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Flow of a viscous fluid between one stationary and one moving plate is a Couette Flow.
The report covers the following methods of finding the Couette flow solution:
• Exact Analytical Approach
• Implicit Numerical Approach using Crank-Nicolson Technique

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RASIKH TARIQ

Introduction

Flow of a viscous fluid between one stationary

and one moving plate is a Couette Flow.

Shear stresses

yy

y

zy

z

xy

x

= 0. Using this

becomes:

p

=0

y

The governing x-direction momentum equation is:

MOVING PLATE - COUETTE FLOW

The report covers the following methods of

finding the Couette flow solution:

Implicit Numerical Approach using CrankNicolson Technique

Du

p xx yx zx

= +

+

+

+ fx

Dt

x

x

y

z

stresses will be in x-direction on a plane

perpendicular to y-axis and as a result shear

stresses xx = zx = 0. Ignoring all the body

forces, the x-direction momentum equation

becomes:

separated by the vertical distance D. The upper

plate is moving at a velocity ue , and the lower

plate is stationary i.e. u = 0. The flow between

the two plates is driven exclusively by the shear

stress exerted on the fluid by the moving upper

plate resulting in a velocity profile. The velocity

profile is linear for steady conditions.

u

u

u

u yx

+ u + v + w

=

t

x

y

z

y

becomes:

u

u

u

u yx

+ v + w

=

x

y

z

y

u

u

Dv

p xy yy zy

= +

+

+

+ fy

Dt

y

x

y

z

Whereas:

Dv

v

v

v

v

= + u + v + w = 0

Dt

t

x

y

z

u

equation is left with:

yx

=0

y

Using the viscous Newtonian fluid assumption, the

above equation can be expressed as:

u

( ) = 0

y y

-3

12

Or

x 10

incompressible, Newtonian and steady flow. The

exact solution is given by:

u = c1 y + c2

Using boundary condition at y = 0 we have u = 0,

we get c2 = 0.

Using boundary condition at y = D we have u =

ue, we get c1 = ue /D.

The solution becomes:

u

y

=

ue D

10

0

-0.01

y = linspace(0,D,500);

for i=1:1:500

U(i)=(ue*y(i))/D;

end

plot (y,U)

legend ('Couette Flow Velocity Profile','Fontsize',12')

xlabel ('Width Between Plates (m)',' Fontsize ',12')

ylabel ('Velocity Profile (m/s)',' Fontsize ',12')

axis ([-0.01 0.06 -0.001 0.012])

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

using Crank-Nicolson Technique

A time marching procedure is chosen. For this

purpose, an unsteady, incompressible, Couette

flow x-direction momentum equation will be:

the Matlab Code:

clc

clear

%Workspace and Command History Cleared

ue = 0.01 %Velocity of Upper Plate moving with 0.01m/s

D = 0.05 %Separation Distance between plate. 5cm

Eq. (1)

The general classification of a second order partial

differential equation with two variables is:

A

2 u

2 u

2 u

u

u

+

B

+

C

+ D + E + Fu

2

2

t

t y

y

t

y

= G(t, y)

By comparison, we get:

A = 0,

B = 0,

C=

nature.

The numerical formation must be developed for

any dimension and velocity of Couette Flow so Eq.

(1) must be in a dimensionless format. Defining

0.06

u =

u

ue

y =

=

y

D

D

ue

un+1

unj

j

t

1 n+1

1

1 n+1

n

n+1

n

n

1 2 (uj+1 + uj+1 ) + 2 (2uj + 2uj ) + 2 (uj1 + uj1)

=

()2

ReD

Or

u

(u )

e

u

2 (u ) u

ue 2

e

e

( )=

2 (D2 )

y

D

t

(D)

(D )

ue

un+1

= unj +

j

t

(un+1 + unj+1 2un+1

j

2()2 ReD j+1

n

2unj + un+1

j1 + uj1 )

un+1

= unj +

j

Or

u

2 u

=

t ue D y 2

Here the term

ue D

get:

u

1 2 u

=

t

ReD y 2

For simplicity and ease of writing the

mathematical formulas consider:

u

1 2 u

=

t

ReD y 2

However u, t and y are the representative of

dimensionless forms of u, t and y .

u

equation, and the term

2 u

y2

equation becomes:

un+1

unj

j

t

=

()2

ReD

n represents time marching direction. Rewriting

the equation using Crank-Nicolson technique by

using the averaging of terms:

t

un+1

2()2 ReD j+1

t

+

un

2()2 ReD j+1

t

2un+1

2()2 ReD j

t

2un

2()2 ReD j

t

+

un+1

2()2 ReD j1

t

+

un

2()2 ReD j1

left side of the above equation:

Further rearranging by taking n + 1 terms on the

left side of the above equation:

t

t

un+1

[

] un+1

] 2un+1

j

j+1 + [

j

2

2() ReD

2()2 ReD

t

[

] un+1

2()2 ReD j1

t

= unj + [

] un

2()2 ReD j+1

t

[

] 2unj

2()2 ReD

t

+[

] un

2()2 ReD j1

[

] +

] +

+ [ +

()

()

[

] +

() +

= [

]

()

+[

] (+ + )

()

The above equation becomes:

+

+

+ +

+

+ =

Au1n+1 + Bun+1

+ Aun+1

= K2

2

3

Modified format is:

Bun+1

+ Aun+1

= K 2 Au1n+1

2

3

The second equation for this system (j = 3) is:

Aun+1

+ Bun+1

+ Aun+1

= K3

2

3

4

The third equation for this system (j = 4) is:

Eq. (2)

Aun+1

+ Bun+1

+ Aun+1

= K4

3

4

5

The fourth equation for this system (j = 5) is:

Provided:

A=

t

2(y)2 ReD

t

B=1+

(y)2 ReD

And

Aun+1

+ Bun+1

+ Aun+1

= K5

4

6

5

The fifth equation for this system (j = 6) is:

Aun+1

+ Bun+1

+ Aun+1

= K6

6

7

5

Or

t

K = [1

] un

(y)2 ReD j

t

+[

] (unj+1 + unj1 )

2(y)2 ReD

Aun+1

+ Bun+1

= K 6 Aun+1

6

7

5

The results (velocity distribution) can be attained

by solving the resulting matrix.

+

+

=

+

] +

[ ] [ +

]

give the velocity profile.

References

Figure 2 Labeling of Points for the Grid

equations for the 7 nodes will be written. It can be

seen in the boundary condition that:

u1 = 0

and

uN+1 = 0

Fluid Dynamics: The Basics with Applications.

McGraw Hill, Inc.

Munson, Young, Okiishi, Huebsch (2008).

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.

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