continued efficiency of the manufacturing technique. The Surveyor is to be
given the opportunity to witness these tests.
W8.2.6 When two or more castings are joined by welding to form a composite item, details of the
proposed procedure are to be submitted for approval. Welding procedure tests may be required.

IACS Req. 1980

W8

W8
contd

W8.3 Quality of castings


(1978)

W8.3.1 All castings are to be free from surface or internal defects which would be prejudicial to their
proper application in service. The surface finish is to be in accordance with good practice and any
specific requirements of the approved plan.
W8.4 Chemical composition
(1978)
W8.4.1 All castings are to be made from killed steel and the chemical composition is to be appropriate
for the type of steel and the mechanical properties specified for the castings.
W8.4.2 For carbon and carbon-manganese steel castings the chemical composition of ladle samples is
to comply with the following the overall limits.
Carbon
0,40% max.
Silicon
0,60% max.
Manganese
0,50-1,60%
Sulphur
0,040% max.
Phosphorous
0,040% max.
Residual elements:
Copper
Chromium
Nickel
Molybdenum

0,30% max.
0,30% max.
0,40% max.
0,15% max.

W8.4.3 For alloy steel castings the chemical composition of ladle samples is to comply with the
approved specification (see W8.1.4).
W8.4.4 Unless otherwise required suitable grain refining elements such as aluminium may be used at
the discretion of the manufacturer. The content of such elements is to be reported in the ladle analysis.

W8.4.5 Where steel castings are intended for welded construction, the proposed chemical composition
is subject to approval by the Classification Society.
W8.5 Heat treatment (including straightening)
(1978)
W8.5.1 Castings are to be supplied in one of the following conditions:
Fully annealed
Normalized
Normalized and tempered
Quenched and tempered.
The tempering temperature is to be not less than 550C.
W8.5.2 Castings for components such as crankshafts and engine bedplates, where dimensional stability
and freedom from internal stresses are important, are to be given a stress relief heat treatment. This is to
be carried out at a temperature of not less than 550C followed by furnace cooling to 300C or lower.
W8.5.3 Heat treatment is to be carried out in properly constructed furnaces which are efficiently
maintained and have adequate means for control and recording of temperature. The furnace dimensions
are to be such as to allow the whole casting to be uniformly heated to the necessary temperature. In the
case of very large castings alternative methods for heat treatment will be specially considered by the
Classification Society.

W8.5.4 If a casting is locally reheated or any straightening operation is performed after the final heat
treatment, a subsequent stress relieving heat treatment may be required in order to avoid the possibility of
harmful residual stresses.

IACS Req. 1980

W8

W8.6 Mechanical tests


(1978)
W8.5.1 Test material, sufficient for the required tests and for possible re-test purposes is to be provided
for each casting or batch of castings.
W8.6.2 At least one test sample is to be provided for each casting. Unless otherwise agreed these test
samples are to be either integrally cast or gated to the castings and are to have a thickness of not less than
30mm.
W8.6.3 Where the casting is of complex design or where the finished mass exceeds 10 tonnes, two test
samples are to be provided. Where large castings are made from two or more casts, which are not mixed
in a ladle prior to pouring, two or more test samples are to be provided corresponding to the number of
casts involved. These are to be integrally cast at locations as widely separated as possible.
W8.6.4 For castings where the method of manufacture has been specially approved by the
Classification Society in accordance with W8.2.4, the number and position of test samples is to be agreed
with the Classification Society having regard to the method of manufacture employed.
W8.6.5 As an alternative to W8.6.2, where a number of small castings of about the same size is made
from one cast and heat treated in the same furnace charge, a batch testing procedure may be adopted
using separately cast test samples of suitable dimensions. At least one test sample is to be provided for
each batch of castings.
W8.6.6 All test samples are to be suitably marked to identify them with the castings which they
represent.
W8.6.7 The test samples are to be heat treated together with the castings which they represent.
W8.6.8 One tensile test specimen and, when required, one set of three impact test specimens are to be
taken from each test sample. When impact tests are required either Charpy V-notch or Charpy U-notch
impact test specimens may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer unless otherwise specified by the
Classification Society.
W8.6.9 Tensile and impact test specimens are to be machined to the dimensions given in W2.
W8.6.10 All tensile and impact tests are to be carried out at ambient temperature (generally 18-25C)
using test procedures in accordance with W2. Unless otherwise agreed all tests are to be carried out in the
presence of the Surveyors.

W8
contd

W8.7 Mechanical properties


(1978)
W8.7.1 Table 1 gives the minimum requirements for yield stress, elongation, reduction of area and
impact test energy values corresponding to different strength levels for carbon and carbon-manganese
steel castings. It is not intended that these should necessarily be regarded as specific grades. The strength
levels have been given in multiples of 40 N/mm2 to facilitate interpolation for intermediate values of
specified minimum tensile strength.
W8.7.2 Castings may be supplied to any specified minimum tensile strength selected within the general
limits detailed in Table 1 but subject to any additional requirements of the relevant construction Rules.
W8.7.3 The results of all tensile tests are to comply with the requirements of Table 1, appropriate to the
quality of steel and the specified minimum tensile strength. The average energy value from a set of three
impact test specimens is to be not less than the appropriate value given in Table 1. One individual value
may be less than the required average value provided that it is not less than 70% of this average value.

IACS Req. 1980

W8.8 - W8.9

W8.8 Inspection
(1978)
W8.8.1 All castings are to be cleaned and adequately prepared for examination; suitable methods
include pickling, caustic cleaning, wire brushing, local grinding, shot or sand blasting. The surfaces are
not to be hammered, peened or treated in any way which may obscure defects.
W8.8.2 Before acceptance all castings are to be presented to the Surveyors for visual examination.
Where applicable, this is to include the examination of internal surfaces. Unless otherwise agreed, the
verification of dimensions is the responsibility of the manufacturer.
W8.8.3 When required by the relevant construction Rules, or by the approved procedure for welded
composite components (see W8.2.6.), appropriate nondestructive testing is also to be carried out before
acceptance and the results are to be reported by the manufacturer. All such tests are to be carried out by
competent operators, using reliable and efficiently maintained equipment. The testing procedures used
are to be agreed with the Surveyors.
W8.8.4 Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant testing is to be carried out when the castings are in the
finished condition. Where current flow methods are used for magnetization, particular care is to be taken
to avoid damaging finished machined surfaces by contact burns from the prods. Unless otherwise agreed
these tests are to be carried out in the presence of the Surveyors. Acceptance standards are to be to the
satisfaction of the Society and in accordance with any requirements of the approved plan.
W8.8.5 The radiographic examination of castings is to be carried out by the manufacturer at positions
indicated on the approved plan or as otherwise agreed with the Surveyors. All radiographics are to be
submitted to the Surveyors for examination and acceptance. Acceptance standards are to be to the
satisfaction of the Classification Society and in accordance with any requirements of the approved plan.
W8.8.6 The ultrasonic examination of castings is to be carried out at positions as indicated on the
approved plan or as otherwise agreed with the Surveyors. This examination is to be carried out by the
manufacturer but Surveyors may request to be present in order to verify that the examination is being
carried out in accordance with the agreed procedure.
W8.8.7 When required by the relevant construction Rules castings are to be pressure tested before final
acceptance. These tests are to be carried out in the presence of the Surveyors and are to be to their
satisfaction.
W8.8.8 In the event of any casting proving defection during subsequent machining or testing it is to be
rejected notwithstanding any previous certification.

W8
contd

W8.9 Rectification of defective castings


(1978)
W8.9.1 When unacceptable defects are found in a casting these are to be removed by machining or
chipping. Flame-scarfing or arc-air gouging may also be used provided that pre-heating is employed
when necessary and that the surfaces of the resulting depression are subsequently ground smooth.
Complete elimination of the defective material is to be proved by adequate nondestructive testing.
Shallow grooves or depression resulting from the removal of defects may, at the discretion of the
Surveyor, be accepted provided that they will cause no appreciable reduction in the strength of the
castings and that they are suitably smoothed and contoured by grinding.

W8.9.2 Proposals to repair a defective casting by welding are to be submitted to the Surveyors for
approval before this work is commenced. Such proposals are to include details of the extent and position
of all defects. The manufacturer may be required to carry out welding procedure tests to demonstrate that
satisfactory mechanical properties can be obtained.

IACS Req. 1980

W8.9 - W8.10

W8
contd

W8.9.3 When it has been agreed that the casting can be repaired this is to be carried out in accordance
with an approved welding procedure which includes the following features:
(i)
Cast steel components for crankshafts and alloy steel castings are to be given a suitable
preliminary heat treatment prior to carrying out weld repairs. A similar heat treatment may also be
required for other types of castings where the repair of a major defect is proposed.
(ii)
The excavations are to be suitably shaped to allow good access for welding and after final
preparation for welding are to be re-examined by suitable nondestructive testing methods to
ensure that all defective material has been eliminated.
(iii) All castings in alloy steels and all castings for crankshafts are to be suitably pre-heated prior to
welding. Castings in carbon or carbon-manganese steel may also require to be pre-heated
depending on their chemical composition and the dimensions and position of the weld repairs.
(iv) Welding is to be done under cover in positions free from draughts and adverse weather conditions
by qualified welders with adequate supervision. As far as possible, all welding is to be carried out
in the downhand (flat) position.
(v)
The welding consumables used are to be of a type giving a weld deposit with mechanical
properties similar to those of the parent castings. The use of low hydrogen type welding
consumables is preferred.
Consideration is to be given to the effect of postweld heat treatment on the mechanical properties
of the weld material.
(vi) After welding has been completed the castings are to be given either a suitable heat treatment in
accordance with the requirements of W8.5.1 or a stress relieving heat treatment at a temperature
of not less than 550C. The type of heat treatment employed will be dependent on the chemical
composition of the casting and the dimensions, positions and nature of the defects.
(vii) Special consideration may be given to the omission of postweld heat treatment or to the
acceptance of local stress-relieving heat treatment where the repaired area is small and machining
of the casting has reached an advanced stage.
(viii) On completion of heat treatment the weld repairs and adjacent material are to be ground smooth
and examined by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant testing. Supplementary examination by
ultrasonics or radiography may also be required depending on the dimensions and nature of the
original defect. Satisfactory results are to be obtained from all forms of nondestructive testing
used.
W8.10
(1978)

Identification of castings

W8.10.1 The manufacturer is to adopt a system of identification which will enable all finished castings
to be traced to the original cast and the Surveyors are to be given full facilities for so tracing the castings
when required.
W8.10.2 Before acceptance, all castings which have been tested and inspected with satisfactory results
are to be clearly marked by the manufacturer. At the discretion of individual Classification Societies any
of the following particulars may be required:
(i)
Steel quality.
(ii)
Identification number, cast number or other marking which will enable the full history of the
casting to be traced.
(iii) Manufacturer's name or trade mark.
(iv) The Classification Society's name, initials or symbol.
(v)
Abbreviated name of the Classification Society's local office.
(vi) Personal stamp of Surveyors responsible for inspection.
(vii) Where applicable, test pressure.

IACS Req. 1980

W8.10.3 Where small castings are manufactured in large numbers, modified arrangements for
identification may be specially agreed with the Classification Society.

W8.11

W8.11
(1978)

Certification

W8.11.1 The manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a test certificate or shipping statement giving
the following particulars for each casting or batch of castings which has been accepted:
(i)
Purchaser's name and order number.
(ii)
Description of castings and steel quality.
(iii) Identification number.
(iv) Steel making process, cast number and chemical analysis of ladle samples.
(v)
Results of mechanical tests.
(vi) General details of heat treatment.
(vii) Where applicable, test pressure.

W8
contd

IACS Req. 1980/Rev. 1 1995

W11.1

W11
Normal and higher strength hull
(1979)
(Rev.1
structural steels
1986)
(Rev. 2
1.
1995 v.2.1)
1.1
1.2

Scope
These requirements apply to weldable normal and higher strength hot-rolled steel plates, wide
flats, sections and bars intended for use in hull construction.
The requirements are primarily intended to apply to steel products with a thickness as follows:
For steel plates and wide flats;
- Grades A, B, D, E, A32, D32, E32, A36, D36 and E36: Up to 100mm in thickness
- Grades A40, D40, E40, F32, F36 and F40 : Up to 50mm in thickness
For sections and bars;
- All Grades : Up to 50mm in thickness
For greater thickness certain variations in the requirements may be allowed or required in
particular cases after consideration of the technical circumstances involved.

1.3

Provision is made for four grades of normal strength steel based on the impact test requirements.
For higher strength steels provision is made for three strength levels (315, 355 and 390 N/mm2)
each subdivided into four grades based on the impact test temperature.

1.4

Steels differing in chemical composition, deoxidation practice, conditions of supply and


mechanical properties may be accepted, subject to the special approval of the Classification
Society. Such steels are to be given a special designation.

NOTE:.
1.
2.

The attention of the users must be drawn to the fact that when fatigue loading is present, the
effective fatigue strength of a welded joint of higher strength steel may not be greater than that of
a welded joint in normal strength steels.
Before subjecting steels produced by thermo-mechanical rolling to further heating for forming or
stress relieving, or using high heat-input welding, special consideration must be given to the
possibility of a consequent reduction in mechanical properties.

11-1
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995,v2.1

W11.2W11.3

2.

Approval

2.1

All materials are to be manufactured at works which have been approved by the Classification
Society for the type and grade of steel which is being supplied.

2.2

The stability of each grade of steel for forming and welding is to be demonstrated during the
initial approval tests at the steelworks. The type and extent of testing required is at the discretion
of the Classification Societies.

2.3

When steel is not produced at the works at which it is rolled, a certificate is to be supplied to the
Surveyor at the rolling mill stating the process by which it was manufactured, the name of the
manufacturer who supplied it, the number of the cast from which it was made and the ladle
analysis. The Surveyor is to have access to the works at which the steel was produced.

3.

Method of Manufacture

3.1

Steel is to be manufactured by the basic oxygen, electric furnace or open hearth processes or by
other processes specially approved by the Classification Society.

3.2

The deoxidation practice used for each grade is to comply with the appropriate requirements of
Tables 1 and 2.

3.3

The applicable rolling procedures are defined as follows and the schematic diagrams are given in
the Appendix.

W11
contd

(i) Controlled Rolling, CR (Normalizing Rolling, N):


A rolling procedure in which the final deformation is carried out in the normalising temperature
range, resulting in a material condition generally equivalent to that obtained by normalising.
(ii) Thermo-mechanical Rolling, TM (Thermo-mechanical Controlled Processing, TMCP):
This is a procedure which involves the strict control of both the steel temperature and the rolling
reduction. Generally a high proportion of the rolling reduction is carried out close to the Ar3
temperature and may involve the rolling in the dual phase temperature region. Unlike controlled
rolled (normalised rolling) the properties conferred by TM (TMCP) cannot be reproduced by
subsequent normalising or other heat treatment.
The use of accelerated cooling on completion of TM-rolling may also be accepted subject to the
special approval of the Society. The same applies for the use of tempering after completion of the
TM-rolling.
(iii) Accelerated Cooling, AcC
Accelerated cooling is a process, which aims to improve mechanical properties by controlled
cooling with rates higher than air cooling immediately after the final TM-rolling operation. Direct
quenching is excluded from accelerated cooling.
The material properties conferred by TM and AcC cannot be reproduced by subsequent
normalising or other heat treatment.

11-2
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995,v2.1

W11.4

W11
contd

4.

Chemical Composition

4.1

The chemical composition of samples taken from each ladle of each cast is to be determined by
the manufacturer in an adequately equipped and competently staffed laboratory and is to comply
with the appropriate requirements of Tables 1 and 2. For steel plates and wide flats over 50mm
thick, slight deviations in the chemical composition may be allowed as approved by the
Classification Society.

4.2

The manufacturer's declared analysis will be accepted subject to occasional checks if required by
the Surveyor.

Table 1 Chemical composition and deoxidation practice for normal strength steels
Grade
Deoxidation
Practice

Chemical
Composition % (4) (7) (8)
(ladle samples)
C max.
Mn min.
Si max.
P max.
S max.
Al (acid soluble) min.

For t 50 mm
For t 50 mm
For t 25mm
Killed
Any method
Any method
killed
and fine
except rimmed steel (1) except rimmed For t > 25 mm grain treated
For t > 50 mm
For t > 50 mm
Killed and
Killed
Killed
fine grain treated
Carbon plus

0,21 (2)
2,5 x C
0,50
0,035
0,035

1
6

of the manganese content is not to exceed 0,40%

0,21
0,80 (3)
0,35
0,035
0,035

0,21
0,60
0,35
0,035
0,035
0,015 (5) (6)

0,18
0,70
0,35
0,035
0,035
0,015 (6)

t = thickness
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

Grade A sections up to a thickness of 12.5 mm may be accepted in rimmed steel subject to the
special approval of the Classification Society.
Max. 0.23% for sections.
When Grade B steel is impact tested the minimum manganese content may be reduced to 0.60%.
When any grade of steel is supplied in the thermo-mechanically rolled condition variations in the
specified chemical composition may be allowed or required by the Classification Society.
For Grade D steel over 25 mm thick.
For Grade D steel over 25 mm thick and Grade E steel the total aluminium content may be
determined instead of acid soluble content. In such cases the total aluminium content is to be not
less than 0.020%. A maximum aluminium content may also be specified by the Classification
Society. Other suitable grain refining elements may be used subject to the special approval of the
Classification Society.
The Classification Society may limit the amount of residual elements which may have an adverse
effect on the working and use of the steel, e.g. copper and tin.
Where additions of any other element have been made as part of the steelmaking practice, the
content is to be indicated.

11-3
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.4

W11
contd

Table 2 Chemical composition and deoxidation practice for higher strength steels
Grade (1)

A32
A36
A40

D32
D36
D40

Deoxidation Practice

E32
E36
E40

F32
F36
F40

killed and fine grain treated

Chemical Composition % (5) (7)


(ladle samples)
C max.
Mn
Si max.
P max.
S max.
Al (acid soluble) min.
Nb
V
Ti max.
Cu max.
Cr max.
Ni max.
Mo max.
N max.
Carbon Equivalent (6)

0.18
0.90 - 1.60 (2)
0.50
0.035
0.035
0.015 (3) (4)
0.02 - 0.05 (4) ) total:
0.05 - 0.10 (4) ) 0.12
0.02
) max.
0.35
0.20
0.40
0.08
-

0.16
0.90-1.60
0.50
0.025
0.025
0.015 (3) (4)
0.02-0.05(4) ) total:
0.05-0.10(4) ) 0.12
0.02
) max.
0.35
0.20
0.80
0.08
0.009 (0.012 if A1 is present)

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

The letter H may be added either in front or behind the grade mark e.g. HA 32 or AH 32.
Up to a thickness of 12.5 mm the minimum manganese content may be reduced to 0.70%.
The total aluminium content may be determined instead of the acid soluble content.
In such cases the total aluminim content is to be not less than 0.020%.
The steel is to contain aluminium, niobium, vanadium or other suitable grain refining elements,
either singly or in any combination. When used singly the steel is to contain the specified
minimum content of the grain refining element. When used in combination, the specified
minimum content of a fine graining element is not applicable.
When any grade of higher strength steel is supplied in the thermo-mechanically rolled condition
variations in the specified chemical composition may be allowed or required by the Classification
Society.
When required, the carbon equivalent value is to be calculated from the ladle analysis using the
following formula.
Ceq = C +

Mn
6

Cr + Mo + V
5

Ni + Cu
15

(%)

This formula is applicable only to steels which are basically of the carbon-manganese type and
gives a general indication of the weldability of the steel.
Where additions of any other element have been made as part of the steelmaking practice, the
content is to be indicated.

7.

11-4
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.4

W11
contd

4.3

For TM (TMCP) steels the following special requirements apply:

(i)

The carbon equivalent value is to be calculated from the ladle analysis using the following
formula and to comply with the requirements of Table 3;
Ceq = C +

(ii)

Mn
6

Cr + Mo + V
5

Ni + Cu
15

(%)

The following formula (cold cracking susceptibility) may be used for evaluating weldability
instead of the carbon equivalent at the discretion of the Classification Society;
Pcm = C +

Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V
+
+
+
+
+
+
+5
30 20 20 60 20 15 10

In such cases the cold cracking susceptibility value required may be specified by the
Classification Society.
Table 3 Carbon equivalent for higher strength steels up to 100mm in
thickness produced by TM.
Carbon Equivalent, max. (%) (1)

Grade
t < 50
A32, D32, E32, F32
A36, D36, E36, F36
A40, D40, E40, F40

50 < t < 100


0.36
0.38
0.40

0.38 (2)
0.40 (2)
-

t: thickness (mm)

NOTES:
(1)

It is a matter for the manufacturer and shipbuilder to mutually agree in individual cases as to
whether they wish to specify a more stringent carbon equivalent.

(2)

Grades F32 and F36 steels over 50 mm in thickness are not applicable.

11-5
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, V2.1

W11.5

W11
contd

5.

Condition of Supply

5.1

All materials are to be supplied in a condition complying with the appropriate requirements of
Tables 4 and 5.

Table 4 Condition of supply for normal strength steels (1)


Grades

Thickness

< 50 mm
> 50 mm < 100 mm

< 50 mm
> 50 mm < 100 mm

< 35 mm
> 35 mm < 100 mm

< 100 mm

Condition of Supply
Any
Normalized, controlled rolled or thermo-mechanically
rolled (2)
Any
Normalized, controlled rolled or thermo-mechanically
rolled (2)
Any
Normalized, controlled rolled or thermo-mechanically
rolled (3)
Normalized or thermo-mechanically rolled (3)

NOTES:
(1)
(2)
(3)

These conditions of supply and the impact test requirements are summarised in Table 8.
Subject to the special approval of the Classification Society, Grades A and B steel plates may be
supplied in the as rolled condition - see 11.13.2 (ii).
Subject to the special approval of the Classification Society, sections in Grade D steel may be
supplied in the as rolled condition provided satisfactory results are consistently obtained from
Charpy V-notch impact tests. Similarly sections in Grade E steel may be supplied in the as rolled
or controlled rolled condition. The frequency of impact tests is to be in accordance with
W11.13.2 (ii) and W11.13.3 (iii) respectively.

11-6
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995/Corr., v2.1

W11.5W11.6

W11
contd

Table 5 Condition of supply for higher strength steels (1)


Grades

Grain Refining
Elements Used

Thickness

Condition of supply

A32
A36

Nb and/or V

12.5mm
> 12,5mm 100mm

Any
Normalized, controlled rolled or
thermo-mechanically rolled (3)

A32
A36

Al alone
or with Ti

20mm
> 20mm 35mm

Any
Any, as rolled subject to special approval of
the Classification Society (2)
Normalized, controlled rolled or
thermo-mechanically rolled (3)

> 35mm 100mm

A40

Any

12.5 mm
>12.5 mm 50mm

Any
Normalized, controlled rolled or thermomechanically rolled

D32
D36

Nb and/or V

12.5mm
> 12.5mm 100mm

Any
Normalized, controlled rolled or
thermo-mechanically rolled (3)

D32
D36

Al alone
or with Ti

20mm
> 20 mm 25mm

Any
Any, as rolled subject to special approval of
the Classification Society (2)
Normalized, controlled rolled or thermomechanically rolled (3)

>25 mm 100 mm

D40

Any

50 mm

Normalized, controlled rolled or thermomechanically rolled

E32
E36

Any

50 mm

E40

Any

> 50 mm 100 mm
50 mm

F32
F36
F40

Any

50 mm

Normalized or thermo-mechanically
rolled (3)
Normalized, thermo-mechanically rolled
Normalized, thermo-mechanically rolled or
quenched and tempered
Normalized, thermo-mechanically rolled
or quenched and tempered (4)

NOTES:
(1)
These conditions of supply and the requirements for impact tests are summarised in Table 9.
(2)
The frequency of impact tests is to be in accordance with W11.13.2 (ii).
(3)
Subject to the special approval of the Classification Society, sections in Grades A32, A36, D32
and D36 steels may be supplied in the as rolled condition provided satisfactory results are
consistentlyobtained from Charpy V-notch impact tests. Similarly sections in Grades E32 and
E36 steels maybe supplied in the as rolled or controlled rolled condition. The frequency of impact
tests is to be in accordance with W11.13.2 (ii) and W11.13.2 (iii) respectively.
(4)
Subject to the special approval of the Classification Society, sections in Grades F32 and F36 steels
may be supplied in the controlled rolled condition. The frequency of impact tests is to be in
accordance with W11.13.3 (iii).

11-7
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995/Corr., v2.1

W11.6

W11
contd

6.

Mechanical Properties

6.1

For tensile test either the upper yield stress (ReH) or where ReH cannot be determined, the 0.2
percent proof stress (Rp 0.2) is to be determined and the material is considered to comply with the
requirements if either value meets or exceeds the specified minimum value for yield strength (Re).

6.2

The results obtained from tensile tests are to comply with the appropriate requirements of Tables
6 and 7.

Table 6 Mechanical properties for normal strength steels


Impact Test
Grade

A
B
D
E

Yield
Tensile
Elongation Test
Average Impact Energy (J)
Strength
Strength
(5.65 S0) Temp.
min
2
2
ReH (N/mm ) Rm (N/mm )
A5 (%)
C
t 50 (mm)
50<t 70(mm)
70 <t 100(mm)
min
Long (3) Trans (3) Long (3) Trans (3) Long (3) Trans (3)

235

400/520 (1)

22 (2)

+20
0
-20
-40

27 (4)
27
27

20 (4)
20
20

34(5)
34
34
34

24(5)
24
24
24

41(5)
41
41
41

27(5)
27
27
27

NOTES:
(1)
For all thicknesses of Grade A sections the upper limit for the specified tensile strength range may
be exceeded at the discretion of the Classification Society.
(2)
For full thickness flat tensile test specimens with a width of 25 mm and a gauge length of 200mm
the elongation is to comply with the following minimum values :
Thickness mm

Elongation %

(3)
(4)
(5)

>5
10

> 10
15

> 15
20

14

16

17

18

> 20 > 25
25 30
19

20

> 30
40

> 40
50

21

22

See paragraph W11.6.3.


Charpy V-notch impact tests are generally not required for Grade B steel with thickness of 25 mm
or less.
Impact tests for Grade A over 50 mm thick are not required when the material is produced using
fine grain practice and furnished normalised. TM rolling may be accepted without impact testing
at the discretion of the Society.

11-8
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.6

W11
contd

Table 7 Mechanical properties for higher strength steels

Grade

Yield
Strength

Tensile
Strength

ReH (N/mm2) Rm (N/mm2)

Elongation

Impact Test

(5.65 S0)

Average Impact Energy (J)

A5(%)

min
A32
D32
E32
F32
A36
D36
E36
F36
A40
D40
E40
F40

Test
Temp.
( C)

315

440/570

22 (1)

355

490/630

21 (1)

390

510/660

20(1)

min
t 50(mm)
50 <t 70(mm) 70 <t 100(mm)
Long (2) Trans (2) Long (2) Trans (2) Long (2) Trans (2)

0
20
40
-60

31 (3)
31
31
31

22 (3)
22
22
22

38
38
38

0
20
40
-60

34 (3)
34
34
34

24 (3)
24
24
24

41
41
41

0
-20
-40
-60

41
41
41
41

27
27
27
27

26
46
26
46
26
46
Not applicable
27
27
27

31
31
31

50
50
50

34
34
34

Not applicable

t: thickness (mm)
NOTES:
(1)
For full thickness flat tensile test specimens with a width of 25mm and a gauge length of
200 mm the elongation is to comply with the following minimum values:

Thickness
(mm)
Elongation
%

Grade

A32, D32, E32 & F32 14


A36, D36, E36 & F36 13
A40, D40, E40 & F40 12

> 5 > 10
10 15
16
15
14

17
16
15

> 15
20
18
17
16

> 20 > 25
25 30
19
18
17

20
19
18

> 30
40

> 40
50

21
20
19

22
21
20

(2)
(3)

See paragraph W11.6.3.


For Grades A32 and A36 steels a relaxation in the number of impact tests for acceptance purposes
may be permitted by special agreement with the Classification Society provided that satisfactory
results are obtained from occasional check tests.

6.3

Minimum average energy values are specified for Charpy V-notch impact test specimens taken in
either the longitudinal or transverse directions (see W11.12.2). Generally only longitudinal test
specimens need to be prepared and tested except for special applications where transverse test
specimens may be required by the purchaser or the Classification Society. Transverse test results are
to be guaranteed by the supplier.

11-9
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.6-W11.10

W11
contd

The tabulated values are for standard specimens 10 mm x 10 mm. For plate thicknesses less than 10 mm,
impact test may be waived at the discretion of the Classification Society or sub-size specimens may be
used with reduced requirements as follows :
Specimen 10 mm x 7.5 mm : 5/6 of tabulated energy
Specimen 10 mm x 5 mm : 2/3 of tabulated energy
6.4
The average value obtained from one set of three impact tests is to comply with the requirements
given in Tables 6 and 7. One individual value only may be below the specified average value provided it
is not less than 70% of that value.
6.5

Generally, impact tests are not required when the nominal plate thickness is less than 6 mm.

7.

Freedom from Defects

7.1

The steel is to be reasonably free from segregations and non-metallic inclusions. The finished
material is to have a workmanlike finish and is to be free from internal and surface defects
prejudicial to the use of the material for the intended application.

7.2

The acceptance criteria for surface finish and procedures for the repair of defects, as detailed in
Recommendation, No 12, "Guidance for the Surface Finish of Hot Rolled Steel Plates and Wide
Flats" are to be observed.

8.

Tolerances

8.1

Unless otherwise agreed or specially required the thickness tolerances in Unified Requirement
W13 "Allowable under thickness tolerances of steel plates and wide flats" are applicable.

9.

Identification of Materials

9.1

The steelmaker is to adopt a system for the identification of ingots, slabs and finished pieces
which will enable the material to be traced to its original cast.

9.2

The Surveyor is to be given full facilities for so tracing the material when required.

10.

Testing and Inspection

10.1

Facilities for Inspection


The manufacturer is to afford the Surveyor all necessary facilities and access to all relevant parts
of the works to enable him to verify that the approved process is adhered to, for the selection of
test materials, and the witnessing of tests, as required by the Rules, and for verifying the accuracy
of the testing equipment.

10.2

Testing Procedures
The prescribed tests and inspections are to be carried out at the place of manufacture before
dispatch. The test specimens and procedures are to be in accordance with Unified Requirement
W2 Test Specimens and Mechanical Testing Procedures for Materials. All the test specimens
are to be selected and stamped by the Surveyor and tested in his presence, unless otherwise
agreed.

10.3

Through Thickness Tensile Tests


If plates and wide flats with thickness of 15 mm and over are ordered with through thickness
properties, the through thickness tensile test in accordance with Unified Requirement W14 Steel
Plates and Wide Flats with Improved Through Thickness Properties is to be carried out.

11-10
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.10.5-W11.11.2

10.4

Ultrasonic Inspection
If plates and wide flats are ordered with ultrasonic inspection, this is to be made in accordance
with an accepted standard at the discretion of the Classification Society.

10.5

Surface Inspection and Dimensions


Surface inspection and verification of dimensions are the responsibility of the steel maker. The
acceptance by the Classification Societys Surveyor shall not absolve the steel maker from this
responsibility.

W11
contd

11.

Test Material

11.1
(a)

Definitions
Piece: the term "piece" is understood to mean the rolled product from a single slab, billet or
ingot if this is rolled directly into plates, sections or bars.
Batch: a number of similar pieces presented as a group for acceptance tests.

(b)
11.2
(a)

(c)

Test Samples
All material in a batch presented for acceptance tests is to be of the same product form e.g.
plates, flats, sections, etc. from the same cast and in the same condition of supply.
The test samples are to be fully representative of the material and, where appropriate, are not
to be cut from the material until heat treatment has been completed.
The test specimens are not to be separately heat treated in any way.

(d)

Unless otherwise agreed the test samples are to be taken from the following positions:

(b)

(i) Plates and flats with a width 600 mm. The test samples are to be taken from one end at a
position approximately midway between the axis in the direction of the rolling and the edge
of the rolled product (see Fig. 1). Unless otherwise agreed the tensile test specimens are to be
prepared with their longitudinal axes transverse to the final direction of rolling.
(ii) Flats with a width < 600 mm, bulb flats and other sections. The test samples are to be taken
from one end at a position approximately one third from the outer edge (see Figs. 2, 3 and 4)
or in the case of small sections, as near as possible to this position. In the case of channels,
beams or bulb angles, the test samples may alternatively be taken from a position
approximately one quarter of the width from the web centre line or axis (see Fig. 3). The
tensile test specimens may be prepared with their longitudinal axes either parallel or
transverse to the final direction of rolling.
(iii) Bars and other similar products. The test samples are to be taken so that the longitudinal axes
of the test specimens are parallel to the direction of rolling and are as near as possible to the
following
for non-cylindrical sections, at one third of the half diagonal from the outside,
for cylindrical sections, at one third of the radius from the outside (see Fig. 6).
1/3

2/3

1/4

1/4

1/4

1/2

1/2
1/4

Fig. 1 Plates and flats

2/3

1/3

Fig. 2 Angles

11-11

Fig. 3 Channel

IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.12-W11.13.2

W11
contd

1/6

1/3

1/2

1/3



1/4

1/4

2/3

1/2

2/3 1/3

Fig. 4 H-sections

Fig. 5 Bulb flats

Fig. 6 Bars;

Mechanical Test specimens

12.1

Tensile Test Specimens. The dimensions of the tensile test specimens are to be in accordance with
Unified Requirement, W2. Generally for plates, wide flats and sections flat test specimens of full
product thickness are to be used. Round test specimens may be used when the product thickness
exceeds 40 mm or for bars and other similar products. Alternatively for small sizes of bars, etc.
test specimens may consist of a suitable length of the full cross section of the product.

12.2

Impact Test Specimens. The impact test specimens are to be of the Charpy V-notch type cut with
their edge within 2 mm from the as rolled surface with their longitudinal axes either parallel
(indicated Long in Table 6 & 7) or transverse (indicated "Trans" in Tables 6 & 7) to the final
direction of rolling of the material. The notch is to be cut in a face of the test specimen which was
originally perpendicular to the rolled surface. The position of the notch is not to be nearer than 25
mm to a flame cut or sheared edge (see also W11.6.3). Where the product thickness exceeds 40
mm, the impact test specimens are to be taken with their longitudinal axis at a quarter thickness
position.

13.

Number of Test Specimens

13.1

Number of Tensile Tests. For each batch presented, except where specially agreed by the
Classification Society, one tensile test is to be made from one piece unless the weight of finished
material is greater than 50 tonnes or fraction thereof. Additionally tests are to be made for every
variation of 10 mm in the thickness or diameter of products from the same cast.

12.

13.2. Number of Impact Tests (except for Grades E, E32, E36, E 40, F32, F36 and F40), see Tables 8 &
9.
(i) Except where otherwise specified or specially agreed by the Classification Society, for each
batch presented, at least one set of three Charpy V-notch test specimens is to be made from
one piece unless the weight of finished material is greater than 50 tonnes, in which case one
extra set of three test specimens is to be made from a different piece from each 50 tonnes or
fraction thereof. When steel plates except for Grade A steel over 50 mm in thickness is
supplied in the controlled rolled condition, the frequency of impact test is to be made from a
different piece from each 25 tonnes or fraction thereof.
(ii) When, subject to the special approval of the Classification Society, material is supplied in the
as rolled condition, the frequency of impact tests is to be increased to one set from each batch
of 25 tonnes or fraction thereof. Similarly Grade A steel over 50mm in thickness may be
supplied in the as rolled condition. In such case one set of three Charpy V-notch test
specimens is to be taken from each batch of 50 tonnes or fraction thereof.
(iii) The piece selected for the preparation of the test specimens is to be the thickest in each batch.

11-12
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995/Corr., v2.1

W11.13.3-W11.14.8

13.3

Number of Impact Tests (Grades E, E32, E36, E40, F32, F36 and F40)
(i) For steel plates supplied in the normalised or TM condition one set of impact test specimens is
to be taken from each piece. For quenched and tempered steel plates one set of impact test
specimens is to be taken from each length as heat treated.
(ii) For sections one set of impact tests is to be taken from each batch of 25 tonnes or fraction thereof.
(iii) When, subject to the special approval of the Classification Society, sections other than Grades
E40 and F40 are supplied in the as rolled or controlled rolled condition, one set of impact tests is
to be taken from each batch of 15 tonnes or fraction thereof.
(iv) For (ii) and (iii) above the piece selected for the preparation of the test specimens is to be the
thickest in each batch.

W11
contd

14.

Retest Procedures

14.1

When the tensile test from the first piece selected in accordance with W11.13.1 fails to meet the
requirements, two further tensile tests may be made from the same piece. If both of these
additional tests are satisfactory, this piece and the remaining pieces from the same batch may be
accepted.

14.2

If one or both of the additional tests referred to above are unsatisfactory, the piece is to be
rejected, but the remaining material from the same batch may be accepted provided that two of the
remaining pieces in the batch selected in the same way, are tested with satisfactory results. If
unsatisfactory results are obtained from either of these two pieces then the batch of material is to
be rejected.

14.3

When the average value of the three initial Charpy V-notch impact specimens fails to meet the
stated requirement, or the value for more than one specimen is below the required average value,
or when the value of any one specimen is below 70% of the specified average value, three
additional specimens from the same material may be tested and the results added to those
previously obtained to form a new average. If this new average complies with the requirements
and if not more than two individual results are lower than the required average and of these, not
more than one result is below 70% of the specified average value the piece or batch may be
accepted.

14.4

When the initial piece, representing a batch, gives unsatisfactory results from the additional
Charpy V-notch impact tests referred to above, this piece is to be rejected but the remaining
material in the batch may be accepted provided that two of the remaining pieces in the batch are
tested with satisfactory results. If unsatisfactory results are obtained from either of these two
pieces then the batch of material is to be rejected. The pieces selected for these additional tests are
to be the thickest remaining in the batch.

14.5

If any test specimen fails because of faulty preparation, visible defects or (in the case of tensile
test) because of fracturing outside the range permitted for the appropriate gauge length, the
defective test piece may, at the Surveyors discretion, be disregarded and replayed by an additional
test piece of the same type.

14.6

At the option of the steelmaker, when a batch of material is rejected, the remaining pieces in the
batch may be resubmitted individually for test and those pieces which give satisfactory results
may be accepted.

14.7

At the option of the steelmaker, rejected material may be resubmitted after heat treatment or reheat treatment, or may be resubmitted as another grade of steel and may then be accepted
provided the required tests are satisfactory.

14.8

In the event of any material proving unsatisfactory during subsequent working or fabrication, such
material may be rejected, notwithstanding any previous satisfactory testing and/or certification.

11-13
,IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995/Corr., v2.1

W11.15-W11.16.2

W11
contd

15.

Branding

15.1

Every finished piece is to be clearly marked by the maker in at least one place with the
Classification Society's brand and the following particulars:
(i) Unified identification mark for the grade steel (e.g. A, A36).
(ii) Steels which have been specially approved by the Classification Society and which differ
from these requirements (see W11.1.4) are to have the letter "S" after the above identification
mark (e.g. A36S, ES).
(iii) When required by the Classification Society, material supplied in the thermo-mechanically
controlled process condition is to have the letters TM added after the identification mark
(e.g. E36 TM).
(iv) Name or initials to identify the steel works.
(v) Cast or other number to identify the piece.
(vi) If required by the purchaser, his order number or other identification mark.
The above particulars, but excluding the manufacturer's name or trade mark where this is
embossed on finished products are to be encircled with paint or otherwise marked so as to be
easily recognisable.

15.3

Where a number of light materials are securely fastened together in bundles the manufacturer
may, subject to the agreement of the Classification Society, brand only the top piece of each
bundle, or alternatively, a firmly fastened durable label containing the brand may be attached to
each bundle.

15.4

In the event of any material bearing the Classification Society's brand failing to comply with the
test requirements, the brand is to be unmistakably defaced by the manufacturer.

16.

Documentation

16.1

The Surveyor is to be supplied with the number of copies as required by the Classification
Society, of the test certificates or shipping statements for all accepted materials. The
Classification Society may require separate documents of each grade of steel. These documents
are to contain, in addition to the description, dimensions, etc, of the material, at least the following
particulars:

15.2

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Purchaser's order number and if known the hull number for which the material is intended.
Identification of the cast and piece including, where appropriate, the test specimen number.
Identification of the steelworks.
Identification of the grade of steel.
Ladle analysis (for elements specified in Tables 1 & 2).
Condition of supply when other than as rolled i.e. normalised, controlled rolled or thermomechanically rolled.
(vii) State if rimming steel has been supplied for grade A sections, up to 12.5 mm thick.
(viii) Test Results
16.2

Before the test certificates or shipping statements are signed by the Surveyor, the manufacturer is
required to furnish him with a written declaration stating that the material has been made by an
approved process and that it has been subjected to and has withstood satisfactory the required tests
in the presence of the Surveyor or his authorized deputy. The name of the Classification Society is
to appear on the test certificate. The following form of declaration will be accepted if stamped or
printed on each test certificate or shipping statement with the name of the steelworks and initialled
for the makers by an authorized official:
"We hereby certify that the material has been made by an approved process and has been
satisfactorily tested in accordance with the Rules of the Classification Society."

11-14
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11.16

W11
contd

Table 8
Required condition of supply and number of impact tests for normal
strength steels
Grade

Deoxidation
Practice

Products

Condition of Supply (Batch for Impact Tests) (1)(2)

10

12.5

20

Thickness (mm)
25 30 35 40 50

100

A(-)
Rimmed
A

For t 50mm
Any method
except rimmed
For t > 50mm
Killed

Killed

Not applicable

For t 50mm
Any method
except rimmed
For t > 50mm
Killed

Sections

Plates
Killed and fine
grain treated

N(-)
Plates

A(-)

TM(-) (3)
CR (50), AR* (50)

Sections

A(-)

Not applicable

Plates

A(-)

A(50)

N(50)
TM(50)
CR (25), AR* (25)

Sections

A(-)

A(50)

Not applicable

Plates
Sections

A(50)

Not applicable

Plates

A(50)

N(50)
N(50)
CR(50) TM(50)
TM(50) CR(25)
N(50)
CR(50) Not applicable
TM(50)
AR*(25)

A(50)
Sections

Plates
E

Killed and fine


grain treated
Sections

N(Each piece)
TM(Each piece)
N(25)
TM(25)
AR* (15), CR*(15)

Not applicable

Remarks
1. Condition of Supply
A

Any
N

Normalised Condition
CR

Controlled Rolled Condition


TM

Thermo-Mechanical rolling
AR*

As Rolled Condition subject to special approval of the Classification Society


CR*

Controlled Rolled Condition subject to special approval of the Classification Society


2. Number of Impact Tests
One set of impact tests is to be taken from each batch of the "specified weight" in ( ) or fraction thereof.
3. See Note (5) of Table 6.

11-15
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11

W11
contd

Table 9
Required condition of supply and number of impact tests for higher

Grade Deoxidation
Practice

Condition of supply (Batch for Impact Tests (1)(2)


Thickness (mm)
12.5 20
25 30 35 40
50
N(50)
N(50), CR(25), TM(50)
A(50)
CR(50),TM(50)

Grain
Refining Products
Elements
10
Plates
Nb and/or
V

Sections A(50)

N(50)
CR(50), TM(50)
AR* (25)

Plates

AR* (25)
N(50), CR(50)
TM(50)

A32 Killed and fine


A36 grain treated
A(50)

Al alone
or with
Ti

Not applicable

Not applicable
N(50), CR(25), TM(50)

N(50)
Sections A (50)

CR(50)

Not applicable

TM(50)
AR* (25)
A40 Killed and fine Any
grain treated

N(50)
CR(50)
TM(50)
N(50)
CR(50), TM(50)
N(50)
CR(50), TM(50)

Plates A(50)
Sections
Plates A(50)

Nb and/or
V
Sections A(50)
D32 Killed and fine

Not applicable
N(50), CR(25), TM(50)

Not applicable

AR* (25)

D36 grain treated


Plates
Al alone
or with
Ti

A(50)

Not applicable
N(50), CR(50), TM (50)

AR*(25)

N(50)
CR(50), TM(50)
AR* (25)

Sections A(50)

N(50), CR25, TM(50)

Not applicable

N(50)
D40 Killed and fine Any
grain treated

Plates,

Killed and fine Any


grain treated

Killed and fine Any


grain treated

N(Each piece)
TM(Each piece)

N(25)
Sections TM(25)
AR* (15), CR* (15)

Plates
E40

Not applicable

Sections TM(50)
Plates

E32
E36

CR(50)

N(Each piece)
TM(Each piece)
QT(Each length as heat treated)

N(25)
Sections TM(25)
QT(25)

Not applicable

Not applicable

11-16
IACS Req. 1979/Rev.2 1995, v2.1

Not applicable

100

W11

W11
contd

Table 9
Required condition of supply and number of impact tests for higher
strength steels (contd)

Grade

Deoxidation
Practice

Grain
Refining
Elements

Products
10
Plates

F32
F36

Killed and fine Any


grain treated
Sections

F40

Condition of supply (Batch for Impact Tests (1)(2)


Thickness (mm)
12.5
20 25 30 35 40
50

N(Each piece)
TM(Each piece)
QT(Each length as heat treated)

N(25)
TM(25)
QT(25)
CR*(15)

Not applicable

Not applicable

Plates

N(Each piece)
TM(Each piece)
QT (Each length as heat treated)

Not applicable

Sections

N(25)
TM(25)
QT(25)

Not applicable

Killed and fine Any


grain treated

100

Remarks
(1) Condition of Supply
A
- Any
N
- Normalized Condition
CR
- Controlled Rolled Condition
TM
- Thermo-Mechanical Rolling
QT
- Quenched and Tempered Condition
AR*
- As Rolled Condition subject to the special approval of the Classification Society
CR*
- Controlled Rolled Condition subject to the special approval of the Classification Society
(2) Number of Impact Tests
One set of impact tests is to be taken from each batch of the specified weight in ( ) or fraction thereof.
For grades A32 and A36 steels a relaxation in the number of impact tests may be permitted. (See Note(3) of
Table 7.)

11-17
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W11

W11
contd

Appendix :

Schematic Diagrams of Thermo-Mechanical and Conventional Processes

Type of Processing
Structure

Temperature

Conventional Processes

Thermo-Mechamical Processes

AR

TM
Normal Slab
Heating Temp.
Recrystallized
Austenite

Normalizing
Temp.

Non-recrystallized
Austenite

R
(*)

R
(*)

Ar3

R
(*)

N CR(NR)

AcC AcC

Austenite
+ Ferrite
Ar1
Austenite + Perlite
or
Ferrite + Bainite
Note:
TM
AcC
AR
(*)

:
:
:
:

N
CR (NR)
R

:
:
:

Thermo-Mechanical Rolling (Thermo-Mechanical Controlled Process)


Accelerated Cooling
As Rolled
Sometimes rolling in the dual-phase temperature region of austenite and
ferrite
Normalising
Controlled Rolling (Normalising Rolling)
Reduction

Note:
These requirements were first adopted as
UR.1 Requirements for Hull Structural Steels (1959) and
UR.12 Requirements for High Tensile Hull Structural Steels (1971)
These were subsequently revised to incorporate S1 units and were adopted as
UR 128 Normal Strength Hull Structural Steel (1977) and
UR 132 Requirements for High Tensile Hull Structural Steel (1977).

In 1979 these requirements were further revised and combined as UR 162 which was subsequently reprinted and issued as Unified Requirement W11.
In 1994, these requirements were revised on the basis of the contents of
W11. Normal and higher strength hull structural steels
W19. Normal and higher strength hull structural steel grades E and E36 with thickness above 50 up to
100 mm.
W20. Higher strength hull structural steels with a minimum yield strength of 390 N/mm2 and
W21. Hull structural steels for low temperature application and reissued as Unified Requirement W11.

11-18
IACS Req. 1979/Rev. 2 1995, v2.1

W13.1.1-W13.3.1

Allowable under thickness tolerances of


W13
(1981)
(Rev. 1
steel plates and wide flats
1989)
W13.1

Scope

W13.1.1 These requirements apply to the allowable under thickness tolerances of steel plates and wide
flats with thicknesses of 5 mm and over, covering the following steel grades:
(i)

Normal and high strength hull structural steels according to W11, W19, W20 and W21.

(ii)
Steels for machinery structures in accordance with the individual Rules of Classification
Societies.
The allowable under thickness tolerances for thicknesses below 5 mm may be specially agreed.
W13.1.2 These requirements do not cover plates and wide flats intended for the construction of
boilers, pressure vessels and independent tanks, e.g. for the transportation of liquefied gases or
chemicals.

NOTE:
Tolerances for length, width, flatness and over thickness may be taken from national or international
standards.
W13.2

Manufacturers responsibility

W13.2.1 The responsibility for maintaining the required tolerances rests with the manufacturer, who is
to carry out the necessary measurements. Occasional checking by the Surveyor does not absolve the
manufacturer from this responsibility.

(Rev. 2
1992)
(Rev. 3
1995)

W13.3

Allowable under thickness tolerances

W13.3.1 The maximum permissible under thickness tolerance for hull structural plates and wide flats
for both normal and high strength steels is -0,3mm.
Note:
The attention of shipbuilders and shipowners is to be drawn to the fact that when thickness gauging is
carried out during the ship's life, estimation of the diminution of hull plating and structure will be based
on the nominal thickness, this being the original approved thickness for the item of structure under
consideration.
The under thickness tolerance acceptable for Classification is to be considered as the lower limit of a
"plus-minus" range of thickness tolerance which could be found in the normal production of a
conventional rolling mill manufacturing material, on average, to the nominal thickness.
With modern rolling mills, however, it may be possible to produce plates within a narrow range of
thickness tolerance thus permitting the consistent production of material having a thickness less than the
nominal thickness whilst at the same time satisfying the under thickness tolerance given.

IACS Req. 1989/Rev. 3 1995

W13.3-W13.4

W13
(contd)

In such cases, the time for the material to reach the maximum allowable diminution may be reduced.
It is therefore a matter for the shipbuilder and shipowner to mutually agree in individual cases as to
whether, for commercial reasons, they wish to specify a more stringent under thickness tolerance than
that given.
W13.3.2
Table 1.

The tolerances for plates and wide flats for machinery structures are to be in accordance with

Table 1
Nominal thickness (mm)

Under thickness tolerance (mm)


0,4
0,5
0,6
0,8
1,0

5<8
8 < 15
15 < 25
25 < 40
40

W13.4

Thickness measurements

W13.4.1 The thickness is to be measured at random locations whose distance from a longitudinal edge
shall be at least 10mm. Local surface depressions resulting from imperfections and ground areas
resulting from the elimination of defects may be disregarded provided the imperfections or grinding is in
accordance with national or international standards.

IACS Req. 1989/Rev. 3 1995

W14.1-W14.3

W14
Steel plates and wide flats with improved
(1982)
through thickness properties
W14.1

Scope

These requirements apply as a supplement to W11, normal and high strength structural steels for plates
and wide flats with thickness 15 mm, where improved through thickness properties are specified.
These requirements may also be applied for lower thicknesses at the discretion of the Society. These
requirements may also be applied at the discretion of the individual Society as a supplement to other
material specifications.
W14.2

Requirements for the reduction of area

The minimum average value for the reduction of area of at least 3 tensile test specimens taken in the
through thickness direction of the product must be 25%. Only one individual value may be below the
minimum average value but not less than 20%.
W14.3

Tensile test

W14.3.1

Test sampling

Unless otherwise specified (see Note) the test sampling is to be performed as follows:
(a)
(b)

Plates: One sample is to be taken from one end of each rolled length.
Wide flats: Products of the same cast, thickness and heat treatment are to be divided into batches
of 10t, or, where their thickness exceeds 25 mm, of 20t. From one piece of each
batch at least one sample is to be taken.

The samples are to be cut from a position corresponding to the middle of the product as shown in Fig 1.

Test Sample

Principal Rolling Direction

Center line of Product

/Top of ingot when applicable/

Fig. 1

Test Sampling

NOTE
In lieu of the above mentioned procedure the test sampling may be performed in accordance with an
accepted national or international standard.

IACS Req. 1982/v0.1

W14.3.2-W14.6

W14
(contd)

W14.3.2

Dimension of test sample

The test sample must have a dimension sufficient for the preparation of 6 specimens. Generally 3 test
specimens are to be prepared while the rest of the sample remains for possible retests.
W14.3.3

Test specimens preparation

The test specimens are to be machined in accordance with a recognised standard to the following
dimensions:
Product 1/
thickness
mm
15 25
> 25

Diameter of
test specimen
mm
do = 6
do = 10

parallel
length
mm
Lo 2 do

Product thicknesses below 15mm may be specially considered

Where the product thickness does not allow to prepare specimens of sufficient length suitable for the
gripping jaws of the testing machine, the ends of the specimens may be built up by suitable welding
methods. The welding must not impair the portion of the specimen within the parallel length.
W14.4

Retest procedure

If the average of the three test results is less than the specified value or if one individual result is less than
the specified value, three more tests are carried out on the remaining test pieces. The average of the
results of the six tests shall be greater than the specified value and no individual result from the new
series shall be less than the specified value.
W14.5

Ultrasonic tests

Ultrasonic tests may be required if deemed necessary by the individual Society and may be performed in
accordance with an accepted standard.
W14.6

Marking

Products complying with these requirements are to be marked with the mark Z (or Z25) in addition to the
material grade designation, e.g. EH36-Z25.

IACS Req. 1982/v0.1

W17.1

W17
Approval of consumables for welding normal
(1986)
(Rev.1
and higher strength hull structural steels
1993)
1.

General

1.1

Scope

1.1.1 These requirements give the conditions of approval and inspection of welding consumables used
for hull structural steel welding as follows:
-

normal strength steels Grades A, B, D and E ,


higher strength steels Grades A32, D32, E32, A36, D36 and E36,
higher strength steels with minimum yield strength 390 N/mm2: Grades A 40, D 40 and E40,
higher strength steels for low temperature application: Grades F 32, F 36 and F 40.

Welding consumables for high strength quenched and tempered steels for welded structures acc.
to URW 16 are subject to special consideration by the individual Classification Society.
These requirements are not applicable for welding procedure qualification tests at the shipyard.
1.1.2 Categories of products
The concerned welding consumables are divided into several categories as follows:
covered electrodes for manual welding and gravity welding,
wire/flux combinations for two run or multirun submerged arc welding,
solid wire/gas combinations for arc welding,
flux cored wires with or without gas for arc welding,
consumables for use in electroslag and electrogas vertical welding
1.2

Grading

1.2.1 Basic groups and grades


Filler metals are divided into two groups:
normal strength filler metals for welding normal strength hull structural steels,
higher strength filler metals for welding normal and higher strength hull structural
steels with minimum yield strength up to 355 N/mm2,
higher strength filler metals for welding normal and higher strength hull structural
steels with minimum yield strength up to 390 N/mm2.
Each of the three groups is based on corresponding tensile strength requirements.
Each filler metal group is further divided into several grades:
Grades 1, 2 and 3 for ordinary-strength filler metals,
Grades 1Y, 2Y, 3Yand 4Y for higher strength filler metals for steels up to 355 N/mm2
yield strength,
Grades 2Y 40, 3 Y 40 and 4 Y 40 for higher strength filler metals for steels up to
390 N/mm2 yield strength.
The Grade assignment is given in respect of Charpy V-notch impact test requirements.
For each strength basic group, welding consumables, which have satisfied the requirements
for a higher toughness grade are considered as complying with the requirements for a lower
toughness grade.
1.2.2 Correlation of welding consumables to hull structural steel grades
The correlation between the hull steel grades and the welding consumables grades that must
be used for the hull steel welding, is stated in the following Table 1:

IACS Req. 1993

W17.1

W17
contd

Table 1 - Correlation of welding consumables to hull structural steels

Grades of welding

Hull structural steel grades

consumables (see notes)

A B D

1, 1S. 1T, 1M, 1TM, IV

E A32/36 D32/36 E32/36 F32/36 A40 D40 E40

F40

X2)

1YS, 1YT, 1YM, 1YTM, 1YV X


2, 2S, 2T, 2M, 2TM, 2V

X X

2Y, 2YS, 2YT,


2YM, 2YTM, 2YV

X X X

2Y40, 2Y40S, 2Y40T,


2Y40M, 2Y40TM, 2Y40V

1) 1)

1)

3, 3S, 3T, 3M, 3TM, 3V

X X X X

3Y, 3YS, 3YT,


3YM, 3YTM, 3YV

X
X

X X X X

3Y40, 3Y40S, 3Y40T


3Y40M, 3Y40TM, 3Y40V

1) 1)

1) 1)

4Y, 4YS, 4YT,


4YM, 4YTM, 4YV

X X X X

4Y40, 4Y40S, 4Y40T


4Y40M, 4Y40TM, 4Y40V

1) 1)

1) 1)

1) see note d)
2) see note e)

NOTES:
(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)

When joining normal to higher strength structural steel, consumables of the lowest acceptable
grade for either material being joined may be used.
When joining steels of the same strength level but of different toughness grade, consumables
of the lowest acceptable grade for either material being joined may be used.
It is recommended that controlled low hydrogen type consumables are to be used
whenjoining higher strength structural steel to the same or lower strength level, except that
other consumables may be used at the discretion of the Society when the carbon equivalent is
below or equal to 0.41%.When other than controlled low hydrogen type electrodes are used
appropriate procedure tests for hydrogen cracking may be conducted at the discretion of the
Society.
The welding consumables approved for steel Grades A 40, D 40, E 40 and/or F 40 may also
be used for welding of the corresponding grades of normal strength steels subject to the
special agreement with the Classification Society
When joining higher strength steels using Grade 1Y welding consumables, the material
thicknesses should not exceed 25 mm.

1.2.3 Hydrogen marks


Welding consumables of Grades 2 and 3 and Grades 2Y, 3Y and 4Y and of Grades 2Y 40, 3Y
40 and 4Y 40, for which the hydrogen content has been controlled in accordance with paragraph
4.5.3 are identified by the mark H15, H10 or H5.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.1-W17.2

W17
contd

1.3

Manufacture

1.3.1 The manufacturer's plant, methods of production and quality control of welding
consumables are to be such as to ensure reasonable uniformity in manufacture.
2.

Approval procedure

2.1

Plant inspection

2.1.1 The Surveyor is to be satisfied that the manufacturer's plant, methods of production and
quality control of welding consumables are to be such as to ensure a reasonable uniformity in
manufacture, as mentioned in 1.3.1 above.
2.2

Test assemblies

2.2.1 Preparation
The test assemblies are to be prepared under the supervision of the Surveyor, and all tests are
to be carried out in his presence.
When a welded joint is performed, the edges of the plates are to be bevelled either by
mechanical machining or by oxygen cutting; in the later case, a descaling of the bevelled
edges is necessary.
2.2.2 Welding conditions
The welding conditions used such as amperage, voltage, travel speed, etc are to be within the range
recommended by the manufacturer for normal good welding practice. Where a filler material is stated to
be suitable for both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC), AC is to be used for the preparation
of the test assemblies.
2.3

Firms with several factories - sister firms

When a filler product is manufactured in several factories of the same company, the complete series of
approval tests should be carried out in one of the works only. In the other factories, a reduced test
programme at least equivalent to annual tests is permitted if the manufacturer can certify that the
materials used and the fabrication process are identical with those used in the main works.
This requirement is applicable to all manufacturers of filler products under license (sister firms).
However, should there be any doubt, complete test-series may be required.
NOTE:
Wire flux combination for submerged arc welding. If a unique powder flux is combined with different
wires coming from several factories belonging to the same firm, it may be admitted to perform only one
test-series if the different wires are conformable to the same technical specification, after approval of the
relevant Classification Society.
2.4

Annual inspection and tests

The production techniques and associated quality control procedures at all establishments approved for
the manufacture of welding consumables are to be subjected to an annual re-appraisal. On these
occasions, samples of the approved consumable are to be selected by the Surveyor and subjected to the
tests detailed in subsequent sections of these Requirements. These are to be completed and reported
within the one year period beginning at the initial approval date, and repeated annually so as to provide at
least an average of one annual test per year. Equivalent alternative arrangements may be accepted subject
to special agreement with the Classification Society.
2.5

Alterations to approved consumables

Any alteration proposed by the manufacturer to the approved consumable which may result in a change
in the chemical composition and the mechanical properties of the deposited metal, must be immediately
notified to the Society. Additional tests may be necessary.
2.6

Upgrading and uprating

Upgrading and uprating of welding consumables will be considered only at manufacturer's request,
preferably at the time of annual testing. Generally, for this purpose, tests from butt weld assemblies will
be required in addition to the normal annual approval tests.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.2 - W17.3

2.7

Additional tests

The classification societies may request, in a particular case, additional tests or requirements as may be
considered necessary.
3.

Mechanical testing procedure

3.1

Test specimens

3.1.1 Specimens dimensions


Deposited metal and butt weld tensile, butt weld bend and Charpy V-notch impact test
specimens are to be machined to the dimensions given in UR W2.
3.1.2 Specimens location and preparation
.1 Deposited metal tensile
The longitudinal axis must coincide with the centre of the weld and:
(i) the mid thickness of the weld in the deposited metal test assemblies;
(ii) the mid thickness of the 2nd run in the two-run welded test assemblies.
The specimens may be heated to a temperature not exceeding 250C for a period not
exceeding 16 hours for hydrogen removal prior to testing.
.2. Butt weld tensile
The upper and lower surfaces of the weld are to be filed, ground or machined flush
with the surface of the plate.
.3 Butt weld bend
The upper and lower surfaces of the weld are to be filed, ground or machined flush
with the Surface of the plate and the sharp corners of the specimens rounded to a radius
not exceeding 2 mm.
.4 Charpy V-notch impact
The test specimens shall be cut with their longitudinal axes transverse to the weld
length and:
(i)

at mid thickness of the weld in the deposit metal and butt weld test assemblies
with multirun technique;
(ii) on the 2nd run side, 2 mm maximum below the surface in the two-run welded
test assemblies;
(iii) 2 mm maximum below one surface in the electroslag or electrogas welded test
assemblies.
The notch shall be cut in the face of the test piece perpendicular to the surface of the plate and shall be
positioned in the centre of the weld and, for electroslag and electrogas welded test assemblies, also at 2
mm from the fusion line in the deposited metal.
3.2

Testing procedures

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3.2.1 Tensile
Tensile tests are to be carried out on an approved tensile testing machine.
On deposited metal test specimens, the values of yield stress, tensile strength and elongation are to be
recorded. On butt weld specimens, the values of tensile strength are to be recorded together with the
position of fracture.
3.2.2 Bend
The test specimens are to be capable of withstanding, without fracture or crack, being bent through an
angle of 120 over a former having a diameter three times the thickness of the specimen.
However, superficial cracks of less than 3 mm long on the outer surface should not be taken into
consideration.

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contd

For each set of bend tests one specimen is to be tested with the face of the weld in tension and the other
with the root of the weld in tension except in the electroslag or electrogas welded test assemblies, where
side bend tests are carried out in lieu of face and root bend tests.
3.2.3 Charpy V-notch impact
Impact tests are to be carried out on a Charpy impact machine of an approved type.
A set of three test specimens is to be prepared and tested. The average absorbed energy value is to comply
with the requirements of subsequent sections. One individual value may be less than the required average
value provided that it is not less than 70% of this value.
The test temperature for Grades 2, 2Y, 2Y 40, 3, 3Y, 3Y 40, 4Y and 4Y 40 test pieces is to be controlled
to within 2C of the prescribed temperature.
3.3

Re-test procedures

3.3.1 Tensile and bend


Where the result of a tensile or bend test does not comply with the requirements, duplicate test specimens
of the same type are to be prepared and satisfactorily tested. Where insufficient original welded assembly
is available, a new assembly is to be prepared using welding consumables from the same batch. If the new
assembly is made with the same procedure (particularly the number of runs) as the original assembly, only
the duplicate re-test specimens needs to be prepared and tested. Otherwise, all test specimens should be
prepared as for re-testing.

3.3.2 Charpy V-notch impact


Where the results from a set of three impact test specimens do not comply with the requirements, an
additional set of three impact test specimens may be taken provided that not more than two individual
values are less than the required average value and, of these, not more than one is less than 70 percent of
this average value. The results obtained are to be combined with the original results to form a new average
which, for acceptance, is to be not less than the required value. Additionally, for these combined results
not more than two individual values are to be less than the required average value, and of these, not more
than one is to be less than 70 per cent of the average value. Further re-tests may be made at the Surveyor's
discretion, but these must be made on a new welded assembly and must include all tests required for the
original assembly, even those which were previously satisfactory.
4.

Covered electrodes for manual arc welding

4.1

General

4.1.1 Grades
Depending on the results of the Charpy V-notch impact tests, electrodes are divided into the following
grades:
for normal strength steel: Grades 1, 2 and 3
for higher strength steel with minimum yield strength up to 355 N/mm2: Grades 2Y and 3Y and
4Y (Grade 1Y not applicable for manual welding).
for higher strength steels with minimum yield strength up to 390 N/mm2: Grades 2Y 40, 3Y40,
and 4Y 40.
4.1.2 Hydrogen marks
If the electrodes are in compliance with the requirements of the hydrogen test given in 4.5 hereafter, a
suffix H15, H10 or H5 will be added to the Grade mark.

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4.2

Deposited metal tests

4.2.1 Preparation of deposited metal test assemblies


Two deposited metal test assemblies are to be prepared in the downhand position as shown in Fig 4.1,
one with 4 mm diameter electrodes and the other with the largest size manufactured. If an electrode is
available in one diameter only, one test assembly is sufficient. Any grade of ship structural steel may be
used for the preparation of these test assemblies.

3 Charpy test
pieces taken at
mid-depth of weld

Charpy notch at
right angles to
surface of plate

Min
20

Line of cut for


tensile specimen

1 tensile

80

20

80
10
16
min

Min 100

30

Min 100

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated

Figure 4.1 Deposited metal test assembly


The weld metal is to be deposited in single or multi-run layers according to normal practice, and the
direction of deposition of each layer is to alternate from each end of the plate, each run of weld metal
being not less than 2 mm and not more than 4 mm thick. Between each run, the assembly is to be left in
still air until it has cooled to less than 250C but not below 100C, the temperature being taken in the
centre of the weld, on the surface of the seam. After welding, the test assemblies are not to be subjected
to any heat treatment.
4.2.2 Chemical analysis
At the discretion of each individual Society, the chemical analysis of the deposited weld metal in each
test assembly is to be supplied by the manufacturer and is to include the content of all significant alloying
element.
4.2.3 Execution of tests
One tensile and three impact test specimens are to be taken from each test assembly as shown in Figure
4.1. Care is to be taken that the axis of the tensile test specimen coincides with the centre of the weld and
the mid-thickness of the plates. Tests are to be performed according to Section 3 of these requirements.

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4.2.4 Results of tests and requirements


The results of all tests are to comply with the requirements of Table 4a as appropriate.
Table 4a

Requirements for deposited metal tests (covered manual electrodes)

Charpy V-notch impact tests

Grade

Yield stress
N/mm2

Strength

minimum

N/mm2

Elongation on
50 mm gauge length

Tensile

(Lo = 5 d)
% minimum

Test
Temperature
oC

Average
Energy
J minimum

1
2
3

305

400 - 560

22

20
0
-20

47
47
47

2Y
3Y
4Y

375

490 - 660

22

0
-20
-40

47
47
47

510 - 690

22

0
-20
-40

47
47
47

2Y 40
3Y 40
4Y 40

4.3

400

Butt weld tests

4.3.1 Preparation of butt weld test assemblies


Butt weld assemblies as shown in Fig 4.2 are to be prepared for each welding position (downhand,
horizontal-vertical, vertical-upward, vertical-downward and overhead) for which the electrode is
recommended by the manufacturer, except that electrodes satisfying the requirements for downhand and
vertical-upward positions will be considered as also complying with the requirements for the horizontalvertical position subject to the agreement of the Classification Society.
Where the electrode is to be approved only in the downhand position, an additional test assembly is to be
prepared in that position.
For the preparation of the test assemblies one of the steel grades as listed below for the individual
electrode grades shall be used:
-

Grade 1 electrodes
Grade 2 electrodes
Grade 3 electrodes
Grade 2Y electrodes
Grade 3Y electrodes
Grade 4Y electrodes
Grade 2Y 40 electrodes
Grade 3Y 40 electrodes
Grade 4Y 40 electrodes

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

A
A, B, D
A, B, D, E
A32, A36, D32, D36
A 32, A 36, D32, D36, E32, E36.
A32, A36, D 32, D 36, E 32, E 36, F 32, F 36
A 40, D 40
A 40, D 40, E 40
A 40, D 40, E 40, F 40

Where higher strength steel with minimum yield strength 315 N/mm2 is used for grade 2Y, 3Y and 4Y
electrodes, the actual tensile strength of the steel is to be not less than 490 N/mm2. The chemical
composition including the content of grain refining elements is to be reported.

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contd

55

Discard

Charpy V-notch test


piece from downhand
and venicaI test
assemblies

Transverse tensile

50

Face bend

30

Root bend

30

Discard

30

30

15-20
2-3
Min 100

Min 100

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated

Figure 4.2

Butt weld test assembly

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4.3.2 Sequence of welding


The following welding procedure is to be adopted in making test assemblies:
Downhand (a). The first run with 4 mm diameter electrode. Remaining runs (except the last two layers)
with 5 mm diameter electrodes or above according to the normal welding practice with the electrodes.
The runs of the last two layers with the largest diameter of electrode manufactured.
Downhand (b). (Where a second downhand test is required). First run with 4 mm diameter electrode.
Next run with an electrode of intermediate diameter of 5 mm or 6 mm, and the remaining runs with the
largest diameter of electrode manufactured.
Horizontal-vertical. First run with 4 mm or 5 mm diameter electrode. Subsequent runs with 5 mm
diameter electrodes.
Vertical-upward and overhead. First run with 3.25 mm diameter electrode. Remaining runs with 4 mm
diameter electrodes or possibly with 5 mm if this is recommended by the manufacturer for the positions
concerned.
Vertical-downward. If the electrode tested is intended for vertical welding in the downward direction,
this technique is to be adopted for the preparation of the test assembly using electrode diameters as
recommended by the manufacturer.
For all assemblies the back sealing runs are to be made with 4 mm diameter electrodes in the welding
position appropriate to each test sample, after cutting out the root run to clean metal. For electrodes suitable
for downhand welding only, the test assemblies may be turned over to carry out the back sealing run.
Normal welding practice is to be used, and between each run the assembly is to be left in still air until it has
cooled to less than 250C but not below 100C, the temperature being taken in the centre of the weld, on the
surface of the seam. After welding, the test assemblies are not to be subjected to any heat treatment.
4.3.3 Radiographic examination
It is recommended that the welded assemblies be subjected to a radiographic examination to ascertain if
there are any defects in the weld prior to the preparation of test specimens.
4.3.4 Execution of tests
The test specimens as shown in Figure 4.2 are to be prepared from each test assembly. Tests are to be
performed according to Section 3 requirements.
4.3.5 Result of tests and requirements
The results of all tensile and impact tests are to comply with the requirements of table 4b as appropriate.
The position of fracture in the transverse tensile test is to be reported. The bend test specimens can be
considered as complying with the requirements if, after bending, no crack or defect having any
dimensions exceeding 3 mm can be seen on the outer surface of the test specimen.
Table 4b Requirements for butt weld test (covered manual electrodes)
Charpy V-notch impact tests
Average energy -

Grade

Tensile strength
(transverse test)
N/mm2

Downhand,
horizontal-vertical,
overhead

Vertical
(upward and
downward)

1
2
3

400

20
0
-20

47
47
47

34
34
34

2Y
3Y
4Y

490

0
-20
-40

47
47
47

34
34
34

2Y 40
3Y 40
4Y 40

510

0
-20
-40

47
47
47

41
41
41

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Test
Temperature
oC

J minimum

W17.4

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contd

4.4

Hot cracking test

4.4.1 Hot cracking test may be required at the discretion of each individual Society.
4.5

Hydrogen test

4.5.1 Hydrogen marks


At the request of the manufacturer, electrodes may be submitted to a hydrogen test. A suffix H15, H10 or
H 5 will be added to the grade number to indicate compliance with the requirements of this test.
4.5.2 Execution of hydrogen test
The mercury method as specified in the Standard ISO 3690-1977, or any method such as the gas
chromatographic method which correlates with that method, must be used. The use of the glycerine
method may be admitted at the Classification Society discretion. This method is described hereafter.
Four test specimens are to be prepared, measuring 12 mm by 25 mm in cross section by about 125 mm in
length. The parent metal may be any grade of ship structural steel and, before welding, the specimens are
to be weighed to the nearest 0.1 gram. On the 25 mm surface of each test specimen, a single bead of
welding is to be deposited, about 100 mm in length by a 4 mm electrode, fusing 150 mm of the electrode.
The welding is to be carried out with an arc as short as possible and with a current of about 150 amp.
The electrodes, prior to welding, can be submitted to the normal drying process recommended by the
manufacturer. Within 30 seconds of the completion of the welding of each specimen the slag is to be
removed and the specimen quenched in water at approximately 20C.
After 30 seconds in the water, the specimen is to be cleaned and dried, and then placed in an apparatus suitable
for the collection of hydrogen by displacement of glycerine. The glycerine is to be kept at a temperature of
45C during the test. All four specimens are to be welded and placed in individual hydrogen collecting
apparatus within a period of time which will limit any variation in hydrogen content due to variation in
exposure to moisture absorption following any drying treatment. This should not exceed 30 minutes.
The specimens are to be kept immersed in the glycerine for a period of 48 hours and, after removal, are to
be cleaned in water and spirit dried and weighed to the nearest 0.1 gram to determine the amount of weld
deposit. The amount of gas involved is to be measured to the nearest 0.05 cm 3 and corrected for
temperature and pressure to 0C and 760 mm Hg.
4.5.3 Results to be obtained
The individual and average diffusible hydrogen contents of the four specimens are to be reported, and the
average value in cm3 per 100 grams is not to exceed the following:
Mark
H 15

1)
2)

Mercury Method
(ISO 3690 - 1977)
15 1)

H 10

10 2)

H5

10 cm3 per 100 grams where the glycerine method is used


5 cm3 per 100 grams where the glycerine method is used

NOTE:
For H5 mark only the mercury method is to be used.
4.6

Covered electrodes for manual fillet welding

4.6.1 General
Where an electrode is submitted only to approval for fillet welding and to which the butt weld test provided in
4.3 is not considered applicable, the first approval tests are to consist of the fillet weld tests given in 4.6.2, and
deposited metal tests similar to those indicated in 4.2. Where an electrode is submitted to approval for both
butt and fillet welding, the first approval tests may, at the discretion of the Classification Society, include one
fillet weld test as detailed hereunder and welded in the horizontal-vertical position.

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4.6.2 Fillet weld test assemblies


When the electrode is proposed only for fillet welding, fillet weld assemblies as shown in figure 4.3,
are to be prepared for each welding position (horizontal-vertical, vertical upwards, vertical downwards or
overhead) for which the electrode is recommended by the manufacturer. The length of the test assemblies
L is to be sufficient to allow at least the deposition of the entire length of the electrode being tested.
The grade of steel used for the test assemblies is to be as detailed in 4.3.1.
The first side is to be welded using the maximum size of electrode manufactired and the second side is to
be welded using the minimum size of electrode manufactured and recommended for fillet welding.
The fillet size will in general be determined by the electrode size and the welding current employed
during testing.
4.6.3 Tests on fillet weld assemblies
.1
Macrographs
Each test assembly is to be sectioned to form three macro-sections each about 25mm thick. They are to
be examined for root penetration, satisfactory profile, freedom from cracking and reasonable freedom
from porosities and slag inclusions.
.2
Hardness
At the discretion of each Classification Society, the hardness of the weld, of the heat affected zone
(HAZ) and of parent metal may be determined, and reported for information (see figure 4.4).
.3
Fracture
One of the remaining sections of the fillet weld is to have the weld on the first side gouged or machined
to facilitate breaking the fillet weld, on the second side by closing the two plates together, submitting the
root of the weld to tension. On the other remaining section, the weld on the second side is to be gouged
or machined and the section fractured using the same procedure. The fractured surfaces are to be
examined and there should be no evidence of incomplete penetration, or internal cracking and they
should be reasonably free from porosity.
g

y
20

25

25

25

~ 150

20
~ 150

50

50

~ 1/2 L

~ 1/2 L
L

Figure 4.3 Fillet weld test assembly


20
Base metal

Hardness readings

20
HAZ

Base metal

Figure 4.4 Hardness readings

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4.7

Covered electrodes for gravity or contact welding

Where an electrode is submitted solely to approval for use in contact welding using automatic gravity or
similar welding devices, deposited metal tests, fillet weld tests (see 4-6) and, where appropriate, but weld
tests similar to those for normal manual electrodes are to be carried out using the process for which the
electrode is recommended by the manufacturer.
Where a covered electrode is submitted to approval for use in contact welding using automatic gravity or
similar welding devices in addition to normal manual welding, fillet weld and, where appropriate, butt
weld tests, using the gravity of other contact device as recommended by the manufacturer, are to be
carried out in addition to the normal approval tests.
In the case of a fillet welding electrode using automatic gravity or similar contact welding devices, the
fillet welding should be carried out using the welding process recommended by the manufacturer, with
the longest size of the electrode manufactured. The manufacturer's recommended current range is to be
reported for each electrode size.
Where approval is requested for the welding of both normal strength and higher strength steel, the
assemblies are to be prepared using higher strength steel.
4.8

Annual tests and upgrading

4.8.1 Annual tests and periodical inspection of manufacturer's plant


All establishments where approved electrodes are manufactured shall be subject to annual inspection.
The annual tests are to consist of at least the following:
.1
Covered electrode for normal manual arc welding
Two deposited metal test assemblies are to be prepared in accordance with 4.2. The mechanical
properties (one tensile test, 3 Charpy-V impact tests on each assembly) are to be in accordance with Table
4.a. This also applies to electrodes which are approved only for fillet welding.
At the discretion of the Society a butt weld test to be welded in down-hand or in vertical position, can be
required in lieu of the deposited metal test 4 mm electrodes. Three Charpy V-notch impact test specimens
are to be taken from the butt weld assembly.
For Mark H 10 and Mark H 5 covered electrodes, an hydrogen test following 4.5 can also be required for
each annual test at the discretion of the Society.
.2
Covered electrodes for gravity or contact welding
Where an electrode is approved solely for gravity or contact welding, the annual test is to consist of one
deposited metal test assembly using the gravity or other contact device as recommended by the
manufacturer. If this electrode is approved also for normal manual arc welding the annual test is to be
performed according to 4.8.1.1.
4.8.2 Upgrading and uprating of electrodes
.1
Upgrading and uprating will be considered only at the manufacturer's request, preferably at the
time of annual testing. Generally, for this purpose, tests on butt-weld assemblies will be required in
addition to the normal reapproval tests.
.2
Upgrading refers to notch toughness and consequently, only Charpy V impact tests are required
from the respective butt-weld assemblies as required by 4-3 (downhand, horizontal vertical, vertical up
or/and down, overhead, as applicable), and have to be performed at the upgraded temperature.
These butt-weld tests are to be made in addition to the normal requirements for annual deposited metal tests
(which have, of course, to take into consideration the upgraded temperature for Charpy V specimens).
.3
Uprating refers to the extension of approval in order to cover the welding of higher strength steels; of
course, welding of normal strength steels continue to be covered by the extended approval, as stated in 1.2.1.
For this purpose all butt-weld tests are to be made again, as required in 4.3 and using higher strength
steel, as parent metal.

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5. Wire flux combinations for submerged arc welding


5.1

General

5.1.1 Categories
Wire flux combinations for single electrode submerged arc automatic welding are divided into the
following two categories:

For use with the multi-run technique

For use with the two run technique


Where particular wire-flux combinations are intended for welding with both techniques, tests are to be
carried out for each technique.
5.1.2 Grades
Depending on the results of impact tests, wire-flux combinations are divided into the following
grades:

For normal strength steel: Grades 1, 2 or 3

For higher strength steels with minimum yield strength up to 355 N/mm2: Grades 1Y, 2Y, 3Y or
4Y.
for higher strength steels with minimum yield strength up to 390 N/mm2: Grades 2Y 40, 3Y 40 or
4Y 40.
The suffixes T, M or TM will be added after the grade mark to indicate approval for the two-run
technique, multi-run technique or both techniques, respectively.
5.1.3 Multiple electrode submerged arc welding
Wire-flux combinations for multiple electrode submerged arc welding will be subject to separate
approval tests. They are to be carried out generally in accordance with the requirements of this section.
5.1.4 Mechanical tests on assemblies
Mechanical tests on assemblies with submerged arc welding for wire/flux approval are given in Table
5a.
5.2

Approval tests for multi run technique

5.2.1 Grades of steel


Where approval for use with the multi run technique is requested, deposited metal and butt weld tests are
to be carried out.
For deposited metal test assembly any grade of ship structural steel may be used.
For butt weld test assembly one of the grades of steel as listed below for the individual grades of wireflux combinations shall be used:
-

Grade 1 wire-flux combinations


:
Grade 2 wire-flux combinations
:
Grade 3 wire-flux combinations
:
Grade 1 Y wire-flux combinations :
Grade 2 Y wire-flux combinations :
Grade 3 Y wire-flux combinations :
Grade 4 Y wire-flux combinations :
Grade 2 Y 40 wire-flux combinations :
Grade 3 Y 40 wire-flux combinations :
Grade 4 Y 40 wire-flux combinations :

A
A, B, D
A, B, D, E
A 32, A 36
A32, A 36, D 32, D 36
A32, A 36, D 32, D 36, E 32, E 36
A32, A 36, D 32, D 36, E 32, E 36, F 32, F 36
A40, D 40
A40, D 40 E 40
A40, D 40, E 40, F 40

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5.2.2 Deposited metal test assembly


.1
Preparation
One deposited metal test assembly is to be prepared as shown in Figure 5.1.
200

10

20
12
Tack weld
16
50
All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated

Tensile

30
10
Impact

10
10
10
10

Line of cut
Tensile

30

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated

Figure 5.1

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Table 5a

General table giving the mechanical tests on assemblies with submerged arc welding for
wire/flux approval

M
(multi-run technique)

T
(two-run technique)

Butt weld
Deposited Butt weld assembly
metal
assembly (minimum
assembly
thickness)

3 CV
2 LT

2 TT
4 TB
3 CV

Symbol Definition:

2 TT
2 TB
3 CV
1 LT

Butt weld
assembly
(maximum
thickness)
2 TT
2 TB
3 CV

TM
two-run and multi-run technique)
Butt Weld Assembly
Two-run technique
Deposited
metal
assembly

Multi-run
technique

3 CV
1 LT

2 TT
4 TB
3 CV

(Minimum
thickness)
2 TT
2 TB
3 CV

(Maximum
thickness)
2 TT
2 TB
3 CV
1 LT

TT: Transverse Tensile Test on the butt weld assembly


TB : Transverse Bend Test on the butt weld assembly
CV : Charpy-V Impact Test in the axis of the weld
LT : Longitudinal Tensile Test in the weld

Welding is to be carried out in the downhand position, and the direction of deposition of each run
is to alternate from each end of the plate. After completion of each run, the flux and welding slag
is to be removed. Between each run the assembly is to be left in still air until it has cooled to less
than 250 C, but not below 100 C, the temperature being taken in the centre of the weld, on the
surface of the seam. The thickness of the layer is to be not less than the diameter of the wire nor
less than 4 mm.
The weld conditions, including amperage, voltage and rate of travel speed are to be in accordance with
the recommendations of the manufacturer and are to conform with normal good welding practice
for multi-run welding.
.2
Chemical analysis
At the discretion of each individual Society, the chemical analysis of the deposited weld metal in this test
assembly is to be supplied by the manufacturer and is to include the content of all significant alloying
elements.
.3
Execution of tests
In accordance with Table 5a, the test specimens as shown in Figure 5.1 are to be prepared from each test
assembly. Tests are to be performed according to Section 3 requirements.
.4
Results and requirements
The results of all tests are to comply with the requirements of Table 5b, as appropriate.

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Table 5b Requirements for deposited metal tests (wire-flux combinations)


Charpy V-notch impact tests

Grade

Yield stress
N/mm2
minimum

1
2
3
1Y
2Y
3Y
4Y
2Y 40
3Y 40

305

375

400

Tensile
Strength
N/mm2

400 - 560

Elongation on
50 mm gauge length
(Lo = 5 d)
% minimum

22

490 - 660

22

510 - 690

22

Test

Average

Temperature

Energy

oC

J minimum

20
0
-20

34
34
34

20
0
-20
-40

34
34
34
34

0
-20

41
41

5.2.3 Butt Weld Test Assembly


.1
Preparation
One butt weld test assembly is to be prepared as shown in Figure 5.2 in the downhand position by
welding together two plates (20 to 25 mm thick), each not less than 150 mm in width and sufficient
length to allow the cutting out of test specimens of the prescribed number and size.
The plate edges are to be prepared to form a single vee joint, the included angle between the fusion faces
being 60 and the root face being 4 mm.
The welding is to be carried out by the multi-run technique and the welding conditions are to be the same
as those adopted for the deposited metal test assembly.
The back sealing run is to be applied in the downhand position after cutting out the root run to clean metal.
After welding the test assembly is not to be subject to any heat treatment.

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60

20
4
150 mm

150 mm

Discard

Tensile

50

Bend

30

Bend

30
10

Impact

10
10
Bend

30

Bend

30

Tensile

50

Discard

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated

Figure 5.2 Multi-run butt weld test assembly (submerged arc welding)
.2
Radiographic examination
It is recommended that the welded assembly be subject to a radiographic examination to ascertain if there
are any defects in the weld prior to the preparation of test specimens.
.3
Execution of tests
The test specimen to be prepared from the welded assembly are given in Table 5a and shown in Fig. 5.2.
The tests are to be performed according to the requirements of Section 3.
.4
Results of tests and requirements
The results of all tensile and impact tests are to comply with the requirements of Table 5c as appropriate.
The position of the fracture in the transverse tensile test is to be reported.
The bend test specimens can be considered as complying with the requirements if, after bending, no
crack or defect, having any dimension exceeding 3 mm can be seen on the outer surface of the test
specimen.

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Table 5c Requirements for butt weld tests (wire-flux combinations)


Charpy V-notch impact tests
Grade

Tensile strength
(transverse test)

1
2
3
1Y
2Y
3Y
4Y
2Y40
3Y40
4Y40

5.3

400

490

510

Test temperature
oC
20
0
-20

Average energy
J minimum
34
34
34

20
0
-20
-40

34
34
34
34

0
-20
-40

41
41
41

Approval tests for two run techniques

5.3.1 Number of test assemblies


Where approval for use with the two-run technique is requested, two butt weld test assemblies are to be
prepared using the following thicknesses:

For grades 1 and 1Y:


12 to 15 mm and 20 to 25 mm
For Grades 2, 2Y, 3, 3Y and 4Y:
20 to 25 mm and 30 to 35 mm
for Grades 2Y 40, 3Y 40 and 4Y 40: 20 to 25 mm and 30 to 35 mm

A limitation of the approval to the medium range (up to the maximum welded plate thickness) may be
agreed to by the Society. Test assemblies shall then be welded using plates of 12 to 15mm and 20 to
25mm irrespective of the grade for which the approval is requested..
When a wire-flux combination is offered to approval for use with the two-run technique only, it is
reminded that no deposited metal test assemblies have to be done. In this case approval tests are limited
to the butt welds on two-run assemblies described in 5.3.2 hereafter.
Where approval is requested for welding of both normal strength and higher strength steel two
assemblies are to be prepared using higher strength steel. Two assemblies prepared using normal strength
steel may also be required at the discretion of each Classification Society.
5.3.2 Butt weld test assemblies
.1
Preparation of assemblies
The maximum diameter of wire, grades of steel plate and edge preparation to be used are to be in
accordance with Fig. 5.3. Small deviations in the edge preparation may be allowed if requested by the
manufacturer. The root gap should not exceed 1 mm.
Each butt weld is to be welded in two runs, one from each side, using amperages, voltages and travel
speeds in accordance with the recommendations of manufacturer and normal good welding practice.
After completion of the first run, the flux and welding slag are to be removed and the assembly is to be
left in still air until it has cooled to 100C, the temperature being taken in the centre of the weld, on the
surface of the seam.
After welding, the test assemblies are not to be subjected to any heat treatment.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.5

Plate
thickness
[mm]

Recommended
preparation
[mm]

about
12 15

Maximum
diameter
of wire
[mm]

Grade of
wire-flux
combination

Grade of
normal
strength
steel

Grade of
higher
strength
steel

1Y

A 32,
A 36

1
1Y
2
2Y
2 Y 40

60

about
20 25

812

3
3Y
3 Y 40
4Y
4 Y 40
2
2Y

70

2 Y 40
3
614

W17
contd

about
30 35

3Y
3 Y 40

70

4Y
4 Y 40

Figure 5.3

A 32, A 36

A, B or D

A 32, A 36, D 32, D 36

A 40, D 40

A, B, D or
E

A 32, A 36, D 32,


D 36, E 32, E 36
A 40, D 40, E 40
A 32, A 36, D 32, D 36,
E 32, E 36, F 32, F 36
A 40, D 40, E 40, F 40

A, B or D

A 32, A 36, D 32, D 36

A 40, D 40

A, B, D or
E

A 32, A 36, D 32,


D 36, E 32, E 36
A 40, D 40, E 40
A 32, A 36, D 32, D 36,
E 32, E 36, F 32, F 36
A 40, D 40, E 40, F 40

Butt weld test assemblies (two-run technique)

Radiographic examination
It is recommended that the welded assemblies are subjected to radiographic examination to
ascertain if there are any defects in the weld prior to the preparation of test specimens.

.3

Execution of tests
The test specimens indicated in Table 5a and shown in Figure 5.4 are to be prepared from each test
assembly. Tests are to be performed according to Section 3 requirements. The Charpy V-notch
impact test specimens are to be machined from each welded assembly from the positions and with
the orientations shown in Fig. 5.5.

.2

IACS Req. 1993

W17.5
min. 150

min. 150

Tensile Specimen

50

Bend Specimen

30

Bend Specimen

30 mm for
plates up to
25 mm thickness

Impact
Specimen

10

10
10

Bend Specimen

30

Bend Specimen

30

Tensile Specimen

50

Longitudinal
tensile
(cylindrical
specimen)

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated


Figure 5.4

2nd run

2 max.
10

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated


Figure 5.5

IACS Req. 1993

W17.5

W17
contd

.4

Results of tests and requirements

The results of all tensile and impact tests are to comply with the requirements of table 5b and 5c as
appropriate. The position of fracture in the transverse tensile test is to be reported. The bend test
specimens can be considered as complying with the requirements if, after bending, no crack or defect
having any dimensions exceeding 3 mm can be seen on the outer surface of the test speciment.
.5

Chemical analysis

The chemical analysis of the weld metal is to be supplied by the manufacturer, and is to include the
content of all significant alloying elements.
5.4

Annual tests - upgrading

5.4.1 Annual tests


All establishments where approved wire/flux combinations are manufactured shall be subject to annual
inspection.
Annual tests are to consist of at least the following:
a)
b)

multirun technique: on deposited metal assembly and tests: 1 tensile and 3 impact tests.
two-run technique: one butt weld assembly with 20 mm minimum thickness plate and tests: 1
transverse tensile, 2 transverse bends and 3 impact tests. One longitudinal
tensile test specimen is also to be prepared where the wire-flux combination
is approved solely for the two-run technique.

The assemblies are to be prepared and tested in accordance with the requirements for initial approval.
Where a wire-flux combination is approved for welding both normal strength and higher strength steel,
the latter steel is to be used for the preparation of the butt weld assembly required by 5.4.1 b).
5.4.2 Upgrading and rating
5.4.2.1 Upgrading of wire-flux combinations in connection with the impact properties will be considered
as detailed in 4.8.2.2, and for wire-flux combinations approved for two runs welding, a butt-weld in
the maximum thickness approved is to be made and sampled for Charpy-V testing in accordance
with 5.3.2.3.
5.4.2.2 Uprating of wire-flux combinations in connection with the tensile properties will be considered as
detailed in 4.6.2.3.
6.
6.1

Wires and wire-gas combinations for metal arc welding


General

6.1.1 Categories
Wire-gas combinations and flux-cored or flux-coated wires (for use with or without a shielding gas) are
divided into the following categories for the purposes of approval testing:
a)
b)
c)

For use in semi-automatic mulitrun welding.


For use in single electrode automatic multirun welding.
For use in single electrode automatic two-run welding.

NOTE:
The term semi-automatic is used to describe processes in which the weld is made manually by a welder
holding a gun through which the electrode wire is continuously fed.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.6

W17
contd

6.1.2 Grades and suffixes


.1

3Y

Depending on the results of impact tests, wires and wire-gas combinations are divided into
the following grades:
For normal strength steel Grades 1, 2 and 3;
For higher strength steels with minimum yield strength up to 355 N/mm2: Grades 1Y, 2Y,
and 4Y.
for higher strength steems with minimum yield strength up to 390 N/mm2: Grades 2Y 40, 3Y
40, and 4Y 40

.2

A suffix "S" will be added after the grade mark to indicate approval for semi-automatic
multirun welding.

.3

For wires intended for automatic welding, the suffixes "T", "M" or "TM" will be added after
the grade mark to indicate approval for two-run, multirun, or both welding techniques,
respectively.

.4

For wires intended for both semi-automatic and automatic welding, the suffixes will be
added in combination.

6.1.3 Composition of shielding gas


.1
Where applicable, the composition of the shielding gas is to be reported. Unless otherwise agreed
by the Society, additional approval tests are required when a shielding gas is used other than that used for
the original approval tests.
.2
The approval of a wire in combination with any particular gas can be applied or transferred to any
combination of the same wire and any gas in the same numbered group as defined in Table 6a, subject to
the agreement of the Classification Society.
Table 6a Compositional limits of designated groups of gas types and mixtures.
Group
CO2

Gas composition (Vol. %)


O2
H2

Ar

M1

1
2
3
4

> 0 to 5
> 0 to 5
> 0 to 5

> 0 to 3
> 0 to 3

> 0 to 5
-

Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)

M2

1
2
3

> 5 to 25
> 5 to 25

> 3 to 10
> 0 to 8

Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)

M3

1
2
3

>25 to 50
> 5 to 50

> 10 to 15
> 8 to 15

Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)
Rest 1) 2)

1
2

100
Rest

> 0 to 30

1)
2)

Argon may be substituted by Helium up to 95% of the Argon content.


Approval covers gas mixtures with equal or higher Helium contents only.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.6

W17
contd

6.1.4 Low hydrogen approval


.1
Flux-cored or flux-coated wires which have satisfied the requirements for Grades 2, 2Y, 2Y40,3,
3Y, 3Y40, 4Y or 4Y40 may, at manufacturer's option, be submitted to the hydrogen test as detailed in
4,5. using the manufacturer's recommended welding conditions and adjusting the deposition rate to give
a weight of weld deposit per sample similar to that deposited when using manual electrodes.
.2
A suffix H15, H10 or H5 will be added to the grade mark, in the same conditions as for manual
arc welding electrodes (see 4.5.3 above) to indicate compliance with the requirements of the test.
6.2

Approval for semi-automatic mulitrun welding

6.2.1 General
Approval tests for semi-automatic multirun welding are to be carried out generally in accordance with
Section 4, except as required by 6.2, using the semi-automatic mulitrun technique for the preparation of
all test assemblies.
6.2.2 Preparation of deposited metal assemblies
.1
Two deposited metal test assemblies are to be prepared in the downhand position as shown in Fig.
4.1, one using the smallest diameter, and the other using the largest diameter of wire intended for the
welding of ship structures. Where only one diameter is manufactured, only one deposited metal
assembly is to be prepared.
.2
The weld metal is to be deposited according to the practice recommended by the manufacturer,
and the thickness of each layer of weld metal is to be between 2 and 6 mm.
6.2.3 Chemical analysis
The chemical analysis of the deposited weld metal in each test assembly is to be supplied by the
manufacturer, and is to include the content of all significant alloying elements.
6.2.4 Mechanical tests
On each assembly, tests are to be made in accordance with 4.2.3, and the results are to comply with the
requirements of 4.2.4, appropriate to the required grade.
6.2.5 Preparation of butt weld assemblies
.1
Butt weld assemblies as shown in Fig. 4.2 are to be prepared for each welding position
(downhand, horizontal-vertical, vertical upwards, vertical downwards and overhead) for which the wire
or wire-gas combination is recommended by the manufacturer.
.2
The downhand assembly is to be welded using, for the first run, wire of the smallest diameter to
be approved and, for the remaining runs, wire of the largest diameter to be approved.
.3
Where approval is requested only in the downhand position, an additional butt weld assembly is
to be prepared in that position using wires of different diameter from those required by 6.2.5.2. Where
only one diameter is manufactured, only one downhand butt weld assembly is to be prepared.
.4
The butt weld assemblies in positions other than downhand, are to be welded using, for the first
run, wire of the smallest diameter to be approved, and, for the remaining runs, the largest diameter of
wire recommended by the manufacturer for the position concerned.
6.2.6 Radiographic examination
It is recommended that the welded assemblies are subjected to radiographic examination to ascertain if
there are any defects in the welds prior to the preparation of test specimens.
6.2.7 On each assembly, tests are to be made in accordance with 4.3.4, and the results are to comply
with the requirements of 4.3.5.
6.2.8 Fillet weld tests
Fillet weld test assemblies are required to be made in accordance with 4.6.1 and 4.6.2, and tested in
accordance with 4.6.3.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.6

W17
contd

6.3

Approval for automatic multirun welding

6.3.1 General
Approval tests for automatic multirun welding are to be carried out generally in accordance with section
5 multirun approval, except as required by 5.2, using the automatic multirun technique for the
preparation of all test assemblies.
6.3.2 Preparation of deposited metal assembly
One deposited metal assembly is to be prepared as shown in Fig. 5.1. Welding is to be as detailed in
5.2.2.1, except that the thickness of each layer is to be not less than 3 mm.
6.3.3 Chemical analysis
The chemical analysis of the deposited weld metal in this test assembly is to be supplied by the
manufacturer, and is to include the content of all significant alloying elements.
6.3.4 Mechanical tests
Tests on this assembly are to be made in accordance with 5.2.2.3, and the results are to comply with the
requirements of 5.2.2.4.
6.3.5 Preparation of butt weld weld assemblies
One butt weld assembly is to be prepared in each welding position which is to be approved. Generally,
this will be the downhand position only, in which case only one assembly is required. Preparation of the
assembly is to be in accordance with 5.2.3.1.
6.3.6 Radiographic examination
It is recommended that each assembly be subjected to a radiographic examination to ascertain any defect
in the weld prior to testing.
6.3.7 Mechanical tests
Tests are to be made on each assembly in accordance with 5.2.3.3 and the results are to comply with the
requirements of Table 5c. Where more than one assembly is prepared and tested, the number of
transverse tensile and bend test specimens from each assembly may be halved.
6.3.8 Discretionary approval
At the discretion of each individual Classification Society, wires or wire-gas combinations approved for
semi-automatic multirun welding may also be approved, without additional tests, for automatic multirun
welding approval.
This is generally the case when automatic multirun welding is performed in the same conditions of
welding current and energy as semi automatic welding with the concerned wire-gas combination.
The only difference between the two welding processes in this case is that the welding gun is held by an
automatic device instead of the welder's hand.
6.4

Approval for automatic two-run welding

6.4.1 General
Approval tests for automatic two-run welding are to be carried out generally in accordance with the
requirements of Section 5.3, except as required by 6.4, using the automatic two-run welding technique
for the preparation of all test assemblies.
6.4.2 Preparation of butt weld assemblies
.1
Two butt weld test assemblies are to be prepared, generally as detailed in 5.3.1 and 5.3.2, using
plates 12-15 mm and 20-25 mm in thickness. If approval is requested for welding plate thicker than 25
mm, one assembly is to be prepared using plates approximately 20 mm in thickness and the other using
plates of the maximum thickness for which approval is requested.
.2
The plate preparation of the test assemblies is to be as shown in Fig. 6.1. Small deviations in the
edge preparation may be allowed, if requested by the manufacturer. For assemblies using plates over
25 mm in thickness, the edge preparation is to be reported for information. Deviations or variations will
be expected to form part of the manufacturer's standard recommended procedure for this technique and
thickness range.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.6

W17
contd

60o

12 - 15
6

60o

20 - 25

CL

60o

All dimensions in mm unless otherwise indicated

Figure 6.1

Recommended edge preparation for two-run butt weld test assemblies

.3
The diameters of wires used are to be in accordance with the recommendations of the
manufacturer and are to be reported.
6.4.3 Radiographic examination
It is recommended that the welded assemblies be subjected to radiographic examination to ascertain any
defect in the weld prior to testing, and to confirm full penetration continuously along the major part of
the welded length of each assembly.
6.4.4 Mechanical tests
Tests are to be made on each assembly in accordance with 5.3.2.3 to 5.3.2.6 and the results are to comply
with the requirements of 5.2.2.4 and Table 5c.
6.4.5 Chemical analysis
The chemical analysis of the deposited weld metal on the second side welded, is to be reported for each
assembly.
6.5

Annual tests and up-grading

6.5.1 Annual tests


.1
a)

Annual tests are to consist of at least:


Wires approved for semi-automatic or both semi-automatic and automatic multirun welding :
one deposited metal test assembly prepared in accordance with 6.2.2 using a wire of diameter
within the range approved for the semi-automatic multirun welding of ship structures.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.6 - W17.7

W17
(cont'd)

b)
c)

Wires approved for automatic multirun welding : one deposited metal test assembly prepared in
accordance with 6.3.2 using a wire of diameter within the range approved for automatic multirun
welding of ship structures.
Wires approved for automatic two-run welding : one butt weld test assembly prepared in
accordance with 6.4.2 using plates of 20-25 mm in thickness. The wire diameter used is to be
reported.

.2 The test specimens are to be prepared and tested in accordance with the requirements of this
Section, except that only the following tests are required:
a)
For deposited metal assemblies (semi-automatic and automatic multirun) : one tensile and three
impact tests.
b)
For butt weld assemblies (automatic two-run) : one transverse tensile, two bend and three impact
tests. One longitudinal tensile test is also required where the wire is approved solely for automatic
two-run welding.
Note:
At the discretion of each individual Classification Society, hydrogen test can be carried out following 4.5.
6.5.2 Up-grading and up-rating
.1
Up-grading of flux cored wires and wire-gas combinations in connection with the impact
properties will be considered as detailed in 4.8.2.2.
.2
Up-rating of flux cored wires and wire-gas combinations with the tensile properties will be
considered as detailed in 4.8.2.3.
7.

Consumables for use in eletroslag and electrogas vertical welding

7.1

General

7.1.1 The requirements for the two-run technique as detailed in Section 5 are applicable for the approval
of special consumables used in electro-slag and electro-gas vertical welding with or without consumable
nozzles except as otherwise required by the following requirements especially as regards the number and
kind of the test-pieces used for the mechanical tests and taken from the butt welded assemblies.
7.1.2 For Grades 1Y, 2Y, 3Y, 4Y, 2Y40, 3Y40 and 4Y40 approval of the consumables may be
restricted for use only with specific types of higher strength steel. This is in respect of the content of
grain refining elements, and if general approval is required, a niobium treated steel is to be used for the
approval tests.
7.1.3 For these special welding consumables, the prescription 1.2.1 may not be entirely applicable for
technical reasons.
Where approval is requested for welding of both normal strength and higher strength steel two
assemblies are to be prepared using higher strength steel. Two assemblies prepared using normal strength
steel may also be required at the discretion of each Classification Society.
7.2

Butt weld tests

7.2.1 Preparation of test assemblies


Two butt weld test assemblies are to be prepared, one of them with plates 20/25 mm thick, the other with
plates 35/40 mm thick or more. The grade of the steel to be used for each one of these assemblies must
be selected according to the requirements given in the figure 5.3 for two-run submerged arc welding.
The chemical composition of the plate, including the content of grain refining elements is to be reported.
The welding conditions and the edge preparation are to be those recommended by the welding
consumable manufacturer and are to be reported.

7.2.2 Radiographic examination


It is recommended that the welded assemblies be subjected to a radiographic examination to ascertain if
there are any defects in the weld prior to the preparation of test specimens.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.7

W17
contd

7.2.3 Test series


Each assembly shall be cut to give test specimens according to Figure 7.1.
The length of the assembly should be sufficient to allow the selection of all the test specimens:

2 longitudinal tensile test specimens with their axis at the centre of the weld.

2 transverse tensile test specimens.

2 side bend test specimens.

2 sets of 3 Charpy-V notch impact test specimens in accordance with Figure 7.1:
.1 set with the notch in the axes of the weld,
.1 set with the notch at 2 mm from the fusion line in the deposited metal.

2 macro-sections to the weld (towards the middle of the weld and towards one end).

7.2.4 Results to be obtained


The results of the tensile, bend and impact tests are to comply with the requirements of paragraph 5.3
(two-run welding) for the class of filler product in question.
7.3

Annual tests and up-grading

7.3.1 All factories which manufacture approved consumables for use in electroslag and electrogas
welding must be subject to an annual inspection and tests in accordance with 2.4.
7.3.2 One test assembly must be prepared from plates 20/25 mm thick, and tested as indicated in 7.2.
The following specimens are to be selected:

1 longitudinal tensile specimen from the axis of the weld,

1 transverse tensile specimen,

2 side bend specimens,

3 Charpy-V specimens notched at the centre of the weld (position 1 Fig. 7.1),

3 Charpy-V specimens cut out transverse to the weld with their notches at 2 mm from the fusion
line, in the weld,

macro section.
7.3.3 The results to be obtained should meet the requirements given in 5.3 (two-run welding) for the
class of the consumables in question.
7.3.4 Upgrading and uprating
Upgrading and uprating will be considered only at the manufacturers request, at the time of annual
testing. Generally, for this purpose, full tests from butt weld assemblies as indicated in 7.2 will be
required, irrespective of the other tests requested if the concerned consumable is also approved (and
possibly upgraded or uprated) according to Section 5 or Section 6.

IACS Req. 1993

W17.7

W17
cont'd

min. 250

min. 250

Longitudinal tensile
test specimen
(centre of weld)
Transverse tensile
test specimen
Side bend
test specimen

macrography

}
min. 1500

1 set of 3
Charpy-V test specimen
(centre line)

1 set of 3
Charpy-V test specimen
(2mm from fusion line)

Transverse tensile
test specimen
Side bend
test specimen

Longitudinal tensile
test specimen
(centre of weld)

macrography

25

30

2
Notch in centre of weld

Electroslag and electrogas butt weld test assembly

Figure 7.1

Notch 2 mm from fusion line


(weld metal side)

IACS Req. 1993

Z10.1 Annex I

Z10.1
cont'd

ANNEX I
GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH
PLANNING FOR ENHANCED SURVEYS OF OIL TANERS
SPECIAL SURVEY - HULL
Contents:
1.
2.

3.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES
2.1
Purpose
2.2
Minimum Requirements
2.3
Timing
2.4
Aspects to be Considered
TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT
3.1
General
3.2
Methods
3.2.1
Design Details
3.2.2
Corrosion
3.2.3
Locations for Close-up Survey and Thickness Measurement

REFERENCES
1. IACS Unified Requirements Z10.1, "Hull Surveys of Oil Tankers."
2.TSCF, "Guidance Manual for the Inspection and Condition Assessment of Tanker Structures, 1986."
3.TSCF, "Condition Evaluation and Maintenance of Tanker Structures, 1992."
1.0
INTRODUCTION
These guidelines contain information and suggestions concerning technical assessments which may be of
use in conjunction with the planning of enhanced special surveys of oil tankers. As indicated in section
5.1.5 of IACS Unified Requirement Z10.1, "Hull Surveys of Oil Tankers," (Ref. 1), the guidelines are a
recommended tool which may be invoked at the discretion of an IACS Member Society, when
considered necessary and appropriate, in conjunction with the preparation of the required Survey
Programme.
2.0

PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES

2.1
Purpose
The purpose of the technical assessments described in these guidelines is to assist in identifying critical
structural areas, nominating suspect areas and in focusing attention on structural elements or areas of
structural elements which may be particularly susceptible to, or evidence a history of, wastage or
damage. This information may be useful in nominating locations, areas and tanks for thickness
measurement, close-up survey and tank testing.
Critical Structural Areas are locations which have been identified from calculations to require monitoring
or from the service history of the subject ship or from similar or sister ships (if available) to be sensitive
to cracking, buckling or corrosion which would impair the structural integrity of the ship.
2.2
Minimum Requirements
However, these guidelines may not be used to reduce the requirements pertaining to thickness
measurement, close-up survey and tank testing contained in Tables I, II and III, respectively, of Z10.1;
which are, in all cases, to be complied with as a minimum.
2.3
Timing
As with other aspects of survey planning, the technical assessments described in these guidelines should
be worked out by the Owner or operator in cooperation with the Classification Society well in advance of
the commencement of the Special Survey, i.e., prior to commencing the survey and normally at least 12
to 15 months before the survey's completion due date.

Z10.1I-1
IACS Req. 1994/Rev. 4 1996 v4.0

Z10.1 Annex I

Z10.1
cont'd

2.4
Aspects to be Considered
Technical assessments, which may include quantitative or qualitative evaluation of relative risks of
possible deterioration, of the following aspects of a particular ship may be used as a basis for the
nomination of tanks and areas for survey:
* Design features such as stress levels on various structural elements, design details and extent of
use of high tensile steel.
* Former history with respect to corrosion, cracking, buckling, indents and repairs for the
particular ship as well as similar vessels, where available.
* Information with respect to types of cargo carried, use of different tanks for cargo/ballast,
protection of tanks and condition of coating, if any.
Technical assessments of the relative risks of susceptability to damage or deterioration of various
structural elements and areas should be judged and decided on the basis of recognised principles and
practices, such as may be found in publications of the Tanker Structure Cooperative Forum (TSCF),
(Refs. 2 and 3).
3.0

TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT

3.1
General
There are three basic types of possible failure which may be the subject of technical assessment in
connection with planning of surveys; corrosion, cracks and buckling. Contact damages are not normally
covered by the survey plan since indents are usually noted in memoranda and assumed to be dealt with as
a normal routine by Surveyors.
Technical assessments performed in conjunction with the survey planning process should, in principle be
as shown schematically in Figure 1 depicts, schematically, how technical assessments can be carried out
in conjunction with the survey planning process. The approach is based on an evaluation of experience
and knowledge basically related to:
- Design
- Corrosion
The design should be considered with respect to structural details which may be susceptible to buckling
or cracking as a result of vibration, high stress levels or fatigue.
Corrosion is related to the ageing process, and is closely connected with the quality of corrosion
protection at newbuilding, and subsequent maintenance during the service life. Corrosion may also lead
to cracking and/or buckling.
3.2

Methods

3.2.1 Design Details


Damage experience related to the ship in question and similar ships, where available, is the main source
of information to be used in the process of planning. In addition, a selection of structural details from the
design drawings should be included.
Typical damage experience to be considered will consist of:
- Number, extent, location and frequency of cracks.
- Location of buckles.
This information may be found in the survey reports and/or the Owner's files, including the results of the
Owner's own inspections. The defects should be analyzed, noted and marked on sketches.
In addition, general experience should be utilized. For example, reference should be made to TSCF's
"Guidance Manual for the Inspection and Condition Assessment of Tanker Structures," (Ref. 2), which
contains a catalogue of typical damages and proposed repair methods for various tanker structural details.
Such figures should be used together with a review of the main drawings, in order to compare with the
actual structure and search for similar details which may be susceptible to damage. An example is shown
in Figure 2.

The review of the main structural drawings, in addition to using the above mentioned figures, should
include checking for typical design details where cracking has been experienced. The factors
contributing to damage should be carefully considered.
The use of high tensile steel (HTS) is an important factor. Details showing good service experience
where ordinary, mild steel has been used may be more susceptible to damage when HTS, and its higher
associated stresses, are utilized. There is extensive and, in general, good experience, with the use of HTS
for longitudinal material in deck and bottom structures. Experience in other locations, where the
dynamic stresses may be higher, is less favorable, e.g. side structures.

Z10.1I-2
IACS Req. 1994, v3.1

Z10.1 Annex I

Z10.1
cont'd

In this respect, stress calculations of typical and important components and details, in accordance with
the latest Rules or other relevant methods, may prove useful and should be considered.
The selected areas of the structure identified during this process should be recorded and marked on the
structural drawings to be included in the Survey Programme.
3.2.2 Corrosion
In order to evaluate relative corrosion risks, the following information is generally to be considered:
- Usage of Tanks and Spaces
- Condition of Coatings
- Condition of Anodes
- Cleaning Procedures
- Previous Corrosion Damage
- Ballast use and time for Cargo Tanks
- Corrosion Risk Scheme (See Ref. 3, Table 3.1)
- Location of Heated Tanks
Ref. 3 gives definitive examples which can be used for judging and describing coating condition, using
typical pictures of conditions.
The evaluation of corrosion risks should be based on information in Ref. 3, together with relevant
information on the anticipated condition of the ship as derived from the information collected in order to
prepare the Survey Programme and the age of the ship.
The various tanks and spaces should be listed with the corrosion risks nominated accordingly.
3.2.3 Locations for Close-up Survey and Thickness Measurement
On the basis of the table of corrosion risks and the evaluation of design experience, the locations for
initial close-up survey and thickness measurement (sections) may be nominated.
The sections subject to thickness measurement should normally be nominated in tanks and spaces where
corrosion risk is judged to be the highest.
The nomination of tanks and spaces for close-up survey should, initially, be based on highest corrosion
risk, and should always include ballast tanks. The principle for the selection should be that the extent is
increased by age or where information is insufficient or unreliable.

Z10.1I-3
IACS Req. 1994, v3.1

Z10.1 Annex I

Z10.1
cont'd

Input:
Drawings, Reports,
Acceptable Corrosion
Allowance

Collection of Information

Design Related Risk

Coating Condition
Anode Condition
Usage of Tanks

Corrosion Risk

Analyse:
Hull Damage
This Ship

Coating condition
Anodes Condition
Usage of Tanks

Analyse Hull
Damage for
Similar Ships
Where Available

Corrosion Damage
This Ship

Hull Damage :
General Experience

Corrosion Damage
Similar Ship where
Available

Present Areas where


Damage has been found
and Risks considered
high. Mark Sketches or
Drawings

Location for Thickness Measurement and Close-Up Survey

Survey Programme

Acceptance by
Class & Owner

Survey
FIGURE 1: TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND THE SURVEY PLANNING PROCESS

Z10.1I-4
IACS Req. 1994,v 3.1

Z10.1 Annex I

Z10.1
cont'd

LOCATION:

Connection of longitudinals to transverse webs

EXAMPLE No. 1 :

Web and flat bar fractures at cut-outs for longitudinal stiffener


connections
PROPOSED REPAIR

TYPICAL DAMAGE

FULL COLLAR IF FRACTURES IN


WEB PLATE ARE SMALL AND
ARE REPAIRED BY WELDING

FRACTURE

SHELL PLATING
OR LONGITUDINAL
BULKHEAD

FLAT BAR
STIFFENER

A
FRACTURED
WELD/WEB

FRACTURE

LUG
BACKING
BRACKET

SIDE SHELL OR
BULKHEAD
LONGITUDINAL

LUG
X

WEB PLATING

FRACTURE

VIEW A - A

WEB FLAT BAR


STIFFENER

VIEW A - A
WEB AND FLAT BAR CROPPED
AND PART RENEWED OR
ALTERNATIVELY WELDED

NOTE ONE OR MORE FRACTURES


MAY OCCUR

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DAMAGE

1.

Asymmetrical connection of flat bar stiffener resulting in high peak stresses at the heel of
the stiffener under fatigue loading.

2.

Insufficient area of connection of longitudinal to web plate.

3.

Defective weld at return around the plate thickness.

4.

High localised corrosion at areas of stress concentration such as flat bar stiffener connections,
corners of cut-out for the longitudinal and connection of web to shell at cut-outs.

High stress in the web of the transverse.

6.

Dynamic sea way load/ship motions.

FIGURE
1

TANKER STRUCTURE CO-OPERATIVE FORUM


SUBJECT: CATALOGUE OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS

FIGURE
1

FIGURE 2: TYPICAL DAMAGE AND REPAIR EXAMPLE


(REPRODUCED FROM REF. 2)

Z10.1I-5
IACS Req. 1994, v3.1

Z10.2 Annex I

ANNEX I
GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH
PLANNING FOR ENHANCED SURVEYS OF BULK CARRIERS
SPECIAL SURVEY - HULL
Contents:
1.
2.

3.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES
2.1
Purpose
2.2
Minimum Requirements
2.3
Timing
2.4
Aspects to be Considered
TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT
3.1
General
3.2
Methods
3.2.1
Design Details
3.2.2
Corrosion
3.2.3
Locations for Close-up Survey and Thickness Measurement

REFERENCES
1. IACS Unified Requirements Z10.2, "Hull Surveys of Bulk Carriers."
2.TSCF, "Guidance Manual for the Inspection and Condition Assessment of Tanker Structures, 1986."
3.TSCF, "Condition Evaluation and Maintenance of Tanker Structures, 1992."
4. IACS, "Bulk Carriers: Guidelines for Surveys, Assessment and Repair of Hull Structures, 1994."
1.0
INTRODUCTION
These guidelines contain information and suggestions concerning technical assessments which may be of
use in conjunction with the planning of enhanced special surveys of bulk carriers. As indicated in section
5.1.5 of IACS Unified Requirement Z10.2, "Hull Surveys of Bulk Carriers," (Ref. 1), the guidelines are a
recommended tool which may be invoked at the discretion of an IACS Member Society, when
considered necessary and appropriate, in conjunction with the preparation of the required Survey
Programme.
2.0

PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES

2.1
Purpose
The purpose of the technical assessments described in these guidelines is to assist in identifying critical
structural areas, nominating suspect areas and in focusing attention on structural elements or areas of
structural elements which may be particularly susceptible to, or evidence a history of, wastage or
damage. This information may be useful in nominating locations, areas, holds and tanks for thickness
measurement, close-up survey and tank testing.
Critical Structural Areas are locations which have been identified from calculations to require monitoring
or from the service of the subject ship or from similar or sister ships (if available) to be sensitive to
cracking, buckling or corrosion which would impair the structural integrity of the ship.
2.2
Minimum Requirements
However, these guidelines may not be used to reduce the requirements pertaining to thickness
measurement, close-up survey and tank testing contained in Tables I, II and paragraph 2.5, respectively,
of Z10.2; which are, in all cases, to be complied with as a minimum.
2.3
Timing
As with other aspects of survey planning, the technical assessments described in these guidelines should
be worked out by the Owner or operator in cooperation with the Classification Society well in advance of
the commencement of the Special Survey, i.e., prior to commencing the survey and normally at least 12
to 15 months before the survey's completion due date.

Z10.2
cont'd

Page I-1
IACS Req. 1992/Rev. 4 1996 v5.2

Z10.2 Annex I

Z10.2
cont'd

2.4

Aspects to be Considered

Technical assessments, which may include quantitative or qualitative evaluation of relative risks of
possible deterioration, of the following aspects of a particular ship may be used as a basis for the
nomination of holds, tanks and areas for survey:
*Design features such as stress levels on various structural elements, design details and extent of
use of high tensile steel.
*Former history with respect to corrosion, cracking, buckling, indents and repairs for the
particular ship as well as similar vessels, where available.
*Information with respect to types of cargo carried, protection of tanks, and condition of coating,
if any, of holds and tanks.
Technical assessments of the relative risks of susceptibility to damage or deterioration of various
structural elements and areas should be judged and decided on the basis of recognized principles and
practices, such as may be found in the IACS publication "Bulk Carriers: Guidelines for Surveys,
Assessment and Repair of Hull Structure," (Ref. 4).
3.0

TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT

3.1

General

There are three basic types of possible failure which may be the subject of technical assessment in
connection with planning of surveys; corrosion, cracks and buckling. Contact damages are not normally
covered by the survey plan since indents are usually noted in memoranda and assumed to be dealt with as
a normal routine by Surveyors.
Technical assessments performed in conjunction with the survey planning process should, in principle be
as shown schematically in Figure 1 depicts, schematically, how technical assessments can be carried out
in conjunction with the survey planning process. The approach is based on an evaluation of experience
and knowledge basically related to:
- Design
- Corrosion
The design should be considered with respect to structural details which may be susceptible to buckling
or cracking as a result of vibration, high stress levels or fatigue.
Corrosion is related to the ageing process, and is closely connected with the quality of corrosion
protection at newbuilding, and subsequent maintenance during the service life. Corrosion may also lead
to cracking and/or buckling.
3.2

Methods

3.2.1 Design Details


Damage experience related to the ship in question and similar ships, where available, is the main source
of information to be used in the process of planning. In addition, a selection of structural details from the
design drawings should be included.
Typical damage experience to be considered will consist of:
Number, extent, location and frequency of cracks.
Location of buckles.
This information may be found in the survey reports and/or the Owner's files, including the results of the
Owner's own inspections. The defects should be analyzed, noted and marked on sketches.
In addition, general experience should be utilized. For example, Figure 2 shows typical locations in bulk
carriers which experience has shown may be susceptible to structrual damage. Also, reference should be
made to IACS's "Bulk Carriers: Guidelines for Survey, Assessment and Repair," (Ref. 4) which contains
a catalogue of typical damages and proposed repair methods for various bulk carrier structural details.

Page I-2
IACS Req. 1994, v5.2

Z10.2 Annex I

Z10.2
cont'd

Such figures should be used together with a review of the main drawings, in order to compare with the
actual structure and search for similar details which may be susceptible to damage. An example is shown
in Figure 3.
The review of the main structural drawings, in addition to using the above mentioned figures, should
include checking for typical design details where cracking has been experienced. The factors
contributing to damage should be carefully considered.
The use of high tensile steel (HTS) is an important factor. Details showing good service experience
where ordinary, mild steel has been used may be more susceptible to damage when HTS, and its higher
associated stresses are utilized. There is extensive and, in general, good experience, with the use of HTS
for longitudinal material in deck and bottom structures. Experience in other locations, where the
dynamic stresses may be higher, is less favorable, e.g. side structures.
In this respect, stress calculations of typical and important components and details, in accordance with
the latest Rules or other relevant methods, may prove useful and should be considered.
The selected areas of the structure identified during this process should be recorded and marked on the
structural drawings to be included in the Survey Programme.
3.2.2 Corrosion
In order to evaluate relative corrosion risks, the following information is generally to be considered:
Usage of Tanks, Holds and Spaces
Condition of Coatings
Condition of Anodes
Cleaning Procedures
Previous Corrosion Damage
Ballast use and time for Cargo Holds
Risk of Corrosion in Cargo Holds and Ballast Tanks
Location of Ballast Tanks Adjacent to Heated Fuel Oil Tanks
Ref. 3 gives definitive examples which can be used for judging and describing coating condition, using
typical pictures of conditions.
For bulk carriers, Ref. 4 should be used as the basis for the evaluation, together with relevant information
on the anticipated condition of the ship as derived from the information collected in order to prepare the
Survey Programme and the age of the ship.
The various tanks, holds and spaces should be listed with the corrosion risks nominated accordingly.
3.2.3 Locations for Close-up Survey and Thickness Measurement
On the basis of the table of corrosion risks and the evaluation of design experience, the locations for
initial close-up survey and thickness measurement (sections) may be nominated.
The sections subject to thickness measurement should normally be nominated in tanks, holds and spaces
where corrosion risk is judged to be the highest.
The nomination of tanks, holds and spaces for close-up survey should, initially, be based on highest
corrosion risk, and should always include ballast tanks. The principle for the selection should be that the
extent is increased by age or where information is insufficient or unreliable.

Page I-3
IACS Req. 1994, v5.2

Z10.2 Annex I

Z10.2
cont'd

Input:
Drawings, Reports,
Acceptable Corrosion
Allowance

Collection of Information

Design Related Risk

Coating Condition
Anode Condition
Usage of Tanks

Corrosion Risk

Analyse:
Hull Damage
This Ship

Coating condition
Anodes Condition
Usage of Tanks

Analyse Hull
Damage for
Similar Ships
Where Available

Corrosion Damage
This Ship

Corrosion Damage
Similar Ship where
Available

Hull Damage :
General Experience

Present Areas where


Damage has been found
and Risks considered
high. Mark Sketches or
Drawings

Location for Thickness Measurement and Close-Up Survey

Survey Programme

Acceptance by
Class &Owner

Survey

Figure 1:

Technical Assessment & the Survey Planning Process

Page I-4
IACS Req. 1994, v5.1

Z10.2 Annex I

Z10.2
cont'd

FIGURE 2:

TYPICAL LOCATIONS SUSCEPTIBLE TO


STRUCTURAL DAMAGE OR CORROSION

Page I-5
IACS Req. 1994, v5.1

Z10.2 Annex I

Z10.2
cont'd

AREA 1

Side shell frames and end brackets


(separate bracket configuration)

Structural item

Detail of damage

EXAMPLE 1

Fractures in brackets at termination of frame

Sketch of damage

Sketch of repair

Topside
tank

Topside tank

S
Snipe
frame

Side
shell

0,3x
Modified
brackets

Side
shell

Fractures

0,3Y
S
Y

Y
Snipe
frame

Hopper
tank

Hopper
tank

Separate Bracket
Configuration

S = Sniped end

3276/04

Notes on possible cause of damage


1. This type of damage is due to stress concentration.

Notes on repairs
1. For small fractures e.g. hairline fractures, the fracture
can be 'veed' out, welded up, ground and examined
by NDT for fractures.
2. For larger/significant fractures consideration is to be
given to cropping and partly renewing/renewing the
frame brackets. If renewing the brackets, ends of
frames can be sniped to soften them.
3. If felt prudent, soft toes are to be incorporated at the
boundaries of the bracket to the wing tanks.
4. Attention to be given to the structure in wing tanks
in way of the extended bracket arm i.e.
reinforcement provided in line with the bracket arm.
3276/23

FIGURE 3:

TYPICAL DAMAGE AND REPAIR EXAMPLE


(REPRODUCED FROM REF: 4)

Page I-6
IACS Req. 1994, v5.2

Z10.2 Annex II - Sheet 14

Close-up Survey and Thickness Measurement Areas

Z10.2
Annex
cont'd

Typical transverse section


D
Areas A , B

and D

Thickness to be reportedd on TM3-BC, TM4-BC,


TM6-BC and TM7-BC as appropriate

A cargo hold, transverse bulkhead

Upper stool
Topside tank

Area

C
Lower stool

Double bottom tank

Hopper
side
tank

Thickness to be reported on TM5-BC

Typical areas of deck plating inside line


of hatch openings between cargo hold hatches
Area

Hatch
opening

Hatch
opening

Hatch
opening

Thickness to be reported on TM6-BC

Page II-23
IACS Req. 1996, v5.2

Z13

(Rev 1
1995)

Voyage Repairs and Maintenance


Where repairs to hull, machinery or equipment, which affect or may affect classification, are to be
carried out by a riding crew during a voyage they are to be planned in advance. A complete repair
procedure including the extent of proposed repair and the need for surveyors attendance during the
voyage is to be submitted to and agreed upon by the Surveyor reasonably in advance. Failure to notify
the Classification Society, in advance of the repairs, may result in suspension of the vessels class.
The above is not intended to include maintenance and overhaul to hull, machinery and equipment in
accordance with manufacturers recommended procedures and established marine practice and which
does not require the Classification Societys approval; however, any repair as a result of such
maintenance and overhauls which affects or may affect classification is to be noted in the ships log and
submitted to the attending Surveyor for use in determining further survey requirements.
Note: Annexed Guidelines for the Survey of Voyage Repairs is a recommendation and is not a
mandatory requirement under this UR Z13.

Z13
1995

IACS Req. 1995/Rev 1 1995

Z13 Annex

Z13
cont'd

ANNEX
GUIDELINES FOR THE SURVEY
OF VOYAGE REPAIRS
The purpose of these notes is to provide guidance to the field Surveyors in dealing with voyage hull
repairs and is to be considered in addition to the Rules of the Classification Society; no part of this guide
is intended to conflict with Rules of the Classification Society.
A.

A meeting is to be held with the owners prior to commencement of hull repairs during a vessels
voyage to discuss and confirm the following :
1.

It is the owners responsibility to ensure continued effectiveness of the structure, including


the longitudinal strength and the watertight/weathertight integrity of the vessel.

2.

Extent of intended repairs. All repairs to be based on the Classification Societys


recommendations and/or concurrence.

3.

Availability of pertinent drawings.

4.

Verification of new materials regarding certification, grade and scantlings. Verified mill
sheets to remain on board and to be provided to attending Surveyor examining completed
repairs.

5.

Verification of welding consumables regarding certification and suitability for materials


involved. Check on availability of drying ovens, holding containers, etc.

6.

Verification of the qualification of welders and supervisory personnel, qualification


records to remain on board and to be provided to attending Surveyor examining completed
repairs.

7.

Review of intended repair.

8.

Review of the intended provisions to facilitate sound weldments, i.e. cleaning, preheating
(if applicable) adherence to welding sequence principles.
Further, it might be necessary to restrict welding to certain positions and prohibit welding
in more difficult positions when the ships motions might influence the quality of the
welding.

9.

Review of intended working conditions, i.e. staging, lighting, ventilation, etc.

10.

Review of intended supervision and quality control.

11.

Completed repairs are to be examined and tested as required to the satisfaction of the
attending Surveyor.

Note: All details and results of subject meeting to be covered by a memorandum. A copy of this
memorandum is to be placed on board and to be provided to the attending Surveyor
examining repairs. In addition, a copy is to be sent/faxed to the arrival port where
completed repairs will be examined.

Z13 Annex - 1

IACS Req. 1995

Z13 Annex

Z13
cont'd

B.

Any contemplated repairs to primary hull structures, i.e. main longitudinal and transverse
members and their attachments, are to be submitted to the Classification Society for review prior
to commencing voyage repairs.
Any repairs to primary hull structures shall require attendance by a Surveyor riding-ship survey or
at regular intervals to confirm fit-up, alignment, general workmanship and compliance with
recommendations.
NDT of completed repairs to primary structure to be carried out to attending Surveyors
satisfaction.
Repairs to other hull structural parts may be accepted based on examination upon completion of
repairs.

C.

No hull repairs carried out by a riding crew should be accepted unless:


1. The initial meeting had been carried out and conditions found satisfactory.
2. A final satisfactory examination upon completion was carried out.

No. 12

No.
12 Guidelines for Surface Finish of Hot Rolled
(1983)
Steel Plates and Wide Flats
1.

Scope
These guidelines give some criteria recommended for the surface finish for hull structural steel
plates and wide flats in accordance with requirement W11 as well as the treatment of
imperfections and defects which may occasionally occur on the surfaces of these products.
They do not cover quality requirements for the edges.
At the individual Classification Society's discretion these guidelines may also be applied to
other steel grades.

Note
The criteria contained herein have been based on the consideration that surface imperfections and defects
on hull steels may impair the proper coating of tanks and hulls and this may reduce the corrosion
resistance.
Moreover, they may increase the frictional resistance of the hull and thereby impair the economy of the
service. Surface defects may also adversely affect the strength of the structure. Special provisions with
respect to the surface finish are therefore deemed necessary.
2.

Manufacturer's Responsibility
The responsibility for the required surface finish rests with the manufacturer of the material,
who is to take the necessary precautions and to inspect the products prior to delivery. At that
stage, however, rolling or heat treatment scale may conceal surface discontinuities. If, during
the subsequent descaling or working operations, the material is found to be defective, the
Surveyor may require materials to be repaired or rejected.

3.

Acceptance Criteria

3.1

General Surface Finish

3.2

All products must have a workmanlike finish and must be free from defects and imperfections
which may impair their proper workability and use. This may, however, include some
discontinuities of a harmless nature, minor imperfections, e.g. pittings, rolled-in scale,
indentations, roll marks, scratches and grooves which cannot be avoided completely despite
proper manufacturing and which will not be objected to provided they do not exceed the
acceptable limits contained herein.
Imperfections

IACS Rec. 1983

No. 12

No.
12
cont'd

Notwithstanding this, the products may have imperfections exceeding the discontinuities inherent to the
manufacturing process, as defined under item 3.1. In such cases, limits for their acceptability are to be
agreed with the Classification Society, taking the end use of the product into consideration.
3.3

Defects

Cracks, shells, sand patches and sharp edged seams are always considered defects which would impair
the end use of the product and which require rejection or repair, irrespective of their size and number.
The same applies to other imperfections exceeding the acceptable limits.
4.

Repair Procedures

4.1

Grinding

4.1.1

Grinding may be applied provided:

(a)

the nominal product thickness will not be reduced by more than 7% or 3 mm, whichever is the less

(b)

each single ground area does not exceed 0,25 m2 and

(c)

all ground areas do not exceed 2% of the total surface in question.

Ground areas lying in a distance less than their average breadth to each other are to be regarded as one
single area.
4.1.2
Ground areas lying opposite each other on both surfaces must not decrease the product thickness
by values exceeding the limits as stated under 4.1.1.
4.1.3

The defects or unacceptable imperfections are to be completely removed by grinding.

The ground areas must have smooth transitions to the surrounding surface of the product. Complete
elimination of the defects may be verified by a magnetic particle or dye penetrant test procedure at the
Surveyor's discretion.
4.1.4
Where necessary, the entire surface may be ground to a depth as given by the under thickness
tolerances of the product.
4.2

Welding Repair

Local defects which cannot be repaired by grinding as stated under 4.1 may be repaired with the
Surveyor's consent by chipping and/or grinding followed by welding subject to the following conditions:
4.2.1
Any single welded area shall not exceed 0,125 m2 and the sum of all areas shall not exceed 2%
of the surface side in question.
The distance between two welded areas shall not be less than their average width.
4.2.2
The weld preparation must not reduce the thickness of the product below 80% of the nominal
thickness. For occasional defects with depths exceeding the 80% limit, special consideration at the
Surveyor's discretion will be necessary.

4.2.3
The repair shall be carried out by qualified welders using an approved procedure for the
appropriate steel grade. The electrodes shall be of low hydrogen type and must be dried in accordance
with the manufacturer's requirements and protected against rehumidification before and during welding.

IACS Rec. 1984

No. 12

No.
12
cont'd

4.2.4
All weldings are to be of reasonable length and must have at least 3 parallel welding beads. The
deposited metal must be sound without any lack of fusion, undercut, cracks and other defects which
could impair the workability or use of the product.
Welding is to be performed with one layer of beads in excess, which is subsequently to be ground
smooth to the surface level.
4.2.5
Products which are to be supplied in a heat treated condition are to be welded prior to the heat
treatment; otherwise, a new heat treatment may be required.
Products supplied in the controlled rolled or as rolled condition may require a suitable heat treatment
after welding. However, the post weld heat treatment may be omitted provided the manufacturer has
demonstrated by a procedure test that the required properties will be maintained without heat treatment.
4.2.6
The finished products are to be presented to the Surveyor for acceptance. The soundness of the
repair may be verified by ultrasonic, magnetic particle or dye penetrant methods at the Surveyor's
discretion.
4.2.7
For every welding repair the manufacturer must provide the Surveyor with a written report and a
sketch showing sizes and location of the defects and full details of the repair procedure including the
welding consumables, post weld heat treatment and non-destructive testing.

IACS Rec. 1986

No. 20

No.
20 Guide for inspection of ship hull welds
(1988)
1.

Scope
The purpose of this document is to give guidelines for quality control of ship hull welds during
newbuilding. The document contains general guidance for the application of non-destructive
examination (NDE) methods, extent of examinations and recommended quality level for
satisfactory workmanship.
The guidelines contained herein are intended for welds in structural members where materials
class III and IV are used according to UR S6, that is the bulk of the welds within 0,4L
amidships.
As a general principle, regardless of the application of the recommendations in this document
by the individual Society, a plan of the areas to be examined and the methods to be employed,
should be submitted for approval.

2.

Basic Conditions
The guide is based on the conditions mentioned below.

2.1

Type of material
Normal and high strength structural steels according to UR W11.
Hull forgings according to UR W7.
Hull castings according to UR W8.

2.2

Welding processes
Gas metal arc, gas tungsten arc, flux cored arc, shielded metal arc, submerged arc, electroslag
and electrogas welding.
Consumables according to UR W17.

2.3

Weld joint types


Butt weld joints, T, corner and cruciform joints with and without full penetration, fillet weld
joints.

2.4

Types of discontinuities
The main types of discontinuities mentioned in this document are listed below. Reference is
given to ISO 6520-1982 (E/F) which use the IIW/IIS classification numbers given in brackets.
Porosity (200), slag inclusions (300), undercut (5011, 5012), underfill (509, 511, 606),
excessive weld reinforcement (502-504), overlap (506), cracks (101-106), lack of fusion (401),
incomplete penetration (402), lamellar tears.
Examination methods
For detection of
surface discontinuities

Visual examination
Magnetic particle examination
Liquid penetrant examination

For detection of
embedded discontinuities Ultrasonic examination
Radiographic examination
3.

(VE)
(ME)
(PE)
(UE)
(RE)

Structural Elements and Weldments


Reference is given to UR S6 for the definition of hull structural elements and material classes I
to V.

2.5

IACS Rec. 1988

No. 20

No.
20
cont'd

This document is intended for weldments in structural elements where materials class III and
IV are used, that is the bulk of the welds within 0,4L amidships.
Welds in structural members requiring material classes I or II may be subject to less stringent
requirements. For welds in material class V in specially high stressed areas more stringent
requirements should be applied. It is left to each Society to define the specific requirements.
Relaxation of requirements for low stressed welds within the scope of the document is left to
the discretion of each Society.
4.

Definition of Weld Joint Configuration Groups with Respect to Suitable NDE-Methods

4.1

General
The different types of weldments are divided into four groups of weld joint configurations with
respect to the applicability of methods for detection of embedded discontinuities (UE and RE)
as defined in 4.2 - 4.5. Types of weldments normally belonging to the four groups are given
for guidance, see also Table 1.

4.2

Weld joint configuration group A


Weldments for which both UE and RE are applicable.
Normally this group includes butt weld joints (of full penetration) in plates of minimum 10 mm
plate thickness.

4.3

Weld joint configuration group B


Weldments for which only RE is applicable.
Normally this group includes butt welded joints in plates of thickness less than 10 mm (or
partly penetrated butt welds).

4.4

Weld joint configuration group C


Weldments for which only UE is applicable.
Normally this group includes T-joints, corner-joints and cruciform joints of full penetration in
plates of minimum 10 mm thickness.

4.5

Weld joint configuration group D


Weldments for which neither UE nor RE is applicable.
Normally this group includes T, corner and cruciform joints of partly penetration or plate
thickness less than 10 mm and fillet welded joints.

4.6

Types of weld discontinuities, capability for detection


The general capability of different test methods to detect weld discontinuities are shown in
Table 1 for each group of weld joint configurations.

5.

Qualification of Personnel
The shipbuilder is responsible for supplying properly trained operators certificated in
accordance with an acceptable international or national scheme. Records of operators and their
current certificates are to be kept and made available to the surveyors for inspection.
Examination Techniques

6.1

General

6.1.1

Procedure
In general a NDE-procedure specification should be worked out for each specific NDEmethod, see 6.2.2, 6.3.2, 6.4.2, 6.5.2 and 6.6.2. In addition the procedure specification should
contain these general items:
Surface requirements, cleaning and preparation
Location reference identification and marking
Evaluating of findings and indications
Reporting

6.

IACS Rec. 1988

METHODS FOR DETECTION OF SUBFACE


DISCONTINUITIES3)
VE

Group A

Porosity
Undercut
Underfill
(Overflap)
(Cracks)
(Lack of fusion)
Incomplete penetration

Undercut
Overlap
Cracks
Lack of fusion
Incomplete penetration
Porosity

Porosity
Undercut
Underfill
(Overflap)
(Cracks)
(Lack of fusion)
Incomplete penetration

Undercut
Overlap
Cracks
Lack of fusion
Incomplete penetration
Porosity

Group C
T-joints, cornerjoints and cruciform
joints of plate
thickness 10 mm
and full penetration

Porosity
Undercut
Underfill
(Overlap)
(Cracks)

Undercut
Overlap
Cracks
Porosity

Group D
T-joints, corner and
cruciform joints of
plate thickness < 10 mm
or partly penetration.
Fillet welds

Porosity
Undercut
Underfill
(Overlap)
(Crack)

Undercut
Overlap
Cracks
Porosity

Butt welds of plate


thickness 10 mm
Group B

Butt welds of plate


thickness < 10 mm

ME/PE

METHODS FOR DETECTION OF EMBEDDED


DISCONTINUITIES
UE4)
Porosity
Slag inclusions
Cracks
Lack of fusion
Incomplete penetration
Lammellar tears

Not Applicable

Porosity
Slag inclusions
Cracks
Lack of fusion
Incomplete penetration
Lamellar tears

Not Applicable

RE
Porosity
Slag inclusions
Undercut
Underfill
(Cracks)
(Lack of fusion)
Incomplete penetration
Porosity
Slag inclusions
Undercut
Underfill
(Cracks)
(Lack of fusion)
Incomplete penetration

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

The table is given for general information. Not all decisive factors are included.
2) For discontinuities in brackets the capability is marginal.
3) The discontinuities listed for VE and PE are open surface, discontinuities only. ME may also detect discontinuities just below the surface.

No. 20

CAPABILITY OF DETECTION OF DISCONTINUITIES1) 2)

WELD JOINT
CONFIGURATION

NOTES: 1)

No. 20

cont'd

IACS Rec. 1988

TABLE 1

No. 20

No.
20
cont'd

This procedure should in addition cover items specific to the NDE technique in question.
These items are, depending on NDE technique listed below.
6.1.2

Sensitivity
Each applied NDE technique should meet with certain requirements in order to assure
examination at a required sensitivity level.
Direct or indirect sensitivity requirements for the individual NDE techniques are given below.

6.1.3

Reference Documents
The examination should, in order to assure examination quality and fulfil sensitivity
requirements, be performed according to nationally or internationally recognised NDE
standards, recommendations or other documents accepted by the Society. Such reference
documents should meet the minimum requirements given by this Guide.
The reference documents may be replaced by equivalent or similar documents issued by the
Society.

6.2

Visual Examination

6.2.1

General
The technique makes use of visual observation to reveal weld surface discontinuities and
irregularities like undercut, surface porosity and excess weld reinforcement. If necessary
mechanical aids (gauges and rulers) should be used to assess and size discontinuities.

6.2.2

Procedure
Items to be covered by the procedure are:
Viewing conditions
Aids to enhance visibility
Rulers and gauges to be used

6.2.3

Sensitivity requirements
Direct visual examination requires an illumination at the point of observation which makes it
possible to reveal and describe unacceptable surface discontinuities. The welds should be
presented clean and without paint.
Reporting should consist of acceptance or not for each weld section and, if relevant or
otherwise, give the type and size of the discontinuity causing non-acceptance.

6.3

Magnetic particle examination

6.3.1

General
The technique to be used is detection of magnetic leakage fluxes from surface discontinuities,
and to a certain extent also subsurface discontinuities, in ferromagnetic materials by means of
ferromagnetic particles during application of a magnetic field.
Procedure
Items to be covered by the procedure are:
Magnetising procedure and equipment
Detection media
Field strength measurement/verification
Detection media application
Viewing conditions
Demagnetization
Precautions against arcing

6.3.2

IACS Rec. 1988

No. 20

No.
20
cont'd

6.3.3

Sensitivity requirements
The examination should provide search for weld surface discontinuities of any orientation.
The surface to be examined may be as welded, but should be clean and dry and, if noticeable
irregularities exist, smoothed by grinding.
The peak value of the tangential magnetic field strength in the area being examined should be
between 2.4 and 4.0 kA/m.
Magnetisation by AC or HWDC should be used.
Fluorescent or non-fluorescent magnetic inks may be applied.
The preparation and illumination (by visible or ultraviolet light, depending on type of detection
media) of the surface under examination should be sufficient to reveal and describe any
unacceptable surface discontinuity.

6.4

Penetrant examination

6.4.1

General
The technique applies a low surface tension liquid, which penetrates into surface open
discontinuities. By use of a suitable developer the penetrated liquid can be made visible and
thus a discontinuity indicated.

6.4.2

Procedure
Items to be covered by the procedure are:
Reference/calibration/verification specimens
Surface cleaning and preparation
Object temperature
Penetrant and developer type
Penetrant application and removal
Penetration time
Developer application
Development time.

6.4.3

Sensitivity requirements
The surface to be examined may be as welded, but should be clean and dry and without
noticeable irregularities. In order to avoid masking of discontinuities, grinding should be
applied with considerable care.
Fluorescent or visible, water washable, solvent removable or post emulsified penetrants may be
applied. Developers may be aqueous, non-aqueous wet or dry powders.
Outside the temperature range 5 - 50C reference comparator blocks should be used.
Penetration times should typically be between 20 and 60 minutes and development times
minimum 15 minutes. When the temperature is below 15C the development times should be
minimum 30 minutes. During the first 2 minutes of development the building up of indications
should be carefully watched.
The illumination (by visible or ultraviolet light, depending on type of detection media) of the
surface under examination should be sufficient to reveal and describe any unacceptable surface
discontinuity.

6.5

Ultrasonic examination

6.5.1

General

The technique to be used is the ultrasonic pulse echo technique supplying normal and angle
probes. The examination may be performed manually or by mechanised or automated
equipment.

IACS Rec. 1989

No. 20

6.5.2

Procedure
Items to be covered by the procedure are:
Equipment type
Probe types, frequencies and angles
Calibration block(s)
Reference block(s)
Couplant
Equipment calibration and checks (linearity, resolution, wear)
Sensitivity setting and transfer corrections
Examination of parent material
Scanning techniques
Sizing techniques

6.5.3

Sensitivity requirements
The weld examination should cover search for longitudinal and transverse weld discontinuities
using at least one angle probe from each side of the weld. The weld geometry may require also
normal probes to be used to reveal weld discontinuities.
The weld examination should be done using the echo from a 3 mm diameter side drilled hole as
reference (defining the Reference Level).
Other reflectors such as flat bottomed holes or notches may replace the side drilled hole as
reference reflector, provided the same sensitivity is achieved, for example the DGS- method
(Distance Gain Sensitivity - m).

6.6

Radiographic examination

6.6.1

General
The technique that should be used is projective imaging using X or Gamma-rays with film as
the recording and displaying medium. For material thickness less than 15 mm X-rays are to be
preferred. Other displaying media, e.g. fluoroscopic screens, may be applied provided the
basic requirements to the applied technique are met.

6.6.2

Procedure
Items to be covered by the procedure are:
Radiation source, type and focal spot size
Geometry of radiographic setup
Film type
Intensifying screens
Film coverage
Image quality indicators
Film identification marking
Exposure conditions
Film processing
Film density
Film viewing conditions

6.6.3

Sensitivity requirements
The following wire image quality indicator sensitivities, or equivalent for other types of image
quality indicators (IQI), should be achieved:
Plate thickness
10 mm
80 mm
> 80 mm

IQI Wire Sensitivity


2,0%
1,0%
0,8 mm/t

t is the plate thickness. For thickness between 10 and 80 mm the required sensitivity is found
by linear interpolation between the above values.

No.
20
cont'd

IACS Rec. 1989

No. 20

No.
20
cont'd

7.

Extent of Examination
The extent of examination is defined as the percentage of the length of weldments which is to
be examined by a specific method.
The extent of examination will depend on the type of ship and the location of the joints.
Typical figures are given in Table 2 below.

Table 2 Extent of Examination


Weld joint
Configuration groups

VE

ME/PE1)

UE

RE

A
B
C
D

100%
100%
100%
100%

Spot2)
Spot2)
Spot2)
Spot2)

24%

24%

24%
24%

1) To be used as an adjunct to VE and especially at critical points for example at crossings, fillet
weld ends, excavations and repairs.
2) To be judged by the Surveyor.
For group A either RE or UE, or a combination of the two methods may be chosen.
The welds should be examined in sections of length in the range 0,2 to 0,5 m for RE and about
1m for UE.
The sections to be examined should be selected by the Surveyor. These sections should
principally be evenly distributed, and special attention should be paid to weld crossings and
erection welds.
The extent of examination may be modified at the discretion of the Surveyor depending on the
overall quality of the production welds, the welding procedures used and the quality control
procedures employed at the shipyard.
8.

Quality level
The recommended quality level expressed through recommended acceptance criteria, is
specified for each test method in Tables 3, 4 and 5. When ultrasonic examination is applied,
reference curves of the type shown in Fig 1 should be used.
Acceptance criteria of other codes or standards may be in agreement with the Society fully or
partly replace Tables 3 through 5.
Discontinuities which are not found acceptable according to Table 3 through 5 or eventually
other criteria agreed upon, are here referred to as "non-conforming" discontinuities.

9.

Non-conforming weldments

9.1

Extended examination
If a non-conforming discontinuity is detected by a method which is applied to an extent less
than 100%, the lengths welded immediately before and after the section containing the
discontinuity should be examined by this method. If systematically repeated discontinuities are
revealed the extent of examination may be increased at the Surveyors discretion for welds
manufactured under same conditions and where similar defects may be expected.

9.2

Corrective actions

If non-conforming discontinuities are found to occur regularly, the Surveyor may require that
the welding procedures are reassessed before continuation of the welding and necessary actions
should be taken to bring the production to the required quality level.

IACS Rec. 1988

No. 20

9.3

Repair and testing


Detected non-conforming discontinuities are to be repaired unless they are found acceptable by
the Society.
Removal of weld discontinuities and repair are to be performed in accordance with a procedure
approved by the Society.
Parts of weldments which are repaired should be examined by VE and one other surface
inspection method (ME or PE) as well as one volumetric inspection method (UE or RE).

Table 3 Recommended Acceptance Criteria For VE, ME and PE.


TYPE OF SURFACE
DISCONTINUITY

RECOMMENDED ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA


FOR VE, ME AND PE

POROSITY
Max. pore diameter, d:
Min. distance to adjacent pore:

3,0 mm
2,5d

UNDERCUT
Max. depth:

0,5 mm

UNDERFILL1)2)
Max. depth
Max. length

1,5 mm
t/2

EXCESSIVE WELD
REINFORCEMENT3)
Max. height
OVERLAP1)2)
Max. length:

b/5, max. 6 mm

CRACKS

Not accepted

LACK OF FUSION
Max. length:

Not accepted

INCOMPLETE PENETRATION1)2)
Max. height:
Max. length:

t/10, max. 1,5 mm


t

NOTE:1)

Discontinuities on a line where the distance between the discontinuities is shorter than the
longest discontinuity are to be regarded as one continuous discontinuity.
2) t: Plate thickness of the thinnest plate in the weld connection.
3) b: Width of weld reinforcement.

No.
20
cont'd

IACS Rec. 1988

No. 20

No.
20
cont'd

Table 4 Recommended Acceptance Criteria for RE


TYPE OF DISCONTINUITY

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR RE

POROSITY, ISOLATED2)
Max. pore diameter, d:
Min. distance to adjacent pore:

t/4, max. 3 mm
2,5d

POROSITY, CLUSTERED
Max. pore diameter, d:1)
Max. length of cluster:1)

3 mm
25 mm

SLAG INCLUSION1)2)3)4)
Max. width:
Max. length:

3,0 mm
t or max 25 mm

UNDERCUT

See table 3

UNDERFILL

See table 3

CRACKS

Not accepted

LACK OF FUSION

Not accepted

INCOMPLETE PENETRATION1)2)4)
Max. length

t or max 25 mm

NOTE:1)

Discontinuities on a line where the distance between the discontinuities is shorter than the
longest discontinuity are to be regarded as one continuous discontinuity.
2) t: Plate thickness of the thinnest plate in the weld connection.
3) If the distance between parallel slag inclusions, measured in the transverse direction of welding
is less than 3 times the width of the largest slag inclusion, the slag inclusions are regarded as
one discontinuity.
4) Excavation and repair probably not necessary for lengths up to t.
Table 5

Recommended Acceptance Criteria for UE


1)2)3)

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR UE


Echo height
0 100%

> 100%

Indication to be
max length of indication.
disregarded regardless t or max 25 mm
of length.

1) t: Plate thickness of the thinnest plate in the weld connection.


2) The length of an indication is to be measured as the length where the echo height is
above the specified value. Indications from one or more discontinuities on a line where
the distance between the indications is less than the length of the longest indication are
to be regarded as one continuous indication.
3) Excavation and repair probably not necessary for lengths up to t.

IACS Rec. 1988

No. 20

No.
20
cont'd

DISTANCE AMPLITUDE
(ECHO HEIGHT)

100%

Report and repair.

RE

FE

RE

NC

EC

UR

VE

Disregard.

PATH OF SOUND
(DEPENDANT OF PROBE LOCATION)
Figure 1 Ultrasonic examination, reference curve

IACS Rec. 1988