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1.

What do diffusion and osmosis have in common?


A.

They only happen in living cells.

B.

They require transport proteins in the membrane.

C.

They are passive transport mechanisms.

D.

Net movement of substances is against the concentration gradient.


(Total 1 mark)

2.

PanI is a gene in cod fish that codes for an integral membrane protein called pantophysin.
Two alleles of the gene, PanIA and PanIB, code for versions of pantophysin, that differ by four
amino acids in one region of the protein. Samples of cod fish were collected from 23 locations
in the north Atlantic and were tested to find the proportions of PanIA and PanIB alleles in each
population. The results are shown in pie charts, numbered 123, on the map below. The
proportions of alleles in a population are called the allele frequencies. The frequency of an allele
can vary from 0.0 to 1.0. The light grey sectors of the pie charts show the allele frequency of
PanIA and the black sectors show the allele frequency of PanIB.

[RAJ Case et al. 2005. Macro- and micro-geographic variation in pantophysin (PanI) allele frequencies in NE
Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. MEPS. Vol 301. Pp 267278. Figs 1 and 3.]

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(a)

(i)

State the two populations with the highest PanIB allele frequencies.
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(1)

(ii)

State the population in which the allele frequencies were closest to 0.5.
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(1)

(b)

Deduce the allele frequencies of a population in which half of the cod fish had the
genotype PanIA PanIA, and half had the genotype PanIA PanIB.
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(1)

The graphs below show the latitude and the mean surface sea temperature in June of the
sampling locations and the frequency of the PanIA allele.

[RAJ Case et al. 2005. Macro- and micro-geographic variation in pantophysin (PanI) allele frequencies in NE
Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. MEPS. Vol 301. Pp 267278. Figs 1 and 3.]

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(c)

State the relationship between


(i)

latitude and the frequency of the PanIA allele.


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(1)

(ii)

mean surface sea temperature in June and the frequency of the PanIA allele.
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(1)

(d)

Suggest how natural selection could have caused the relationships shown in the graphs.
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(2)

(e)

The sites close to Iceland, at a latitude of 6065, had very varied allele frequencies, with
both PanIA and PanIB occurring. The water at these sample sites was highly stratified,
with much warmer water at the surface and much colder water below. Suggest reasons for
both PanIA and PanIB alleles occurring at these sites.
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(2)

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(f)

Using the data in this question, predict the effects of global warming on cod fish
populations.
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(2)
(Total 11 marks)

3.

The electron micrograph below shows the ultrastructure of part of an animal cell.

[Source: Reproduced with the kind permission of the Electron Microscopy Facility, Trinity College, Hartford,
Connecticut, USA, and Professor Daniel G. Blackburn.]

(a)

Identify the structure labelled I.


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(1)

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(b)

Explain briefly how materials produced in the structure labelled I are transported to the
plasma membrane.
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(2)

(c)

Outline the function of the mitochondria in the cell.


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(2)

(d)

Suggest why the two labelled mitochondria are different shapes in the micrograph.
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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

4.

What route is used to export proteins from the cell?


A.

Golgi apparatus rough endoplasmic reticulum plasma membrane

B.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus plasma membrane

C.

Golgi apparatus lysosome rough endoplasmic reticulum

D.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum lysosome Golgi apparatus


(Total 1 mark)

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5.

In a cell, what is the effect of a large surface area to volume ratio?


A.

Slower rate of exchange of waste materials

B.

Faster heat loss

C.

Faster rate of mitosis

D.

Slower intake of food


(Total 1 mark)

6.

(a)

Outline the bonding between DNA nucleotides.


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(2)

(b)

Explain how chemical bonding between water molecules makes water a valuable coolant
in living organisms.
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(2)

(c)

Describe the movement of water across membranes.


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(2)

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(d)

State the role of water in photosynthesis.


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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

7.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Compare simple diffusion with facilitated diffusion as mechanisms to transport solutes


across membranes.
(5)

(b)

Describe the process of endocytosis.


(5)

(c)

Explain how an impulse passes along the membrane of a neuron.


(8)
(Total 20 marks)

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8.

What is the function of the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane of this bacterium?

A.

To produce ADP

B.

To form the only protective layer preventing damage from outside

C.

To control entry and exit of substances

D.

To synthesize proteins
(Total 1 mark)

9.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Eukaryotic cells have intracellular and extracellular components. State the functions of
one named extracellular component.
(4)

(b)

Outline, with an example, the process of exocytosis.


(5)

(c)

Translation occurs in living cells. Explain how translation is carried out, from the
initiation stage onwards.
(9)
(Total 20 marks)

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10.

(a)

The scanning electron micrograph below shows the surface of the nuclear envelope with
numerous nuclear pores.

[Source: adapted from D Nelson and M Cox, (2000), Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, third edition, page 35]

(i)

Calculate the power of magnification of the image.


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(1)

(ii)

State the diameter of the pore labelled X.


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(1)

(b)

List two examples of how human life depends on mitosis.


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(1)

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(c)

Describe the importance of stem cells in differentiation.


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(3)

(d)

The graphs below show the normal menstrual cycle.

[Source: adapted from www.mivf.com.au/ivf/infertility/images/cyclediagram.GIF]

(i)

Predict, with a reason, how the graphs will change if the woman becomes pregnant.
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(2)

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(ii)

List two roles of testosterone in males.


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(1)
(Total 9 marks)

11.

What does facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane require?


A pore protein

ATP

A concentration gradient

A.

yes

no

no

B.

no

no

yes

C.

yes

no

yes

D.

no

yes

no
(Total 1 mark)

12.

When observing the behaviour of a vesicle in a cell, what identifies it as a vesicle only involved
in exocytosis?
A.

Adhesion between two lipid bilayers

B.

Fusion of two membranes

C.

Secretion of material

D.

Invagination of a plasma membrane


(Total 1 mark)

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13.

What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion?

Simple diffusion

Facilitated diffusion

A.

Rate decreases with increasing


concentration gradient

Rate increases with increasing


concentration gradient

B.

Faster movement of molecules

Slower movement of molecules

C.

Always involves a membrane

Never involves a membrane

D.

Uses any part of a membrane

Uses channels in the membrane


(Total 1 mark)

14.

The diagram below shows a plasma membrane. What is molecule X?

A.

Cholesterol

B.

Peripheral protein

C.

Glycoprotein

D.

Polar amino acid


(Total 1 mark)

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15.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of a membrane.


(5)

(b)

Outline how vesicles are used to transport materials secreted by a cell.


(6)

(c)

Explain how the structure of a villus in the small intestine is related to its function.
(7)
(Total 20 marks)

16.

(a)

State the property of stem cells that makes them useful in medical treatment.
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(1)

(b)

Explain how multicellular organisms develop specialized tissues.


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(2)

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(c)

Outline some of the outcomes of the sequencing of the human genome.


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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

17.

Which of the following is not a function performed by a membrane protein?


A.

Hormone binding sites

B.

Cell adhesion

C.

Enzyme synthesis

D.

Pumps for active transport


(Total 1 mark)

18.

Cells in the adrenal gland produce the hormone epinephrine and store it in vesicles. To release
epinephrine these vesicles are carried to the plasma membrane and fuse with it. What process is
occurring?
A.

Expulsion

B.

Exchange

C.

Excretion

D.

Exocytosis
(Total 1 mark)

19.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

IB Questionbank Biology

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(a)

Draw a labelled diagram to show the fluid mosaic structure of a plasma membrane,
indicating the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
(5)

(b)

Distinguish between active and passive movements of materials across plasma


membranes, using named examples.
(4)

(c)

Explain how the properties of water are significant to living organisms.


(9)
(Total 20 marks)

20.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw a labelled diagram to show the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli.


(5)

(b)

Distinguish between active and passive movements of materials across plasma


membranes, using named examples.
(4)

(c)

Explain how chemiosmosis assists in ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation.


(9)
(Total 20 marks)

21.

(a)

Define osmosis.
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(1)

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(b)

Outline how transport occurs across membranes by facilitated diffusion.


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(2)

(c)

Explain how the properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell
membranes.
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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

22.

Which of the following is a feature of exocytosis but not endocytosis?


A.

Shape changes of a membrane

B.

Vesicle formation

C.

Use of ATP

D.

Secretion
(Total 1 mark)

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23.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw a labelled diagram showing the structure of a plasma membrane.


(4)

(b)

Outline the role of chlorophyll and the effects of temperature, light intensity and carbon
dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.
(6)

(c)

Explain the production of energy during aerobic respiration from pyruvate that has been
produced by glycolysis.
(8)
(Total 20 marks)

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