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BAB II
SHALLOW FOUNDATION ON SOIL LAYERS
1. Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Soil Layers
Foundation on soil layers means the thickness of soil below the foundation H<2B,
and another soil exist below it.
For Soft clay upper the stiff clay, Vesic proposed the ultimate bearing capacity as
follows
qult = c (1) Nm +Df
Net
qultnet = c (1) Nm
where :
c (1) = cohesion for first layer
Nm = bearing capacity factor
Df = depth of foundation
= unit weight of first layer soil

Df
B

Tanah diatas dasar pondasi

Tanah lempung lapis atas


sat Cu1 u1
Tanah lempung lapis bawah
Cu2
sat
u

Figure II.1 Foundation on clay layers


For soft clay under the stiff clay, bearing capacity factors (Nm ) given in Tabel II.1.
Vesic suggested a reduction factor for c (1) if clay has sensitivity around 2, that is c
replaced by 0,75 c (1).
If stiff clay above soft clay, bearing capacity (Nm) factor can be derived by
Nm = 1/ + (c2/c1) cNc

(with Nm cNc)

where :

= penetration index = BL/[2H (B + L)]

(1)

is

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= distance between second layer surface to the foundation base (H<B)

L, B = length and width of foundation


cNc = Nc = bearing capacity factors, considering correction factor in shape of foundation
c(1), c(2) = cohesion first and second layers
For circular and square foundation, = B/(4H) where Nc = 6.17
For strip foundation, = B/(2H) where Nc = 5,14
Tabel II.1a Vesic bearing capacity factors Nm, for rectangular foundation L/B 5
c2/c1
B/H
2
4
6
8
10
20

1
5,14
5,14
5,14
5,14
5,14
5,14
5,14
1,5
5,14
5,31
5,45
5,59
5,70
6,14
7,71
2
5,14
5,43
5,69
5,92
6,13
6,95
10,28
3
5,14
5,59
6,00
6,38
6,74
8,16
15,42
4
5,14
5,69
6,21
6,69
7,14
9,02
20,56
5
5,14
5,76
6,35
6,90
7,42
8,66
25,70
10
5,14
5,93
6,69
7,43
8,14
11,40
51,40

5,14
6,14
7,14
8,14
9,14
14,14

Tabel II.1b Vesic bearing capacity factors Nm, for square and circular foundation (L/B =1)
c2/c1
B/H
4
6
8
10
20
40

1
6,17
6,17
6,17
6,17
6,17
6,17
6,17
1,5
6,17
6,34
6,49
6,63
6,76
7,25
9,25
2
6,17
6,46
6,73
6,98
7,20
8,10
12,34
3
6,17
6,63
7,05
7,45
7,82
9,36
18,51
4
6,17
6,73
7,26
7,75
8,23
10,24
24,68
5
6,17
6,80
7,40
7,97
8,51
10,88
30,85
10
6,17
6,96
7,74
8,49
9,22
12,58
61,70

6,17
7,17
8,17
9,17
10,17
15,17

Example 2.1
Rectangular foundation 2 m x 3 m on the clay layers suface. cu 1 = 0.5 kg/cm2 and cu2 =
0.7 kg/cm2. Thickness of first layer is 1 m. Calculate ultimate bearing capacity.
Solution :

B=2 m
H=1 m

Tanah lempung lapis atas

sat1=1,8 kg/cm3

Cu1=0,5 kg/cm2

u1

Tanah lempung lapis bawah

sat=2 kg/cm3

Cu2=0,75 kg/cm2

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Figure C 2.1
H = 1m ; B = 2,0 m ; cu(1) = 0,5 kg/cm2; cu(2)= 0,75 kg/cm2
cu(2) / cu(1) = 0,75/0,5 = 1,5
B/H = 2,0/1 = 2,0
From Table II.1a Nm = 5,14
q ult = Cu (1) Nm = 0,5 x 5,14 = 2,57 kg/cm2 = 25,7 t/m2
Example 2.2
Circular foundation with diameter of 4,0 m on clay layer. cu 1 = 8 t/m2 , sat1 = 2 t/m3 ,and
cu2 = 2 t/m2. sat2 = 2 t/m3 . Calculate ultimate bearing capacity
Solution:

Df=1m

Tanah lempung lapis atas

B=2 m
H=1 m

sat1=1,8 t/m3
Cu1=8 t/m2
u1
Tanah lempung lapis bawah

sat=2 t/m3

Cu2=2 t/m2

Figure C 2.2
Circular foundation H = 1m ; B = 4,0 m ; cu(1) = 8 t/m2; cu(2)= 2 t/m2
cu(2) / cu(1) = 2 / 8 = 0,25
cNc = Nc = 6,17
= B/(4H) = 4/(4x1) =1
Nm = 1/ + (cu(2) / cu(1)) cNc = 1/1 + 0,25 x 6,17 = 2,54
Nm = 2,54 < cNc (OK !)
qult = cu (1) Nm + Df sat = 8 x 2,54 +( 1x2) = 22,32 t/m2
Net :

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qultnet = cu (1) Nm = 8 x 2,54 = 20,32 t/m2


2. Foundation bearing capacity on soil layer granular soil above clay
Clay soil tend to receive a distribution pressure in a method of 2V : 1H. The first
layer acts as fiction foundation with effective with of :
Bf = B + H
quf = c2 Nc + 1 (Df+H) Nq + 0,5 2 Bf N
where :
quf = ultimate bearing capacity with effective width Bf
c1, c2 = cohesion
1, 2 = unit weight
Df = depth of foundation
H = distance between foundation base and the surface of second layer
Bf = B + H
Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors

Tanah diatas dasar pondasi

Df
B

Tanah lapis 1 = tanah granular

Bf=B+H

C1=0

Tanah lapis 2 = tanah lempung

C2=cu

Figure II.2 Foundation on soil layers considering effective with.


Actual Ultimate bearing capacity for strip foundation (qult) with effective with B
and depth of Df, take into account soft soil effect will be :
Bf
B

qult = (quf 1H)

For rectangular foundationi panjang (BxL), :

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Bf Lf
BL

qult = (quf 1H)

Example 2.3
Square foundation 1,5 m x 1,5 m on 2 m dense sand that laid above a thick homogeneous
clay. Sand have = 45, c = 0, and d = 1,65 t/m3. Clay have cu = 3 t/m2 and u = 0. If the
depth of foundation 1 m and ground water table is at clay surface, calculate the bearing
capacity of foundation
Solution:
Effective width: Bf = B + H = 1,5 +1 = 2,5 m

Tanah pasir

D=1
m
f
B=1,5 m

t/m
C1=0

H=1 m

Bf=2,5 m

=45o
Tanah lapis 2 = tanah lempung

sat=2 t/m3

C2=3 t/m2

Figure C2.3
Using Terzaghi analysis for square foundation = 0
From Table Nc = 5,7 ; Nq = 1 ; N =0
quf = 1,3 c2 Nc + 1 (Df + H) Nq + 0,4 2 Bf N
= (1,3 x 3 x 5,7) + 1,65 (1 + 1) 1 + 0 = 25,53 t/m2
Ultimate bearing capacity with width of B :
B f Lf
BL

qult = (quf d H)

= ( 25,53 1,65 x1)[(2,5x2,5)/(1,5x1,5)] = 66,3 t/m2

qultnet = qult Df d = 66,3 (1 x1,65) = 64,65 t/m2


allowable bearing capacity :
qs = (64,65/3) + (1 x 1,65) = 23,53 t/m2

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2.3 Bearing Capacity on soil layer, soil below the foundation bordered by a very stiff
soil.
Mandel and Salencon (1969) give a formula of:
qult = c c Nc + q po Nq + 0,5 B N
where:
qult = ultimate bearing capacity of strip foundation
c = cohesion of upper soil
po = Df = overburden pressure at foundation base
Df = depth of foundation
= unit weight of soil
B = foundation width
Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors
c,q, = coefficient of increasing bearing capacity.

Lapisan keras

Figure II.3 Foundatio on the soil above the infinite very stiff soil
Tabel II.2a Coefficient c dan q (Mandel and Salecon,1969)

B/H

=1, for
B/H<1,41
=1, for
B/H<1,12
=1, for
B/H<0,86
=1, for
B/H<0,63

10
20
30

1,01
1,01
1,13
1,12

10

1,02
1,00
1,11
1,07
1,39
1,33
2,50
2,42

1,11
1,00
1,35
1,21
2,12
1,95
6,36
6,07

1,21
1,00
1,62
1,37
3,29
2,93
17,4
16,5

1,30
1,00
1,95
1,56
5,17
4,52
50,2
47,5

11,41
1,00
2,33
1,79
8,29
7,14
150
142

1,59
1,00
3,34
2,39
22,0
18,7
1444
1370

1,78
1,00
4,77
3,25
61,5
51,4
14800
14000

Note: upper isi c. below isilai q.


Tabel II.2b Coefficient (Mandel and Salecon,1969)

B/H

0
10

= 1 for any B/H


=1, for
B/H<4,07

10

1,01

1,04

1,12

1,36

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20
30

=1, for
B/H<2,14
=1, for
B/H<1,30

1,20

1,07

1,28

1,63

2,20

4,41

9,82

2,07

4,23

9,90

24,8

178

1450

Example 2.4:
Square foundation 2 m x 2 m on the depth ofn 1 m, as Figure below. Calculte bearing
capacity.
Solution:

Df=1 m
m.a.t

B=2 m

Tanah lapis 1
b= 1,9 t/m3

c=1 t/m2

H=1 m Tanah lapis 2


= 0,98 t/m3

c=2 t/m2

lapisan batu
Figure C2.4
po = Df b = 1 x 1,9 = 1,9 t/m2
B/H = 2/1 =2
For = 20 , Table Terzaghi Nc = 17,7 ; Nq = 7,4 ; N = 5,0
From Table II.2, c = 1,39; q = 1,33; = 1
qult =1,3 c c Nc + q po Nq + 0,4 B N
qult = (1,3 x 1,39 x 2 x 17,7) + (1,33 x 1 x 1,9 x 7,4 ) + (1 x 0,4 x 0,98 x 2 x 5,0)
= 86,59 t/m2
Alowable:
qs =

qultnet
86,59 (1x1,9)
(1x1,9) 30,13 t/m2
Df =
3
SF

2.4 Foundation on Dense sand above looase sand.


a) If dense sand is thick (Meyerhof and Hanna, 1978).
qult = qult(t) = 1 Df Nq (1) + 1 B N (1) , for strip foundation
qult = qult(t) = 1 Df Nq(1) + 0,3 1 B N (1), for circular and square foundation
qult = qult(t) = 1 Df Nq(1) + (1-0,4B/L) 1B N(1) , for rectangular foundation

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where : 1 = unit weight of first soil


Nq (1), N (1) = bearing capacity factors of Vesic / Meyerhof

Df
B
H

Pasir padat;
c1 = 0, f 1 ,g1 ,

Pasir lepas;
c2 = 0, f 2,g2 ,

Figure II.4 Failure plane at a thick dense sand


b) If there is thin dense sand, the punching failure occurs
qult = qult(b) + 1 H2 (1+

2D f
H

qult = qult(b) + 2 1 H2 (1+

K s tan 1
1 H qult(t) ( for strip foundation )
B
2D f
H

K s tan 1 '
s 1 H qult(t) ( for circular and square
B
foundation)

qult = qult(b) + ( 1 + B/L ) 1 H2 (1+

2D f
H

K s tan 1 '
s 1 H qult(t) ( for rectangular
B
foundation)

where :
Ks = punching shear coefficient ( see Figure II.6)
s = shape factor ~ 1.
qult(t) = ultimate bearing capacity for upper layer
qult(b) = ultimate bearing capacity for lower layer
qult(b) = 1 ( Df + H) Nq(2) + 2 B N(2) ; for strip foundation
qult(b) = 1 (Df + H) Nq(2) + 0,3 2 B N(2) ; for circular and square foundation
qult(b) = 1 (Df + H) Nq(2) + (1-0,4 B/L ) 2 B N(2) ; for rectangular foundation

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Df
B

Pasir padat;
c1 = 0, f 1 ,g1 ,

Pasir lepas;
c1 = 0, f 2,g2

Figure II.5 Punching shear failure

Figure II.6 value Ks with (2N(2))/ (1N(1))


2.4 Foundation on sand layers Loose layer above dense layer
a)

If the thickness of loose layer (H) greater than width of foundation (B), the surface

failure completely in the loose layer. Bearing capacity :


qult = qult ( t ) = 1 Df Nq(1) + 1 B N(1) ; for stri foundation

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qult = qult( t) = 1 Df Nq(1) + 0,3 1 B N(1) ; for circular and square foundation
qult = qult(t) = 1Df Nq(1) + (1-0,4 B/L) 1 B N(1) ; for rectangular foundation
b)

If H < B, Meyerhof and Hanna (1978) suggested :

qult = qult(t) + ( qult(b) qult(`t) ) [ 1

H 2
]
Hf

qult(b) = 2 Df Nq (2) + 2 B N(2) ; for strip foundation


qult(b) = 2 Df Nq (2) + 0,3 2 B N (2) ; for circular and square foundation
qult(b) = 2 Df Nq (2) + [1-0,4 B/L ] 2 B N(2) ; for rectangular foundation
where :

2 = unit weight soil at lower layer


Nq(2), N(2) = for lower soil layer
Hf = depth of failure plane, for practical Hf 2 B.
Note for this condition qult(t) qult qult(b)

Df

Pasir lepas;
c1 = 0, f 1,g1 ,

B
H

Hf

Pasir padat;
c2= 0, f 2 ,g2,

Figure II.7 Failure plane at loose layer continue to dense layer

Example 2.5
Square foundation on soil layer as Figure below. Find the maksimum load from column
that can be hold by the foundation if safety factor = 3.

Df=1,5 m

1=18 kN/m3

B=1,5 m
H=1 m

C1=0
1
=16,7 kN/m3
C2=0

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Figure C2.5
Solution :
Upper Sand layer is dense, because 1 = 40o > 2 = 320, also 1 > 2.
Hence :
qult = qult(b) + 2 1 H2 (1+

2D f K s tan 1 '
s 1H
)
H
B

Where : qult(b) = 1 ( Df + H) Nq(2) + 0,3 2 B N(2)


For 2 = 320 , from Meyerhof Nq(2) = 23,18 and N(2) = 30,22
qult(b) = 18 x (1,5 + 1) x (23,18) + (0,3 x 16,7 x 1,5 x 30,22) = 1270,2 kN/m2
For 1 = 400 , from Meyerhof Nq (1) = 64,20 and N(1) = 109,41
2 N (2)
1 N (1)

16,7x30,22
0,256
18x109,41

From graphic for 1 = 400, and

2 N ( 2)
0,256 , Ks = 5. If s= 1, Hence :
1 N (1)

qult = 1270,2 + (2 x 18 x 12 )[ 1+(2 x 1,5)/1][(5 x tan 40)/1,5](1)- (18 x1)


= 1654,8 kN/m2
Control qult qult(t)
qult(t) = 1 Df Nq(1) + 0,3 1 B N(1)
= (18 x 1,5 x 64,20) + (0,3 x 18 x 1,5 x 109,41) = 2619,62 kN/m2
qult < qult(t) ( OK !)
Net :
qultnet = qult - 1 Df = 1654,8 (18 x 1,5) = 1627,8 kN/m2
Maximum load column (SF = 3)
Pmaks =( qultnet/SF) x A =(1627,8/3) x ( 1,5 x 1,5) = 1220,85 kN

Example 2.6:

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Calculte allowable bearing capacity for the foundation 4 m x 6 m by SF = 3

1=16 kN/m3

Df=3 m

C1=0

B=4 m

H=2 m
=19 kN/m3

C2=0

Figure C2.6
Solution :
1 < 2 and 1 < 2, upper sand is loose, hence:
qult(b) = 2 Df Nq(2) + [ 1 0,4 B/L ] 2 B N(2)
For 2 = 400 ; table Meyerhof Nq(2) = 64,20 ; N(2) = 109,41
qult(b) = 19 x 3 x 64,20 + [ 1 (0,4 x 4/6)] x (19 x 4 x 109,41) = 6708,29 kN/m2
qult(t) = 1 Df Nq(1) + [ 1 0,4 B/L ] 1 B N(1)
For 1 = 300 ; table Meyerhof Nq(1) = 18,4 ; N(1) = 22,4
qult(t) = 16 x 3 x 18,4 + [ 1 (0,4 x 4/6)] x (16 x 4 x 22,4) = 1934,51 kN/m2
With Hf = 2B, bearing capacity :
qult = qult(t) + [ qult(b) - qult(t)] [ 1 H/Hf] 2
= 1934,51 + [ 6708,29 1934,52 ] [ 1 2 / (2x 4)]2 = 4619,76 kN/m2
Net :
qultnet = qult Df 1 = 4619,76 (3 x 16) = 4571,76 kN/m2
Allowable SF = 3)
qs = 1/3(qultnet ) + Df 1 = 1/3(4571,76) + (3 x 16) = 1571,92 kN/m2

Latihan :
1. Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung P maksimum yang mampu
didukung pondasi tersebut, bila digunakan factor aman 3.
Pmax

Df=0,8 m

Tanah lempung lapis atas

B=2 m

Cu1=o,5 kg/cm2
u1

H=1 m
Tanah lempung lapis bawah

Cu2=0,7 kg/cm2

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2. Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung factor aman yang terjadi bila
pondasi dibebani P = 100 t
P=100 t

Df=0,8 m

Tanah lempung lapis atas

u1

Cu1=4 t/m2

B=2 m
H=1 m
Tanah lempung lapis bawah

Cu2=2 t/m2

3. Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung factor aman yang terjadi bila
pondasi dibebani P = 100 t
P=100 t

Df=0,8 m

Tanah l Pasir

C=0

B=2 m

1 t/m3

H=1 m
sat2 t/m3

Tanah 2 lempung

Cu2=2 t/m2

4. Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung factor aman yang terjadi bila
pondasi dibebani P = 100 t
P=100 t

Df=0,8 m

Tanah l Pasir berlempung

C=2 t/m2

B=2 m

1 t/m3

H=1 m
Lapisan batu

49

5. Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung factor aman yang terjadi bila
pondasi dibebani P = 100 t
P=100 t

Df=0,8 m

Tanah l Pasir

C1=0 t/m2

B=2 m

d t/m3

H=1 m
Muka air tanah
Tanah 2 Pasir

sat2 t/m3

C2=0 t/m2

6. Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung factor aman yang terjadi bila
pondasi dibebani P = 100 t
P=100 t

Df=0,8 m

Tanah l Pasir

C1=0 t/m2

B=2 m

d t/m3

H=1 m
Muka air tanah
Tanah 2 Pasir

sat2 t/m3

C2=0 t/m2

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UJIAN TENGAH SEMESTER GENAP 2007/2008


Mata Kuliah
WAKTU
SIFAT

: REKAYASA PONDASI II
: 90 menit
: BUKU TERBUKA

TULIS NO URUT PRESENSI ANDA DI SUDUT KANAN ATAS


1. Suatu bangunan dirancang dengan menggunakan pondasi lajur memanjang, Beban pondasi 750 kN/m,
pondasi terletak pada tanah homogen dengan b = 18 kN/m3 , = 8 kN/m3, C = 13 kN/m2 dan = 25 0 .
a. Tentukan lebar pondasi bila kedalaman pondasi 1 m, muka air tanah pada kedalaman 3 m, dan faktor
aman 3
b. Dari ukuran pondasi yang diperoleh, hitunglah faktor amannya bila muka air tanah naik sampai dasar
pondasi.

Df
3m

Df
B

mat

mat

51

Suatu bangunan akan didirikan pada suatu lokasi dengan hasil uji SPT diperlihatkan pada tabel di bawah.
Dari hasil pengeboran diketahui tanah berupa pasir padat sampai sedang dengan muka air tanah pada
kedalaman 1,5 m. Pondasi direncanakan berukuran 5 m x 10 m dengan kedalaman pondasi 1 m. Bila
diinginkan penurunan pondasi 1 berapa beban maksimum yang dapat didukung sesuai kriteria
keruntuhan dan penurunan? Nilai rata- rata b = 17 kN/m3 dan = 10 kN/m3.
Kedalaman (m)
1,5
2,5
3,5
4,5
5,5
6,5

N
10
9
12
19
22
25

B=5m

1m
1,5 m

mat

Diketahui pondasi bujursangkar seperti gambar. Hitung faktor aman yang terjadi bila
pondasi dibebani P = 500 t
3.

P=500 t

Df=0,8 m

Tanah l Pasir

C1=0 t/m2

B=2 m

d t/m3

H=1 m
Muka air tanah
Tanah 2 Pasir

sat2 t/m3

C2=0 t/m2