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Handout # PS2 Solution

Advanced Fluid Mechanics Problems by Shapiro and Sonin

Problems 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.13, 4.18, 4.19, 4.21, 4.23, 4.24, 4.28.

Problem 4.4

Refer to Figure 1 for the schematic. The flow is 1D, inviscid and incompressible. Gravi-

dS

n

x

p

A1

A(x)

A2

A(x)

A(x) + dA

x+dx

tational effects are negligible.

(a) Applying Bernoullis equation along a streamline from location x to location 2,

p2 u22

p(x) u2 (x)

+

=

+

2

p(x) p(a) =

u2 u2 (x)

2

!

Q2 1

1

p(x) p(a) =

2

A22 A2 (x)

(b) We consider a differential volume between x and x + dx. The cross sectional areas are

respectively A(x) and A(x) + (dA/dx)dx. The nozzle wall area onto which the pressure

x

= p(x) dA,

acts is dS so that the corresponding force xcomponent is dFx = p(x)dS n

is the unit vector normal to dS and pointing into the wall. The total force

where n

component in the x direction is

Fx =

Z 2

1

dFx =

Z A2

pdA =

A1

Fx = Q2

(A1 A2 )

2A1 A22

Z A2

Q2 1

A1

1

dA

2

2

A2 A (x)

If A %, dA > 0 u & p %

If A &, dA < 0 u % p &

Problem 4.7

Refer to Figure 2 for the schematic.

pa, a

pa

ua

uf

The fuel-air mass flow rate ratio is

m

f

f uf (d2 /4)

=

=

m

a

a ua (D2 /4)

d

a ua

=

D

f uf

!1/2

In order to determine the ration ua /uf , we apply Bernoullis equation along two stream

lines, one for air from the ambient to location 1 in the vicinity of the fuel jet and one for

fuel from the reservoir to location 1.

pa

p1 u2a

=

+

a

a

2

pa

p1 u2f

=

+

f

f

2

for air

for fuel

so that

ua

=

uf

f

a

!1/2

Then

d

a

= 1/2

D

f

!1/4

Problem 4.8

Refer to Figure 3 for the schematic. The flow is inviscid and incompressible.

F

D1

u1

D2

u2

(a) We apply Bernoullis equation along a stream line starting from location 1 the top of

the bellows and ending at location 2 at the nozzle exit.

p1 u21

pa u22

+

=

+

2

p1 pa =

u2 u21

2

F

2

=

u2 u21

A1

2

(1)

Next we apply the conservation of mass in integral form for a control volume that is

moving with the piston

D22

d

(V) + u2

=0

dt

4

4 dV

u2 =

D22 dt

By also applying conservation of mass in integral form for fixed control volume we find

the relation

u1 D12

u2 D22

D2

u1 =

D1

4 dV

D22 dt

1/2

D22

dV

1

2F

=

4

dt

4

A1 1 D2

D1

Integrating from t = 0 to t = at which V = 0,

D1

= V 2

D2

D1

' V 2

D2

2

F

2

F

1/2

1/2

D2

1

D1

4 !1/2

(b) For STP air with V = liter, D1 = 10 cm, D2 = 1 cm, and F =2kgf: = 0.2 s.

Problem 4.9

Refer to Figure 4 for the schematic. The flow is inviscid and steady.

d

g

h

Ta + T

Ta

(a) We apply Bernoullis equation along the stream line 2 3:

Z 3

2

dp +

Z 3

2

g z ds +

Z 3

1

u2 ds = 0

1

(p3 p2 ) + H g h + u23 ' 0

2

1

g h (a H ) ' H u23

2

"

!#1/2

a

u3 ' 2 g h

1

H

T

u3 ' 2 g h

Ta

6

1/2

(b) In the case the cap is closed,

Z 3

2

dp +

Z 3

Z 3

1

u2 ds = 0

2

(p3 p2 ) + H g h ' 0

p3 ' pa H g h

p3 p3a ' g h (a H )

T

(p)cap ' a g h

Ta + T

2

g z ds +

H R (Ta + T ).

Problem 4.10

Refer to Figure 5 for the schematic. The flow is inviscid and quasi-steady.

V

pa

p(t)

2

u2

A

1

We apply Eulers equation along a streamline from 1 inside the vessel to 2 at the exit

Z 2 u

1 2

2

+ g(z2 z1 ) +

u u1 +

ds = 0

2 2

1 t

Z 2

dp

1

1, u1 = 0. Then

2

Z 2

dp

1

R 2 u

1 t ds ' 0. At location

= u22

(2)

Now we find an expression for u2 by employing the integral form of the conservation of

mass for a fixed control volume

d

d

V d

(V) + u2 A = 0 V

+ u2 A = 0 u2 =

dt

dt

A dt

(3)

!1/2

Z 2

dp

1

V d

A dt

(4)

2R Ta

!1/2

Z 2

dp

1

2R Ta ln

p

pa

p

!1/2

V dp

p1

=

2R Ta ln

A dt p

p2

!1/2

V dp

A dt p

V dp

A

1

(2R Ta )1/2 dt =

dp

p 1/2

A dt p

V

p ln

pa

p, we get

A

(2R Ta )1/2 t = 2

V

"s

pi

ln

pa

p

ln

pa

!1/2

Z 2

dp

1

V d

A dt

2 pi

1 i

! 1 1/2

!1/2 ! 1

pa

p

pi

pi

V dp

A dt p

! 1

!1/2

! 1 1/2

p

pa

pi

dt = p1

dp

2

1 i

pi

pi

Performing Taylor series expansion in p0 /pa around zero and integrating from t = 0 to t

yields

A

2 pi

1 i

!1/2

t=

p0 =

p0 1/2

i

2

0 1/2

0 1/2

p

p

i

( pa )1/2

pa

where = ( 1)/.

1/2

A

V

pi

i

!1/2 2

t

Problem 4.13

Refer to Figure 6 for the schematic. The flow is two-dimensional, inviscid and steady.

air, pa

z

g

s

ds

dx

zs - zw

(a) We consider a stream line along the free surface, Eulers equation in differential form

is

1 dp

d

1 d(u2 )

+ (gzs ) +

=0

ds ds

2 ds

where the subscript s denotes the free-surface. Since p ' pa on the surface, then

g

dzs 1 d(u2 )

+

=0

ds

2 ds

g

dzs 1 d(u2 )

+

=0

dx

2 dx

Conservation of mass

Q = uh

!

1 d(u2 )

1 d Q2

Q2 dh

u2 dh

=

=

2 dx

2 dx h2

h3 dx

h dx

Noting that h ' zs zw then

u2

dzs

'

g

dx

h

dzs

'

dx

dzs dzw

dx

dx

u2

gh

u2

gh

10

tan

u

1

+ (u ) u = p + g

t

1

u ( u) = (u u) (u ) u

2

Noting that = u then

u

1

1

u = p (gz) |u|2

t

2

Next we take the curl of the above equation

1

u =

p

t

u = u( ) + ( )u ( u) (u )

Noting that = 0 and u = 1 D

from the continuity, then

Dt

1

D

+ (u ) = ( )u +

p

t

Dt

D D

1

= ( )u

p

Dt

Dt

(aA) = a( A) + (a) A

so that

1

1

1

1

p = ( p) +

p = 2 p

So that

D D

1

= ( )u + 2 p

Dt

Dt

Noting that

D

D D

=

Dt

Dt

Dt

Then

D

Dt

= ( )u +

1

p + Fb

2

Analysis of equation (17)

22

(17)

D

= ( )u

Dt

(18)

( )u = 0

(19)

0), then

D

Dt

23

(20)

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