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Technical Report on Operations

Table of Contents
Introduction.................................................................................................................... 3
AXE Node..................................................................................................................... 3
Interfaces.................................................................................................................... 3
Air Interface............................................................................................................. 3
Abis Interface........................................................................................................... 3
A-ter interface.......................................................................................................... 4
PCM Link Devices........................................................................................................ 4
Media Gate Way.............................................................................................................. 4
IP signaling.............................................................................................................. 4
Interfaces.................................................................................................................... 4
Nb interface............................................................................................................. 4
lu Interface.............................................................................................................. 5
Mb Interface............................................................................................................ 6
Node Element manager.................................................................................................. 6
Managed Objects in MGW.................................................................................... 6
Signaling....................................................................................................................... 6
Signaling Link.......................................................................................................... 7
Signaling Point......................................................................................................... 7
Protocol stack of SS7.................................................................................................. 7
MSC Daily Routine Commands.............................................................................9
General Packet Radio Services............................................................................................ 9

Overview of GPRS for GSM........................................................................................... 9


Overview of GPRS for WCDMA.................................................................................... 10

................................................................................................................................. 10
Serving GPRS Support Node......................................................................................... 10
WCDMA Mobility Management...........................................................................12

Introduction
The report gives the summary of the GSM and WCDMA. The main concern of the report is to
fully describe the operations, maintenance and configuration of the following network elements,
BSC, TRC, MSC, MGW and GPRS.

AXE Node
The AXE telephone exchange is a line of products of circuit switched digital telephone
exchanges. AXE system has a dual processor system, both of which run together so that even if
one of them fails there is no disruption of services. The system handles all kinds of landline and
mobile telephone networks like GSM, WCDMA and international telephony traffic. In the AXE
system the computer control system is called APZ. AXE is divided into these two parts APZ and
APT.

Interfaces
In Radio Access Network there are four kinds of interface and they are Air interface, Abis
interface, A-ter interface and A interface. There are basically two methods of building interfaces.
2Mbs PCM (E1) interface it is a physical channel that is divided into 32 timeslots, each having
a bit rate of 64Kbps.
2Mbs PCM (T1) interface which is a physical channel that is divided into 24 timeslots, each
having a bit rate of 64Kbps.
Air Interface
This interface operates between the BTS and the MS. It uses the Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA) to transmit and receive traffic and signaling information. The TDMA technique is used
to divide each carrier into eight timeslots. These timeslots are then assigned to specific users,
allowing up to eight conversations to be handled simultaneously by the same carrier.
Abis Interface
This interface is responsible for transmitting traffic and signaling information between the BTS
and BSC. The transmission protocol used for sending signaling information on the A-bis
interface is called Link Access Protocol on the D channel (LAPD) and there is 3 different
protocol formats that can be used to carry traffic on the A-bis interface:
LAPD Unconcentrated

LAPD Concentrated
LAPD Multiplexing
In LAPD Unconcentraed, the channel used for signaling of 64Kbps is transmitted first and then it
is accompanied by two 64Kbps channels each carrying four 16Kbps sub-multiplexed voice or
data channels.
A-ter interface
A-ter interface is the link between the TRC and the BSC. In the TRC speech is transcoded from
64Kbps to 16Kbps whereby 13Kbps is used for traffic and 3Kbps is used for signaling.
.
PCM Link Devices
Media Gate Way
The Media Gateway for Mobile Networks (M-MGw) connects the Mobile Core Network with
external networks such as WCDMA and GSM Radio Access Networks, PSTN, Private
Automatic Branch Exchanges (PABXs), IP Multimedia Subsystem or Voice over IP (IMS/VoIP)
networks or other Mobile Networks. It resides in the connectivity layer of the core network and it
is remotely controlled by the MSC-Server using Gateway Control Protocol (GCP). MGW use
standard protocols and it is able to communicate with other nodes using TDM, ATM and IP
networks.
IP signaling
M-MGW supports IP (IP version 4) traffic and signaling both over fast Ethernet and Gigabit
Ethernet. M-MGW provides payload transport over IP for Nb, lu and Mb interfaces as well as
signaling over IP.
Interfaces
M-MGW has several interfaces to connect to other network elements;
Nb interface
It is an interface that connects the M-MGW to another M-MGW, the IP bearer connections over
the Nb interface are made with the help of IP Bearer Control Protocol (IPBCP) and IP payload is
carried over these protocols NbUP/RTP/UDP/IPv4/Ethernet.The diagram below shows Protocol
stack for Nb interface.

NbUP : is a protocol used between two MGWs and is used to carry user payload traffic (64
Kbps PCM of data or compressed speech).
RTP : Real Time Transfer Protocol is used to transport user data, maintain delivery order of
packets and specify timestamp of a packet.
UDP : is a protocol used to multiplex the IP payload traffic.
IPV4: it is a protocol that used for storing addressing information and some control
information of packets, this would enable the packets to be routed in the network.
Ethernet: is used for transportation and connection.

lu Interface
It is an interface that connects the MGW and the Radio Access Network. IP bearer connection
over the lu interface are made possible by the help of Gateway Control Protocol (GCP) , Radio
Access Network Application Part (RANAP) and payload luUP/RTP/UDP/IP.The figure below
shows the protocol stack for lu interface

luUP

lu User Plane is a framing protocol used to convey or support the user data that is

associated to Radio Access Bearers.


Mb Interface
It is an interface that connects MGW to IP Multimedia Subsystems (I MS) network. In this
interface the IP payload is transported directly over RTP. The protocol stack of Mb interface is
shown below.

Node Element manager


Its a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that is used to manage the M-MGW by using Managed
Objects (MO).The main tasks in node manager is the fault management, software management
and configuration management of the MGW

Managed Objects in MGW


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

ATM
Devices
Equipment
MGW Application
Signaling
Software management
Synchronization
System Configuration
TDM

Signaling
Signaling refers to the exchange of information between call components required to provide and
maintain service. In GSM network, type of signaling that is used is called SS7 signaling. SS7 is a
global standard for telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). The standard defines the procedures
and protocols by which network elements in the public switched telephone network (PSTN)
exchange information over a digital signaling network to effect wireless and wired call setup,
routing and control. Signaling network consist of Signaling Point (SP), Signaling Transfer Point
(STP) and Signaling Link (SL)

Signaling Link
Signaling Link is defined as a bidirectional channel that carries SS7 messages and exchange it
between network elements over 65kbps. Signaling links occurs out of band on dedicated
channels rather than in band channel that carry voice. Signaling link provides with the following
functions, faster call setup times, efficient use of voice circuits and support Intelligent Network
(IN) services.
Signaling Point
Signaling Point in SS7 is identified by a numeric point code. Point codes are used to identify the
source and the destination of each message in SS7. There are 3 types of signaling point:
a) Service Switching point (SSP) is responsible for terminating or originating calls. It
sends a message to another SSP to set up, manage and release voice circuits needed to
complete a call.
b) Signal Transfer Point (STP) routes each incoming message to an outgoing signaling
link based on the routing information contained in the SS7 messages.
c) Signaling Control Point (SCP) serves as the interface to the telephone company
database.
The figure below shows the architecture of SS7

Protocol stack of SS7


SS7 protocol stack provides a set of rules in which data or information is transmitted and
received over data communication network. SS7 protocol stack maps Open System Interconnect
(OSI) model. SS7 is divided into 4 separate layers. The first three layers Physical, data and
network layer make what is called Message Transfer Part (MTP). MTP is responsible for
transmitting messages between signaling nodes.

Physical layer or MTP level 1 this layer is used for physical connection. It converts the digital
data into bit stream transmission. It is defined for use by different interfaces.
Data layer or MTP level 2 used for error detection or correction. It ensures accurate end to end
transmission of a message across a signaling link.
Network Layer or MTP level 3 provides message routing between signaling points in SS7
network. It is also responsible for message discrimination (determines to whom the message is
addressed).
User and Application Parts This layer is made up of the following protocols, SCCP, TUP, ISUP
and TCAP
SCCP Signaling Connection Control Part provides connectionless and connection oriented
network services and Global Title Translation
(GTT) capabilities. CTT is a mechanism whereby the destination signaling point is
determined by the digits present in the signaling message.
TUP Telephone User Part is used to handle analog circuits used to carry voice traffic.
ISUP ISDN User Part is used to set up and manage trunk circuits used to carry voice and Data
calls over Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
TCAP Transaction Capabilities Applications Part support exchange of non circuit of related
data applications across the network using SCCP. IT also enables use of intelligent
network services.

MSC Daily Routine Commands


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

Prcstate, cluster node and alist checks the state and alarms on APG40.
Allip:acl=a1 prints the alarm list of class A1 only.
Gdstp prints the status of the Group Switch.
Nsstp and caclp cheks the clock reference.
Syrip:survey prints software recovery information.
Exrpp:rp=all cheks the status of the Regional Processor.
Exemp:em=all,rp=all cheks the status of the External modules.
C7ltp:ls=all checks the status of all the defined link sets.
C7rsp:dset=all prints the routing data for all destination.
C7ncp:ssn=all,sp=all prints network configuration data for all Signaling
Point (SP) in SCCP network.
k) Ntstp:snt=all prints the state of the Switching Network Terminal.
l) Tpstp:sdip=all prints the state of all Synchronous Digital Paths.
m) Dtstp:dip=all prints the state of the Digital Path.
n) Strsp:r=all check the status of all defined routes.
o) Blorp used to check all the blocked route.
p) Ahstp:atmport=all prints the state of all defined ATM ports.
q) Dbtsp:tab=saactions checks pending Size Alteration Event (SAE).
r) Dbtsp:tab=saefaults checks the SAE faults.
s) Erepp:enum=all prints event reporting data for all specified event numbers.

General Packet Radio Services


General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is network that offers packet data services to Global
System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
(WCDMA) systems. GPRS provides with the following functions; efficient transport of packets
in cellular network, Connectivity to other external Packet Data Networks (PDNs) using IP, it also
provides with simultaneous Circuit Switched and Packet Switched services. The backbone of
GPRS is built on 2 GPRS Support Nodes (GSN) known as Serving GPRS Serving Node (SGSN)
and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).
Overview of GPRS for GSM

Overview of GPRS for WCDMA

Serving GPRS Support Node


SGSN handles all packet switched data within the network. It also provide with mobility and
session control for the mobile station. SGSN has several interfaces connecting it to other network
elements.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)

Gb Interface connects the SGSN to the BSC in GSM network.


Gf Interface connects the SGSN to the Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
Gn Interface connects the SGSN to the GGSN
Gr Interface connects the SGSN to the HLR.
Gs Interface connects the SGSN to the MSC/VLR
lu Interface connects the SGSN to the RNC in WCDM network. It can also be simplified
into 2 parts where there is lu-C interface that connects signaling messages to the RNC
and lu-U interface that connects user data to the RNC.

Each of the interfaces uses the protocols in order to allow transfer of packets from one node to
another. The picture below shows the protocols used in GPRS network.

GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) is used to handle mobility issues such as roaming.
Sub Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) provides services to high layers
which may include connectionless and connection oriented mode.
Logical Link Control (LLC) is used for multiplexing of protocols such that they can be carried
on the same network medium, it also ensures reliable flow control and helps in error correction.
Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) handles paging request form the SGSN to
the BSS and it also provides with flow control between the SGSN and the BSS.
Network Service (NE) manages the convergence sub layer that operates between the BSSGP
and the Frame Relay.

WCDMA Mobility Management


a) PMM Detached the MS in this state it is not attached. The MS location is not known and
it is not reachable by the SGSN.

b) PMM Connected in this state the MS is attached. The MS location is known with the
accuracy of the serving Radio Network Controller (RNC) and there is no paging required
to reach the MS
c) PMM Idle in this State the paging is required to reach the MS because the location of the
MS is known by the SGSN with an accuracy of the serving RA.