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MECH 660 Advanced Fluid Mechanics

American University of Beirut, Spring 2004

March 17, 2004


Handout # PS2 Solution

Problem Set 2 Solution: Inviscid Flow


Advanced Fluid Mechanics Problems by Shapiro and Sonin
Problems 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.13, 4.18, 4.19, 4.21, 4.23, 4.24, 4.28.
Problem 4.4
Refer to Figure 1 for the schematic. The flow is 1D, inviscid and incompressible. Gravi-

dS

n
x
p

A1

A(x)

A2

A(x)

A(x) + dA

x+dx

Figure 1: Schematic of Problem 4.4


tational effects are negligible.
(a) Applying Bernoullis equation along a streamline from location x to location 2,
p2 u22
p(x) u2 (x)
+
=
+

2
p(x) p(a) =
u2 u2 (x)
2
!
Q2 1
1
p(x) p(a) =

2
A22 A2 (x)
(b) We consider a differential volume between x and x + dx. The cross sectional areas are
respectively A(x) and A(x) + (dA/dx)dx. The nozzle wall area onto which the pressure
x
= p(x) dA,
acts is dS so that the corresponding force xcomponent is dFx = p(x)dS n
is the unit vector normal to dS and pointing into the wall. The total force
where n
component in the x direction is
Fx =

Z 2
1

dFx =

Z A2

pdA =

A1

Fx = Q2

(A1 A2 )
2A1 A22

Z A2
Q2 1
A1

1
dA
2
2
A2 A (x)

(c) The product p dA has always the same sign.


If A %, dA > 0 u & p %
If A &, dA < 0 u % p &

Problem 4.7
Refer to Figure 2 for the schematic.

pa, a

pa
ua

uf

Figure 2: Schematic of Problem 4.7


The fuel-air mass flow rate ratio is
m
f
f uf (d2 /4)
=
=
m
a
a ua (D2 /4)

d
a ua

=
D
f uf

!1/2

In order to determine the ration ua /uf , we apply Bernoullis equation along two stream
lines, one for air from the ambient to location 1 in the vicinity of the fuel jet and one for
fuel from the reservoir to location 1.
pa
p1 u2a
=
+
a
a
2
pa
p1 u2f
=
+
f
f
2

for air
for fuel
so that
ua
=
uf

f
a

!1/2

Then

d
a
= 1/2
D
f

!1/4

Problem 4.8
Refer to Figure 3 for the schematic. The flow is inviscid and incompressible.

F
D1

u1

D2

u2

Figure 3: Schematic of Problem 4.8

(a) We apply Bernoullis equation along a stream line starting from location 1 the top of
the bellows and ending at location 2 at the nozzle exit.
p1 u21
pa u22
+
=
+

2
p1 pa =
u2 u21
2

F
2

=
u2 u21
A1
2

(1)

Next we apply the conservation of mass in integral form for a control volume that is
moving with the piston
D22
d
(V) + u2
=0
dt
4
4 dV
u2 =
D22 dt
By also applying conservation of mass in integral form for fixed control volume we find
the relation

u1 D12

u2 D22

D2
u1 =
D1

4 dV
D22 dt

Substituting expression for u1 and u2 into equation (1)

1/2

D22

dV
1

2F
=

4
dt
4
A1 1 D2
D1
Integrating from t = 0 to t = at which V = 0,
D1
= V 2
D2
D1
' V 2
D2

2
F

2
F

1/2
1/2

D2
1
D1

4 !1/2

(b) For STP air with V = liter, D1 = 10 cm, D2 = 1 cm, and F =2kgf: = 0.2 s.

Problem 4.9
Refer to Figure 4 for the schematic. The flow is inviscid and steady.

d
g
h

Ta + T

Ta

Figure 4: Schematic of Problem 4.9


(a) We apply Bernoullis equation along the stream line 2 3:
Z 3
2

dp +

Z 3
2

g z ds +

Z 3
1

u2 ds = 0

1
(p3 p2 ) + H g h + u23 ' 0
2
1
g h (a H ) ' H u23
2
"

!#1/2
a
u3 ' 2 g h
1
H

T
u3 ' 2 g h
Ta
6

1/2

where p3 p2 = a g h, 2 = 3 = H , u22 << u23 , and pa = a RTa = H R (Ta + T ).


(b) In the case the cap is closed,
Z 3
2

dp +

Z 3

Z 3
1

u2 ds = 0
2
(p3 p2 ) + H g h ' 0
p3 ' pa H g h
p3 p3a ' g h (a H )
T
(p)cap ' a g h
Ta + T
2

g z ds +

where p2 = pa , p3a = pa a g h, 2 = 3 = H , u2 ' 0, u3 = 0 and pa = a RTa =


H R (Ta + T ).

Problem 4.10
Refer to Figure 5 for the schematic. The flow is inviscid and quasi-steady.

V
pa
p(t)
2

u2

A
1

Figure 5: Schematic of Problem 4.10


We apply Eulers equation along a streamline from 1 inside the vessel to 2 at the exit
Z 2 u
1 2
2
+ g(z2 z1 ) +
u u1 +
ds = 0

2 2
1 t

Z 2
dp
1

We neglect gravitational effects. The flow is quasi-steady so that


1, u1 = 0. Then
2

Z 2
dp
1

R 2 u
1 t ds ' 0. At location

= u22

(2)

Now we find an expression for u2 by employing the integral form of the conservation of
mass for a fixed control volume
d
d
V d
(V) + u2 A = 0 V
+ u2 A = 0 u2 =
dt
dt
A dt

(3)

Substituting expression for u2 (equation (3)) into equation (2)

!1/2
Z 2
dp
1

V d
A dt

(4)

(a) We employ p = R Ta and noting that d/ = dp/p then

2R Ta

!1/2
Z 2
dp
1

2R Ta ln

p
pa

p
!1/2

V dp
p1
=
2R Ta ln
A dt p
p2

!1/2

V dp
A dt p

V dp
A
1
(2R Ta )1/2 dt =
dp
p 1/2
A dt p
V
p ln
pa

where p2 = pa , p1 = p(t), p0 (t) = p(t) pa . Integration from t = 0 to t and p from pi to


p, we get
A
(2R Ta )1/2 t = 2
V

"s

pi
ln
pa

p
ln
pa

(b) We start with equation (4 )

!1/2
Z 2
dp
1

V d
A dt

Noting that p/pi = (/i ) d/ = (1/)dp/p then

2 pi
1 i

! 1 1/2
!1/2 ! 1

pa
p

pi

pi

V dp
A dt p

! 1
!1/2
! 1 1/2

p
pa
pi
dt = p1

dp

2
1 i

pi

pi

Performing Taylor series expansion in p0 /pa around zero and integrating from t = 0 to t
yields
A

2 pi
1 i

!1/2

t=

p0 =

p0 1/2
i

2
0 1/2
0 1/2

p
p
i
( pa )1/2

pa

where = ( 1)/.

1/2

A
V

pi
i

!1/2 2
t

Problem 4.13
Refer to Figure 6 for the schematic. The flow is two-dimensional, inviscid and steady.

air, pa
z
g
s

ds
dx

zs - zw

Figure 6: Schematic of Problem 4.13


(a) We consider a stream line along the free surface, Eulers equation in differential form
is
1 dp
d
1 d(u2 )
+ (gzs ) +
=0
ds ds
2 ds
where the subscript s denotes the free-surface. Since p ' pa on the surface, then
g

dzs 1 d(u2 )
+
=0
ds
2 ds

One the surface ds = dx/ cos s so that


g

dzs 1 d(u2 )
+
=0
dx
2 dx

Conservation of mass
Q = uh

!
1 d(u2 )
1 d Q2
Q2 dh
u2 dh

=
=

2 dx
2 dx h2
h3 dx
h dx
Noting that h ' zs zw then
u2
dzs
'
g
dx
h
dzs

'
dx

dzs dzw

dx
dx

u2
gh
u2
gh

where tan = dzw /dx.


10

tan

Vorticity form of Eulers equation

Eulers equation in differential form is


u
1
+ (u ) u = p + g
t

We invoke the identity


1
u ( u) = (u u) (u ) u
2
Noting that = u then
u
1
1
u = p (gz) |u|2
t

2
Next we take the curl of the above equation

1
u =
p
t

We invoke another identity

u = u( ) + ( )u ( u) (u )
Noting that = 0 and u = 1 D
from the continuity, then
Dt

1
D
+ (u ) = ( )u +

p
t
Dt

D D
1

= ( )u
p
Dt
Dt

We invoke the identity


(aA) = a( A) + (a) A
so that

1
1
1
1

p = ( p) +
p = 2 p

So that
D D
1

= ( )u + 2 p
Dt
Dt

Noting that
D
D D

=
Dt
Dt
Dt
Then
D

Dt

= ( )u +

1
p + Fb
2

where body force Fb was included in the equation.


Analysis of equation (17)
22

(17)

If the body force is conservative ( Fb = 0) and the flow is incompressible, then


D
= ( )u
Dt

(18)

If additionally the flow is steady


( )u = 0

(19)

If the body force is conservative (Fb = 0) and the flow is barotropic (p =


0), then
D
Dt

23

(20)