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Motion and dimensional measurement

By

Aj. Somchai Triratanajaru M.Eng.


KMUTT,
B.Eng
KMITL
Term 1/2553
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LECTURE OUTLINE
1. Standards and Calibration
2. Relative Displacement: translational and

rotational
3. Relative Velocity: translational and rotational
4. Relative Acceleration Measurements
5. Seismic-(Absolute-)Displacement Pickups
6. Seismic-(Absolute-)Velocity Pickups
7. Calibration of Vibration Pickups
8. Jerk Pickups
9. Angular-Displacement Sensors
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LECTURE OUTLINE
10. Coordinate-Measuring Machines
11. Surface-Finish Measurement
12. Machine Vision
13. The Global-Positioning

*Major part of this presentation are from


Measurement Systems, Ernest O. Doebelin
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1.Standards and calibration


Fundamental standard.

Length standards-> wavelength of kypton-86.


(fundamental standard, ultimate standard)
Atomic clock-> atomic resonators cesium-133
Calibration.
For application standards (engineering
applicable) will be inform in each section.

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Relative displacement : Translational


and Rotational
Calibration
-Static calibration via micrometers 0.01 mm
gage blocks
12 micro-m
laser interferometer
0.6 nm

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Transducer applications of displacement


(basic for the others variable)

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Resistive Potentiometers (single-turn, multi-turn,


linear and rotating translation)

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Potentiometer loading effect (Linearity, power loss)

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Construction of wire-wound resistance


(resolution)

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Conductive-plastic potentiometer.

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Magneto-resistive displacement
transducer.

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Un-bonded strain gage (metal)

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Metal wire under extension force


A

A-dA

L+dL

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Resistance Strain Gage.


R=L/A -> dR=(A(dL+Ld)- LdA)/A2
(a)
V=AL -> dV=AdL + LdA
(b)
Also, (from static engineering)
(c)
dV = L(1+)A(1- )2 AL
:unit strain, : Poissons ratio.
And, (from numerical approximation) when
is small, (1- )2 -> 1- 2, (b)=(c)
dV = AL(1-2) = AdL + LdA
-2AdL= LdA
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Resistance Strain Gage..


dR=(AdL+LAd + 2AdL)/A2
dR=(dL(1+2))/A + (Ld)/A
dR/R = (dL/L)(1+2) + d/
Gage factor or GF -> (dR/R)/(dL/L)
= 1 + 2 + (d/)/(dL/L)
(a:)
(b:)
(c:)
a: R change due to length change
b: R change due to area change
c: R change due to piezo-resistance effect
(GF is + with metal with semi-conductor)
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Resistance Strain Gage

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Resistance Strain Gage.

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Resistance Strain Gage..

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Foil strain gages

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Foil strain gages..

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Foil strain gages

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Strain-gage rosettes

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SG Signal conditioning

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Strain-gage temperature compensation

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Stability of SG

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SG displacement transducers and


extensometer

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Extensometer analysis

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Weld able strain gage

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Differential
Transformers

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Methods for Null Reduction

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Demodulation & Filtering.

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Demodulation & Filtering..

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Demodulation & Filtering

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LVDT: Signal Conditioning

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Industrial type LVDT

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LVDT Application

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Application..

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Application

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Application.

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Inside LVDT

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Inside LVDT..

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Inside LVDT

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Real LVDT

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Small LVDT

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Integrated electronics

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On-board LVDT

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AC Servomechanism

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Synchos

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Resolver and digital converter

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Variable-inductance pickup

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Variable inductance accelerometer

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Micro-Syn

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Eddy current non-contact


transducers

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Target-Material Effect on EddyCurrent Transducer

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Capacitance Pickups

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Frequency Response of Capacitive


Sensor

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Differential-Capacitor Pressure Pickup

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Feedback-Type Capacitive Pickup

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Feedback-Type Capacitive Pickup..

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Capacitive Pickup: Signal Processing

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Capacitive Pickup: Signal Processing..

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Piezoelectric Transducer

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Piezoelectric Transducer

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Piezoelectric Transducer..

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Three-Component Piezoelectric Force


Transducer

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Fiber-Optic Displacement Transducer

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Laser Dimensional Gauge

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Michelson Interferometer

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Self-Scanning Diode Arrays and


Cameras

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Homographic

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Homographic..

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Nozzle Flapper

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Nozzle Flapper..

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Translational and Rotary Encoders

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Schematic diagram

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Translational and Rotary Encoders..

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Disk image form

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Translational and Rotary Encoders..

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Translational and Rotary Encoders

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Output wave form of incremental


encoder

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Linear encoder (open type)

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Linear encoder (enclosure type)

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Resolution of Displacement Sensors

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Ultrasonic Displacement Transducer

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Velocity-Calibration Setup

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Average Velocity Measurement from


x/t : Magnetic Pickup

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Average Velocity Measurement from


x/t : Photodetectors

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Average Velocity Measurement from


x/t : Hall-Effect Proximity Pickup

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Fly-ball Angular-Velocity Sensor

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Moving-Coil and Moving-Magnet


Velocity Pickup

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Moving-Coil and Moving-Magnet


Velocity Pickup..

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Tachometer Generators

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Drag-Cup Velocity Pickup

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Translational and Rotational Seismic


Pickups

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Coordinate-Measuring Machines

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Touch Probe

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Surface-Finish Measurement

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Optical Surface-Finish Measurement

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Machine Vision: Applications and


Features

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Light sheet Applications

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Integration of Machine Vision into


Manufacturing System

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Further reading and more exercises


Text.
Process control Instrumentation
technology
Curtis D. Johson

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