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Copper
Tube Fittings
TYPES OF JOINTS
Flared Joint The principle of the flared joint was first developed
for copper tube plumbing in 1928 by NIBCO. The flared type joint is
wholly a mechanical means of joining copper tubes. The tube nut is
placed over the end of the copper tube to be joined; the tube end then
is flared out at an approximate 45 degree angle by a flaring tool. The
flared end is then drawn up by the tube nut so the inside surface is
tightly secured against the ball seat of the fitting. This joint can be
readily dismantled at any time and is, in effect, a type of union
connection. Its use is generally restricted to soft (annealed) copper
tubes since hard drawn tubes would be subject to splitting when
flared (if the ends were not previously annealed). The flared ends of
NIBCO Flared Fittings are produced to the requirements of ASME
B16.26, Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tube.
Solder Joint NIBCO pioneered the development of
the solder joint and its application to the field of copper tube piping.
Today the solder joint is widely adopted, as evidenced by the
majority of cities and states that have written codes to include
copper tube and solder joints as desirable for general plumbing,
water lines, vent, stack, waste and drain lines, as well as other uses
in industry. Testing has shown that often the solder joint has greater
strength than the tubes being joined, depending upon the soldering
alloy selected. While the method of preparing a solder joint is an
exacting art to insure a full strength joint, it can be readily mastered
by skilled tradesmen. It is for this reason to insure the public of
the protection afforded by properly prepared joints that NIBCO
products are marketed through the reputable sources of supply to the
piping trades. Important procedures for preparing a solder joint are
graphically illustrated in this catalog on page 95.
Brazed Joint This type of joint has long been used wherever and
whenever critical situations have been encountered in copper piping.
The joint itself is completed much in the same manner as the solder
joint; however, considerably more heat and several refinements of
technique require separate procedures that are described further in
this catalog on pages 96-97.
Threaded Ends To adapt copper tube to equipment having
National Standard Pipe Taper (NPT) threads or to add copper tube to
existing iron pipe installations or other threaded connections, NIBCO
provides fittings having both external and internal NPT threads.
These threaded ends are produced to the requirements of ASME
B1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch).

connections, or to add copper tube to flanged pipe installations or


other purposes, NIBCO provides flanges. The flanges are produced in
two standard types widely used in this field where copper tube can
serve Class 150, comply with ASME B16.24, Cast Copper Alloy
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500
and 2500; and Class 125, which conform to MSS SP 106, Cast
Copper Alloy Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 125, 150 and 300.
Barbed Insert Fittings for Polybutylene (PB) NIBCO offers a
complete line of copper barbed insert fittings for joining PB tube. The
insert fittings are produced to the requirements of ASTM F 1380.
Along with the insert fittings are copper crimp rings, which, when
properly installed, provide a leak-tight mechanical joint. Transition
fittings are available for adapting to new or existing threaded or
solder joint ends.
Barbed Insert Fittings for PEX NIBCO offers a complete line of
copper barbed insert fittings for joining PEX tube. The insert fittings
are produced to the requirements of ASTM F 1807. Along with the
insert fittings are copper crimp rings, which, when properly installed,
provide a leak-tight mechanical joint. Transition fittings are available
for adapting to new or existing threaded or solder joint ends.
Fitting Terms and Abbreviations
C
Ftg
F
M
Hose
Hub
Spigot
No Hub
O.D. Tube
S
SJ
FL

Female solder cup


Male solder end
Female NPT thread
Male NPT thread
Standard hose thread
Female end for soil pipe
Male end for soil pipe
Used with mechanical coupling
Actual tube outside diameter
Straight thread
Slip joint
Flared

Flanges To adapt copper tube to equipment having flanged

42

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WHAT MAKES A PLUMBING SYSTEM FAIL?


Failure in a copper plumbing system is rare, but may occur due to a variety

ABBREVIATED EMF SERIES

of reasons. The most common causes of failure are:

(Electromotive-Force Series; Common Piping Materials in Sea Water)

CATHODE (+) Passive


1. Excessive fluid velocity causes erosion-corrosion or impingement (to strike
or hit against) attack in the tube and/or fitting. For this reason, the copper
plumbing industry has establish design velocity limits for copper plumbing
systems to the following:
Hot Water > 140F (60C)
2 to 3 feet per second
(0.6 to 0.9 meters per second)
Hot Water 140F (60C)
4 to 5 feet per second
(1.2 to 1.5 meters per second)
Cold Water
5 to 8 feet per second
(1.5 to 2.4 meters per second)
2. Localized high velocities and/or turbulence. The presence of a dent, tube
ends which are not reamed or deburred before soldering, and sudden
changes in direction can all cause localized high velocity conditions.
3. Flux Corrosion is typified by pin hole leaks, generally in the bottom of a
horizontal line. Fluxes are mildly corrosive liquid or petroleum-based
pastes containing chlorides of zinc and ammonia. Unless the flux is
flushed from the system, it will lay in the bottom of the tube and remain
active. ASTM B 813, Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering Applications
of Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube, limits the corrosivity of soldering
fluxes and ensures that these fluxes are flushable in cold water, which
facilitates easy removal of flux residue following installation.
4. Galvanic Corrosion may be defined as the destruction of a material by
electrochemical interaction between the environment and the material.
Generally, it is slow but persistent in character and requires the presence
of dissimilar metals. Galvanic corrosion requires the flow of an electric
current between certain areas of dissimilar metal surfaces. To complete
the electric circuit, there must be two electrodes, an anode and a cathode,
and they must be connected by an electrolyte media (water) through
which the current can pass. The amount of metal which dissolves at the
anode is proportional to the number of electrons flowing, which in turn is
dependent upon the potential and resistance of the two metals. The use
of dissimilar metals in a plumbing system may or may not create a
problem. For instance, copper and steel are perhaps the most common
dissimilar metals found together in a plumbing system. In closed systems,
such as a chilled or heating water piping, the use of dissimilar metals may
not create a serious problem; this is because there is virtually no oxygen
in the water and corrosion relations tend to be stifled. Where dissimilar
metals must be used, some codes require that they should be separated
by dielectric union or a similar type of fitting. The effectiveness depends
upon; distance between the metals on the electromotive-force series
(EMF) chart, ratio of cathode to anode area, degree of aeration, amount of
agitation, temperature, presence of dissolved salts, and other factors.

GOLD Fixtures, Faucets, Plating


PLATINUM
SILVER Brazing alloys, Silver-bearing solders
TITANIUM Condenser tubes
MONEL (67% Ni - 33% Cu) Specialty piping & equipment
CUPRO-NICKEL Condensers, Marine, Nuclear
COPPER Pressure, DWV, Gases, Air, Refrigeration, etc.
BRASS (85/15 - Red) Cast fittings, Valves
BRASS (70/30 - Yellow) Gas-cocks, Fittings, Connectors
LEAD Solder, Pipe, Sheet, Coating, Lining
TIN Solders, Coating, Lining
CAST IRON Pressure, DWV
WROUGHT IRON Pressure
MILD STEEL Fire Protection
ALUMINUM Refrigeration, Irrigation, some Solar
GALVANIZED STEEL Pressure, DWV
ZINC Coatings, Linings, some Fittings
MAGNESIUM Water Heater Anodes, Cathodic protection for pipelines

ANODE (-) Active; Sacrificial Material


5. Dezincification is a type of corrosion in which brass dissolves as an alloy
and the copper constituent redeposits from solution onto the surface of the
brass as a metal, but in the porous form. The zinc constituent may be
carried away from the brass as a soluble salt, or may be deposited in place
as an insoluble compound. Dezincification is normally associated with
brass valves where the zinc content exceeds 15%. Generally, areas of high
stress, such as valve stems and gate valve bodies, are primary targets of
attack.
6. On rare occasion problems of corrosion by aggressive water, possibly
aggravated by poor design or workmanship, do exist. Aggressive, hard well
waters that cause pitting can be identified by chemical analysis and treated
to bring their composition within acceptable limits. Typically these hard
waters are found to have high total dissolved solids (t.d.s.) including
sulfates and chlorides, a pH in the range of 7.2 to 7.8, a high content of
carbon dioxide (CO2) gas (over 10 parts per million, ppm), and the presence
of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) gas. Soft acidic waters can cause the annoying
problem of green staining of fixtures or green water. Raising the pH of
such waters to a value of about 7.2 or more usually solves the problem, but
a qualified water treatment specialist should be consulted.
7. Aggressive soil conditions can be a cause for external corrosion of copper
piping systems. Non-uniform soil characteristics, such as different soil
aeration, resistivity, or moisture properties, between adjacent sections of
tube can create galvanic corrosion cells. Soils contaminated with high
concentrations of road salts or fertilizers containing ammonia, chlorides,
and nitrogen are known to combine with water to form acids. Any metal
pipe laid in ash or cinders is subject to attack by the acid generated when
sulfur compounds combine with water to form sulfuric acid.

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Copper Tube Fittings continued


SOLDER JOINT SPECIFICATION
1. Soldering Clearance (between the outside of the tube and the
inside diameter of the solder cup) and the Depth of the Solder
Cup (into which the tube is inserted).
Chart 1 Soldering Clearance and Solder Cup Depth
Nominal
Size
of Fitting
(Inches)
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6

Maximum
I.D. of
Fitting
Inch (mm)

Minimum
O.D. of
Tube
Inch (mm)

0.381
(9.66) 0.374
(9.50)
0.506 (12.85) 0.499 (12.67)
0.631 (16.03) 0.622 (15.85)
0.756 (19.20) 0.749 (19.02)
0.881 (22.38) 0.872 (22.20)
1.132 (28.75) 1.123 (28.54)
1.382 (35.10) 1.373 (34.88)
1.633 (41.48) 1.623 (41.22)
2.133 (54.18) 2.123 (53.92)
2.633 (66.88) 2.623 (66.62)
3.133 (79.58) 3.123 (79.32)
3.633 (92.28) 3.623 (92.02)
4.133 (104.98) 4.123 (104.72)
5.133 (130.38) 5.123 (130.12)
6.133 (155.78) 6.123 (155.52)

Maximum
Clearance
for Soldering
Inch (mm)
0.007
0.007
0.009
0.007
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010

(0.18)
(0.18)
(0.18)
(0.18)
(0.18)
(0.216)
(0.216)
(0.25)
(0.25)
(0.25)
(0.25)
(0.25)
(0.25)
(0.25)
(0.25)

Depth of
Solder Cup
Inch (mm)
0.31
0.38
0.50
0.62
0.75
0.91
0.97
1.09
1.34
1.47
1.66
1.91
2.16
2.66
3.09

(7.9)
(9.7)
(12.7)
(15.7)
(19.1)
(23.1)
(24.6)
(27.7)
(34.0)
(37.3)
(42.2)
(48.5)
(54.9)
(67.6)
(78.5)

The National Bureau of Standards Report BMS58, Strength of Soft-Soldered Joints in Copper
Tubing, reporting on tests conducted with 3/4-inch tubing and fitting, says When the
clearance is greater than 0.010 inch (0.25 mm), there is difficulty in filling the joint properly.

2. Depth of Solder Penetration drastically affects the breaking


load of the joint. When there is too great a soldering clearance,
there is no capillary flow to assure complete solder penetration.
As shown in the chart below, the holding power of the 3/4-inch
joint is directly proportional to the depth of solder penetration.

HOW TO BE SURE OF PROPER TOLERANCES


It is apparent that all of the scientific apparatus used to test tube
and fittings, according to the dimensions indicated in Chart 1, would
be impractical to use on the job. It is therefore essential that you
install tube and fittings manufactured by companies known to be
dedicated to the highest quality control standards. Should you
encounter a condition where there is difficulty in filling the joint
properly, NIBCO will analyze the trouble without charge. Just send
six inches of the tube, along with the fitting and our technicians will
provide you with an authoritative report.

For example: If you get only one-third penetration, you get


approximately one-third the strength needed to assure complete
satisfaction.
Chart 2 Type K 3/ 4" Tubing

Solder penetration of one-third


the cup depth breaking load,
approximately 2,100 lb. (955 kg)

Solder penetration of the entire


cup depth breaking load
approximately 7,000 lb. (3175 kg)
U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

44

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BRAZING INFORMATION
Copper Water
Tube Size
(In Inches)
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6

For Estimating Purposes


Brazing A Filler Required
Inches
(mm)
0.25 B
(6.4)
0.38 B
(9.7)
0.50
(12.7)
0.62
(15.7)
1.00
(25.0)
1.60
(41.0)
2.00
(51.0)
2.60
(66.0)
4.40
(112.0)
5.90
(150.0)
7.90
(200.0)
10.50
(207.0)
13.50
(343.0)
20.50
(521.0)
28.50
(724.0)

Acetylene Consumption
C.F.H.
(C.M.H.)
15.9
(0.5)
15.9
(0.5)
24.8
(0.7)
24.8
(0.7)
24.8
(0.7)
31.6
(0.9)
31.6
(0.9)
38.7
(1.1)
60.0
(1.7)
60.0
(1.7)
70.0
(2.0)
70.0
(2.0)
88.5
(2.5)
88.5
(2.5)
88.5
(2.5)

Torch Tip
Drill Size No.
54
54
51
51
51
48
48
44
40
40
35
35
30
30
30

Oxygen Pressure (Approx.)


PSI
(kPa)
4
(27)
4
(27)
5
(34)
5
(34)
5
(34)
6
(41)
6
(41)
7
(48)
7
(48)
7
(48)
71 / 2
(52)
71 / 2
(52)
9
(62)
9
(62)
9
(62)

Approximate consumption when brazing one cup of the fitting. Actual consumption depends on workmanship.
For filler sizes shown, one pound of filler alloy provides 1,068 inches (27.13 mm) of 1/16-inch wire or 475 inches (12,065 mm) of 3/32-inch wire.

Acetylene Pressure (Approx.)


PSI
(kPa)
4
(27)
4
(27)
5
(34)
5
(34)
5
(34)
6
(41)
6
(41)
7
(48)
7
(48)
7
(48)
71/2
(52)
71/2
(52)
9
(62)
9
(62)
9
(62)

/16-inch (1.59 mm) diameter wire; all other is 3/32-inch (2.38 mm) diameter.

SOLDER AND FLUX REQUIREMENTS


Nom. Size Joint
(In Inches)
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8

General Use
0.097
0.159
0.261
0.389
0.548
0.856
1.115
1.480
2.380
3.225
4.335
5.786
7.446
11.392
15.815
26.955

Solder Required, LB (kg)


Drainage Use

1.2
1.4
1.5

2.8

4.2

(0.5)
(0.6)
(0.7)
(1.3)
(1.9)

Solder requirements in this table are based on estimate of weight of solder used to prepare
100 solder joints of sizes shown.
Two (2) ounces (0.06 kg) of solder flux will be required for each pound (0.45 kg) of solder.

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
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Copper Tube Fittings continued


RATED INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES OF JOINTS
MADE WITH COPPER WATER TUBE AND SOLDER TYPE FITTINGS, PSI (BAR)
Maximum Gauge Working Pressure for Standard Water Tube Sizes [Note (1)]

Joining Material
Alloy Sn50
50-50 Tin-Lead solder
[Notes (2), (3)]
Alloy Sb5
95-5 Tin-Antimony solder
[Note (4)]
Alloy E

Alloy HB
[Note (6)]

Working Temperature
F
C
100
38
150
66
200
93
250
121
100
38
150
66
200
93
250
121
100
38
150
66
200
93
250
121
100
38
150
66
200
93
250
121

Joining materials at or
above 593C
[Note (7)]

1 8

/ " though 1"


PSI BAR
200 (14)
150 (10)
100
(7)
85
(6)
1090 (9) (75)
625 (10) (43)
505 (11) (35)
270 (19)
710 (10) (49)
475 (11) (33)
375 (26)
320 (22)
1035 (9) (71)
710 (10) (49)
440 (11) (30)
430 (11) (30)

11/4" through 2"


PSI BAR
175 (12)
125
(9)
90
(6)
75
(5)
850 (8) (59)
485 (10) (34)
395 (10) (27)
210 (15)
555( 10) (38)
370 (10) (26)
290 (20)
250 (17)
805 (8) (56)
555 (10) (38)
345 (11) (24)
335 (11) (23)

21/2" through 4"


PSI BAR
150
(10)
100
(7)
75
(5)
50
(3)
705 (9) (49)
405(10) (28)
325(10) (32)
175
(12)
460(10) (32)
305(10) (21)
240(11) (17)
205
(14)
670 (8) (46)
460(10) (32)
285(11) (20)
275(11) (19)

5" through 8"


PSI BAR
135
(9)
90
(6)
70
(5)
45
(3)
660 (8) (46)
375 (10) (26)
305 (10) (21)
165 (11)
430 (10) (30)
285 (11) (20)
225 (11) (16)
195 (13)
625 (9) (43)
430 (10) (30)
265 (11) (18)
260 (11) (18)

10" to 12"
PSI BAR
100
(6)
70
(5)
50
(3)
40
(3)
340
(23)
280
(19)
230
(16)
120
(8)
320
(22)
215
(15)
170
(12)
145
(9)
340
(23)
320
(22)
200
(14)
195
(13)

Saturated Steam
LB (kg)
All Sizes
15

15

15

15

Pressure-temperature ratings consistent with the materials and procedures employed.

GENERAL NOTE:
For extremely low working temperatures in the 0F to 200F range, it is recommended that a joint material melting at or above 1000F be employed [see Note (5)].
NOTES:
(1) Standard water tube sizes per ASTM B 88
(2) ASTM B 32 Alloy Grade Sn50
(3) The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1986 prohibits the use of any solder having a lead content
in excess of 0.2% in potable water systems.
(4) ASTM B 32 Alloy Grade Sb5
(5) ASTM B 32 Alloy Grade E
(6) ASTM B 32 Alloy Grade HB
(7) These joining materials are defined as brazing alloys by the American Welding Society.
(8) The solder joint exceeds the strength of Types K, L & M tube in drawn and annealed tempers.
(9) The solder joint exceeds the strength of Types L & M tube in drawn temper and Type K tube in annealed temper.
(10) The solder joint exceeds the strength of Type M tube in drawn temper and Types L & K in annealed temper.
(11) The solder joint exceeds the strength of Type L tube in annealed temper.

RATED INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES OF JOINTS


MADE WITH FLARED FITTINGS AND COPPER WATER TUBE
Nominal Size Joint
(In Inches)
3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1,
1 1/4, 1 1/2, 2
A

ASME B16.26

Temperature, F (C) A

Pressure, PSI (BAR) A

100 (38)

175 (12)

RATED INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES OF


POLYBUTYLENE TUBE AND COPPER BARBED INSERT FITTINGS
Nominal Size Joint
(In Inches)
3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1

Temperature, F (C)
73 (23)
140 (60)
180 (82)
200 (93)

Pressure, PSI (BAR)


200 (14)
160 (11)
100 (7)
80 (5)

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

46

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
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RATED INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURE1 FOR COPPER FITTINGS, PSI (BAR)


Water Temperature Range
Nominal Water
Tube Size
(In Inches)
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
1

-20 to 100F
(-29 to 38C)
912 (62)
779 (54)
722 (50)
631 (43)
582 (40)
494 (34)
439 (30)
408 (28)
364 (25)
336 (23)
317 (22)
304 (21)
293 (20)
269 (19)
251 (17)
270 (19)

150F
(66C)
775 (53)
662 (46)
613 (42)
537 (37)
495 (34)
420 (29)
373 (26)
347 (24)
309 (21)
285 (20)
270 (19)
258 (18)
249 (17)
229 (16)
213 (15)
230 (16)

200F
(95C)
729 (50)
623 (43)
577 (40)
505 (35)
466 (32)
395 (27)
351 (24)
327 (23)
291 (20)
269 (19)
254 (17)
243 (17)
235 (16)
215 (15)
201 (14)
216 (15)

250F
(120C)
729 (50)
623 (43)
577 (40)
505 (35)
466 (32)
395 (27)
351 (24)
327 (23)
291 (20)
269 (19)
254 (17)
243 (17)
235 (16)
215 (15)
201 (14)
216 (15)

300F
(149C)
714 (49)
610 (42)
565 (39)
495 (34)
456 (31)
387 (26)
344 (23)
320 (22)
285 (20)
263 (18)
248 (17)
238 (16)
230 (16)
211 (15)
196 (14)
212 (15)

350F
(177C)
608 (42)
519 (36)
481 (33)
421 (29)
388 (27)
330 (23)
293 (20)
272 (19)
242 (17)
224 (15)
211 (15)
202 (14)
196 (13)
179 (12)
167 (12)
180 (12)

400F
(204C)
456 (31)
389 (27)
361 (25)
316 (21)
291 (20)
247 (17)
219 (15)
204 (14)
182 (13)
168 (12)
159 (11)
152 (10)
147 (10)
135 1(9)
125 1(8)
135 1(9)

The fitting pressure rating applies to the largest opening of the fitting.

RATED INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES OF


CAST COPPER ALLOY FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS
Pressure (PSI)
Nominal Size Joint
(In Inches)
1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4,
1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 8
(also 10" for
Class 125)

Temperature
F (C) A
0 150 (0 66)
175 1(79)
200 1(93)
225 (107)
250 (121)
275 (135)
300 (149)
350 (177)
406 (208)

MSS SP-106

ASTM B584, UNS C83800 and UNS C84400

ASTM B62, UNS C83600 and ASTM B584, UNS C83600

Class 125
105 (7)
100 (7)
195 (7)
190 (6)
190 (6)
185 (6)
185 (6)
175 (5)
170 (5)

A, B

Class 150 B
210 (14)
205 (14)
195 (13)
190 (13)
180 (12)
175 (12)
170 (12)
150 (10)
140 1(9)

Class 150 A, C
225 (15)
220 (15)
210 (15)
205 (14)
195 (13)
190 (13)
180 (12)
165 (11)
150 (10)

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
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Copper
Water Tube
The mechanics of making both the solder joint and the brazing joint are comparatively similar. Complete instructions
on proper techniques of both of these joining methods are outlined in this catalog on pages 85-97.
A very important consideration in Copper Piping is the selection of the proper bonding medium. As a general rule, the working
temperature of the installation is a more important consideration than the working pressures. If the working temperature is not over
250F (121C), either 50-50%* or 95-5% solder can be used successfully. However, if the temperature exceeds 250F (121C), a low
temperature brazing alloy should be used, with a melting temperature somewhat in excess of 1000F (538C).
According to BMS report No. 58, joints made with tin or tin-alloy solders should not be subject continuously to temperatures above
250F (121C). A number of brazing alloys are available and a careful study should be made in every case to determine the proper
alloy for the particular application.
*The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1986 prohibits the use in potable water systems of any solder having a lead content in excess of 0.2%.

DIMENSIONAL DATA SOLDER JOINT FITTING ENDS


Solder Joint Fittings Tolerances
Nominal
Water Tube
Size (In Inches)
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

Male End (Fitting Connector)


Diameter
Min.
Max.
Inch
(mm)
Inch
(mm)
0.248
0.373
0.497
0.622
0.747
0.872
1.122
1.372
1.621
2.121
2.621
3.121
3.621
4.121
5.121
6.121
8.119
10.119
12.119

Solder Joint Fittings


Copper Alloy Pressure 1, 2

Female End (Solder Cup)


Diameter
Min.
Max.
Inch
(mm)
Inch
(mm)

Fitting End Length


Min.
Inch
(mm)

(6.30)
0.251 (6.38)
0.252 (6.40)
0.256 (6.50)
(9.47)
0.376 (9.55)
0.377 (9.58)
0.381 (9.68)
(12.62) 0.501 (12.73) 0.502 (12.75) 0.506 (12.85)
(15.80) 0.626 (15.90) 0.627 (15.93) 0.631 (16.03)
(18.97) 0.751 (19.08) 0.752 (19.10) 0.756 (19.20)
(22.15) 0.876 (22.25) 0.877 (22.28) 0.881 (22.38)
(28.50) 1.127 (28.63) 1.128 (28.65) 1.132 (28.75)
(34.85) 1.377 (34.98) 1.378 (35.00) 1.382 (35.10)
(41.17) 1.627 (41.33) 1.628 (41.35) 1.633 (41.48)
(53.87) 2.127 (54.03) 2.128 (54.05) 2.133 (54.18)
(66.57) 2.627 (66.73) 2.628 (66.75) 2.633 (66.88)
(79.27) 3.127 (79.43) 3.128 (79.45) 3.133 (79.58)
(91.97) 3.627 (92.13) 3.628 (92.15) 3.633 (92.28)
(104.67) 4.127 (104.83) 4.128 (104.85) 4.133 (104.98)
(130.07) 5.127 (130.23) 5.128 (130.25) 5.133 (130.38)
(155.47) 6.127 (155.63) 6.128 (155.65) 3.133 (79.58)
(206.22) 8.127 (206.43) 8.128 (206.45) 8.133 (206.58)
(257.02) 10.127 (257.23) 10.128 (257.25) 10.133 (257.38)
(307.82) 12.127 (308.03) 12.128 (308.05) 12.133 (308.18)

0.31
0.38
0.44
0.56
0.69
0.81
0.97
1.03
1.16
1.41
1.53
1.72
1.97
2.22
2.72
3.22
4.09
4.12
4.62

(7.9)
(9.7)
(11.2)
(14.2)
(17.5)
(20.6)
(24.6)
(26.2)
(29.5)
(35.8)
(38.9)
(43.7)
(50.0)
(56.4)
(69.1)
(81.8)
(103.9)
(104.6)
(117.3)

Solder Cup Length


Min.
Inch
(mm)
0.25
0.31
0.38
0.50
0.62
0.75
0.91
0.97
1.09
1.34
1.47
1.66
1.91
2.16
2.66
3.09
3.97
4.00
4.50

(6.4)
(7.9)
(9.7)
(12.7)
(15.7)
(19.1)
(23.1)
(24.6)
(27.7)
(34.0)
(37.3)
(42.2)
(48.5)
(54.9)
(67.6)
(78.5)
(100.8)
(101.6)
(114.3)

Solder Joint Fittings


Copper Alloy Drainage 3, 4
Fitting End Length
Min.
Inch
(mm)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.56
0.62
0.69
N/A
0.81
N/A
1.06
1.31
1.62
2.12
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(14.2)
(15.7)
(17.5)
N/A
(20.6)
N/A
(26.9)
(33.3)
(41.1)
(53.8)
N/A
N/A

Solder Cup Length


Min.
Inch
(mm)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.50
0.56
0.62
N/A
0.75
N/A
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(12.7)
(14.2)
(15.7)
N/A
(19.1)
N/A
(25.4)
(31.8)
(38.1)
(50.8)
N/A
N/A

As shown Standard ASME B16.18


As shown Standard ASME B16.22
3
As shown Standard ASME B16.23
4
As shown Standard ASME B16.29
1
2

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

48

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DIMENSIONAL DATA BRAZING FITTING ENDS


Male End (Fitting Connector) Diameter

Min.

Female End (Brazing Cup) Diameter

Max.

Min.

Fitting End
Length
Min.

Max.

Solder Cup
Length
Min.

Nominal
Water Tube
Size (In Inches)

Inch

(mm)

Inch

(mm)

Inch

(mm)

Inch

(mm)

Inch

(mm)

Inch

(mm)

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

0.373
0.497
0.622
0.747
0.872
1.122
1.372
1.621
2.121
2.621
3.121
3.621
4.121
5.121
6.121
8.119
10.119
12.119

(9.47)
(12.62)
(15.80)
(18.97)
(22.15)
(28.50)
(34.85)
(41.17)
(53.87)
(66.57)
(79.27)
(91.97)
(104.67)
(130.07)
(155.47)
(206.22)
(257.02)
(307.82)

0.376
0.501
0.626
0.751
0.876
1.127
1.377
1.627
2.127
2.627
3.127
3.627
4.127
5.127
6.127
8.127
10.127
12.127

(9.55)
(12.73)
(15.90)
(19.08)
(22.25)
(28.63)
(34.98)
(41.33)
(54.03)
(66.73)
(79.43)
(92.13)
(104.83)
(130.23)
(155.63)
(206.43)
(257.23)
(308.03)

0.377
0.502
0.627
0.752
0.877
1.128
1.378
1.628
2.128
2.628
3.128
3.628
4.128
5.128
6.128
8.128
10.128
12.128

(9.58)
(12.75)
(15.93)
(19.10)
(22.28)
(28.65)
(35.00)
(41.35)
(54.05)
(66.75)
(79.45)
(92.15)
(104.85)
(130.25)
(155.65)
(206.45)
(257.25)
(308.05)

0.381
0.506
0.631
0.756
0.881
1.132
1.382
1.633
2.133
2.633
3.133
3.633
4.133
5.133
3.133
8.133
10.133
12.133

(9.68)
(12.85)
(16.03)
(19.20)
(22.38)
(28.75)
(35.10)
(41.48)
(54.18)
(66.88)
(79.58)
(92.28)
(104.98)
(130.38)
(79.58)
(206.58)
(257.38)
(308.18)

0.23
0.26
0.28
N/A
0.31
0.34
0.37
0.40
0.47
0.53
0.59
0.65
0.72
0.81
0.94
1.28
N/A
N/A

(5.8)
(6.6)
(7.1)
N/A
(7.9)
(8.6)
(9.4)
(10.2)
(11.9)
(13.5)
(15.0)
(16.5)
(18.3)
(20.6)
(23.9)
(32.5)
N/A
N/A

0.17
0.20
0.22
N/A
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.34
0.40
0.47
0.53
0.59
0.64
0.73
0.83
1.17
N/A
N/A

(4.3)
(5.1)
(5.6)
N/A
(6.4)
(7.1)
(7.9)
(8.6)
(10.2)
(11.9)
(13.5)
(15.0)
(16.3)
(18.5)
(21.1)
(29.7)
N/A
N/A

In accordance with MS SP-73

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Copper Water Tube continued


DIMENSIONAL DATA COPPER WATER TUBE TYPE K
TYPE K

Tolerances
(Hard Drawn Only)
Tubing OD

Outside
Diameter

Nominal
Water Tube
Size (In Inches)

Inch

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
2.125
2.625
3.125
3.625
4.125
5.125
6.125
8.125
10.125
12.125

(mm)

Inch

Min.
(mm)

Inch

Hard Drawn
Nominal Wall
Thickness

Max.
(mm)

(9.53)
0.373 (9.47)
0.376 (9.55)
(12.70) 0.497 (12.62) 0.501 (12.73)
(15.88) 0.622 (15.80) 0.626 (15.90)
(19.05) 0.747 (18.97) 0.751 (19.08)
(22.23) 0.872 (22.15) 0.876 (22.25)
(28.58) 1.122 (28.50) 1.127 (28.63)
(34.93) 1.372 (34.85) 1.377 (34.98)
(41.28) 1.621 (41.17) 1.627 (41.33)
(53.98) 2.121 (53.87) 2.127 (54.03)
(66.68) 2.621 (66.57) 2.627 (66.73)
(79.38) 3.121 (79.27) 3.127 (79.43)
(92.08) 3.621 (91.97) 3.627 (92.13)
(104.78) 4.121 (104.67) 4.127 (104.83)
(130.18) 5.121 (130.07) 5.127 (130.23)
(155.58) 6.121 (155.47) 6.127 (155.63)
(206.38) 8.119 (206.22) 8.127 (206.43)
(257.18) 10.119 (257.02) 10.127 (257.23)
(307.98) 12.119 (307.82) 12.127 (308.03)

Hard Drawn: 20-ft. (6.1m) Straight Lengths


Soft Annealed: 20-ft. (6.1m) Straight Lengths, or 40-ft. (12.2m) and
60-ft. (18.3m) Length Coils (to and including size 1 1/2)
Usage:
For underground service and general purpose plumbing and
heating installations under severe conditions.

Weight
Per Foot

Bursting
Pressure A

Soft Annealed

Safe Working
Pressure B

Bursting
Pressure A

Safe Working
Pressure C

Inch

(mm)

Lb

(kg)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

0.035
0.049
0.049
0.049
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.072
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.120
0.134
0.160
0.192
0.271
0.338
0.405

(0.89)
(1.24)
(1.24)
(1.24)
(1.65)
(1.65)
(1.65)
(1.83)
(2.11)
(2.41)
(2.77)
(3.05)
(3.40)
(4.06)
(4.88)
(6.88)
(8.59)
(10.29)

0.145
0.269
0.344
0.418
0.641
0.839
1.040
1.360
2.060
2.930
4.000
5.120
6.510
9.670
13.900
25.900
40.300
57.800

(0.07)
(0.12)
(0.16)
(0.19)
(0.29)
(0.38)
(0.47)
(0.62)
(0.93)
(1.33)
(1.81)
(2.32)
(2.95)
(4.39)
(6.30)
(11.75)
(18.28)
(26.22)

N/A
N/A
9840
N/A
9300
7200
5525
5000
3915
3575
3450
N/A
3415
3585
3425
3635
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
(678)
N/A
(641)
(496)
(381)
(345)
(270)
(246)
(238)
N/A
(235)
(247)
(236)
(251)
N/A
N/A

1612
1675
1337
1104
1278
982
797
742
652
597
578
549
540
517
520
553
553
555

(111)
(115)
(92)
(76)
(88)
(68)
(55)
(51)
(45)
(41)
(40)
(38)
(37)
(36)
(36)
(38)
(38)
(38)

N/A
N/A
4535
N/A
4200
3415
2800
2600
2235
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
(313)
N/A
(290)
(235)
(193)
(179)
(154)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

913
960
758
626
724
557
452
420
370
338
328
311
306
293
295
314
314
314

(63)
(66)
(52)
(43)
(50)
(38)
(31)
(29)
(26)
(23)
(23)
(21)
(21)
(20)
(20)
(22)
(22)
(22)

Note: Information and data contained in these charts, as taken from ASTM Specifications B 88.
Rated internal pressure for copper water tube based on the strength of the tube alone and
applicable to systems using suitable mechanical joints.
Based on actual laboratory test data provided by Copper Development Association, Inc.
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 9500 psi (668 kPa).
C
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 5100 psi (359 kPa).
A
B

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

50

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TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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DIMENSIONAL DATA COPPER WATER TUBE TYPE L


TYPE L

Hard Drawn: 20-ft. (6.1m) Straight Lengths


Soft Annealed: 20-ft. (6.1m) Straight Lengths, or 40-ft. (12.2m) and
60-ft. (18.3m) Length Coils (to and including size 1 1/2)
Usage:

Tolerances
(Hard Drawn Only)
Tubing OD

Outside
Diameter

Nominal
Water Tube
Size (In Inches)

Inch

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
2.125
2.625
3.125
3.625
4.125
5.125
6.125
8.125
10.125
12.125

(mm)

Inch

Min.
(mm)

Inch

Hard Drawn
Nominal Wall
Thickness

Max.
(mm)

(9.53)
0.373 (9.47)
0.376 (9.55)
(12.70) 0.497 (12.62) 0.501 (12.73)
(15.88) 0.622 (15.80) 0.626 (15.90)
(19.05) 0.747 (18.97) 0.751 (19.08)
(22.23) 0.872 (22.15) 0.876 (22.25)
(28.58) 1.122 (28.50) 1.127 (28.63)
(34.93) 1.372 (34.85) 1.377 (34.98)
(41.28) 1.621 (41.17) 1.627 (41.33)
(53.98) 2.121 (53.87) 2.127 (54.03)
(66.68) 2.621 (66.57) 2.627 (66.73)
(79.38) 3.121 (79.27) 3.127 (79.43)
(92.08) 3.621 (91.97) 3.627 (92.13)
(104.78) 4.121 (104.67) 4.127 (104.83)
(130.18) 5.121 (130.07) 5.127 (130.23)
(155.58) 6.121 (155.47) 6.127 (155.63)
(206.38) 8.119 (206.22) 8.127 (206.43)
(257.18) 10.119 (257.02) 10.127 (257.23)
(307.98) 12.119 (307.82) 12.127 (308.03)

For general purpose plumbing and heating conditions.

Weight
Per Foot

Bursting
Pressure A

Soft Annealed

Safe Working
Pressure B

Bursting
Pressure A

Safe Working
Pressure C

Inch

(mm)

Lb

(kg)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

0.030
0.035
0.040
0.042
0.045
0.050
0.055
0.060
0.070
0.080
0.090
0.100
0.110
0.125
0.140
0.200
0.250
0.280

(0.76)
(0.89)
(1.02)
(1.07)
(1.14)
(1.27)
(1.40)
(1.52)
(1.78)
(2.03)
(2.29)
(2.54)
(2.79)
(3.18)
(3.56)
(5.08)
(6.35)
(7.11)

0.126
0.198
0.285
0.362
0.455
0.655
0.884
1.140
1.750
2.480
3.330
4.290
5.380
7.610
10.200
19.290
30.100
40.400

(0.06)
(0.09)
(0.13)
(0.16)
(0.21)
(0.30)
(0.40)
(0.52)
(0.79)
(1.12)
(1.51)
(1.95)
(2.44)
(3.45)
(4.63)
(8.75)
(13.65)
(18.33)

N/A
N/A
7765
N/A
5900
5115
4550
4100
3365
3215
2865
N/A
2865
2985
2690
2650
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
(535)
N/A
(407)
(353)
(314)
(283)
(232)
(222)
(198)
N/A
(198)
(206)
(185)
(183)
N/A
N/A

1367
1168
1082
947
873
741
658
613
545
504
476
455
440
404
376
406
407
380

(94)
(81)
(75)
(65)
(60)
(51)
(45)
(42)
(38)
(35)
(33)
(31)
(30)
(28)
(26)
(28)
(28)
(26)

N/A
N/A
3885
N/A
2935
2650
2400
2200
1910
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
(268)
N/A
(202)
(183)
(165)
(152)
(132)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

775
662
613
537
495
420
373
347
309
285
270
258
249
229
213
230
231
215

(53)
(46)
(42)
(37)
(34)
(29)
(26)
(24)
(21)
(20)
(19)
(18)
(17)
(16)
(15)
(16)
(16)
(15)

Note: Information and data contained in these charts, as taken from ASTM Specifications B 88.
Rated internal pressure for copper water tube based on the strength of the tube alone and
applicable to systems using suitable mechanical joints.
Based on actual laboratory test data provided by Copper Development Association, Inc.
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 9500 psi (668 kPa).
C
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 5100 psi (359 kPa).
A
B

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Copper Water Tube continued


DIMENSIONAL DATA COPPER WATER TUBE TYPE M
TYPE M

Hard Drawn Only: 20-ft. (6.1m) Straight Lengths


Usage: For general purpose plumbing, heating and
drainage installations.

Tolerances
(Hard Drawn Only)
Tubing OD

Outside
Diameter

Nominal
Water Tube
Size (In Inches)

Inch

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
2.125
2.625
3.125
3.625
4.125
5.125
6.125
8.125
10.125
12.125

(mm)

Inch

Min.
(mm)

Inch

Max.
(mm)

(9.53)
0.373 (9.47)
0.376 (9.55)
(12.70) 0.497 (12.62) 0.501 (12.73)
(15.88) 0.622 (15.80) 0.626 (15.90)
(19.05) 0.747 (18.97) 0.751 (19.08)
(22.23) 0.872 (22.15) 0.876 (22.25)
(28.58) 1.122 (28.50) 1.127 (28.63)
(34.93) 1.372 (34.85) 1.377 (34.98)
(41.28) 1.621 (41.17) 1.627 (41.33)
(53.98) 2.121 (53.87) 2.127 (54.03)
(66.68) 2.621 (66.57) 2.627 (66.73)
(79.38) 3.121 (79.27) 3.127 (79.43)
(92.08) 3.621 (91.97) 3.627 (92.13)
(104.78) 4.121 (104.67) 4.127 (104.83)
(130.18) 5.121 (130.07) 5.127 (130.23)
(155.58) 6.121 (155.47) 6.127 (155.63)
(206.38) 8.119 (206.22) 8.127 (206.43)
(257.18) 10.119 (257.02) 10.127 (257.23)
(307.98) 12.119 (307.82) 12.127 (308.03)

Hard Drawn
Nominal Wall
Thickness

Weight
Per Foot

Bursting
Pressure A

Safe Working
Pressure B

Inch

(mm)

Lb

(kg)

psi

(bars)

psi

(bars)

N/A
0.025
0.028
N/A
0.032
0.035
0.042
0.049
0.058
0.065
0.072
0.083
0.095
0.109
0.122
0.170
0.212
0.254

N/A
(0.64)
(0.71)
N/A
(0.81)
(0.89)
(1.07)
(1.24)
(1.47)
(1.65)
(1.83)
(2.11)
(2.41)
(2.77)
(3.10)
(4.32)
(5.38)
(6.45)

N/A
0.145
0.204
N/A
0.328
0.465
0.682
0.940
1.460
2.030
2.680
3.580
4.660
6.660
8.920
16.500
25.600
36.700

N/A
(0.07)
(0.09)
N/A
(0.15)
(0.21)
(0.31)
(0.43)
(0.66)
(0.92)
(1.22)
(1.62)
(2.11)
(3.02)
(4.05)
(7.48)
(11.61)
(16.65)

N/A
N/A
6135
N/A
4717
3865
3875
3550
2935
2800
2665
N/A
2215
2490
2000
2285
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
(423)
N/A
(325)
(266)
(267)
(245)
(202)
(193)
(184)
N/A
(153)
(172)
(138)
(158)
N/A
N/A

N/A
855
741
N/A
611
506
507
497
448
411
380
378
377
349
328
344
344
345

N/A
(59)
(51)
N/A
(42)
(35)
(35)
(34)
(31)
(28)
(26)
(26)
(26)
(24)
(23)
(24)
(24)
(24)

Note: Information and data contained in these charts, as taken from ASTM Specifications B 88.
Rated internal pressure for copper water tube based on the strength of the tube alone and
applicable to systems using suitable mechanical joints.
A
B

Based on actual laboratory test data provided by Copper Development Association, Inc.
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 9500 psi (668 kPa).

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

52

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TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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DIMENSIONAL DATA COPPER WATER TUBE TYPE DWV


TYPE DWV Hard Drawn Only: 20-ft. (6.1m) Straight Lengths
Usage: For drain, waste, vent and other non-pressure applications.

Tolerances
(Hard Drawn Only)
Tubing OD

Outside
Diameter

Nominal
Water Tube
Size (In Inches)

Inch

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.125
1.375
1.625
2.125
2.625
3.125
3.625
4.125
5.125
6.125
8.125
10.125
12.125

(mm)

Inch

Min.
(mm)

Inch

Hard Drawn
Nominal Wall
Thickness

Max.
(mm)

(9.53)
0.373 (9.47)
0.376 (9.55)
(12.70) 0.497 (12.62) 0.501 (12.73)
(15.88) 0.622 (15.80) 0.626 (15.90)
(19.05) 0.747 (18.97) 0.751 (19.08)
(22.23) 0.872 (22.15) 0.876 (22.25)
(28.58) 1.122 (28.50) 1.127 (28.63)
(34.93) 1.372 (34.85) 1.377 (34.98)
(41.28) 1.621 (41.17) 1.627 (41.33)
(53.98) 2.121 (53.87) 2.127 (54.03)
(66.68) 2.621 (66.57) 2.627 (66.73)
(79.38) 3.121 (79.27) 3.127 (79.43)
(92.08) 3.621 (91.97) 3.627 (92.13)
(104.78) 4.121 (104.67) 4.127 (104.83)
(130.18) 5.121 (130.07) 5.127 (130.23)
(155.58) 6.121 (155.47) 6.127 (155.63)
(206.38) 8.119 (206.22) 8.127 (206.43)
(257.18) 10.119 (257.02) 10.127 (257.23)
(307.98) 12.119 (307.82) 12.127 (308.03)

Weight
Per Foot

Bursting
Pressure A

Inch

(mm)

Lb

(kg)

psi

(bars)

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.040
0.042
0.042
N/A
0.045
N/A
0.058
0.072
0.083
0.109
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(1.02)
(1.07)
(1.07)
N/A
(1.14)
N/A
(1.47)
(1.83)
(2.11)
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.650
0.809
1.070
N/A
1.690
N/A
2.870
4.430
6.100
10.600
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(0.29)
(0.37)
(0.49)
N/A
(0.77)
N/A
(1.30)
(2.01)
(2.77)
(4.81)
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
440
326
N/A
239
N/A
225
227
223
219
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(30)
(22)
N/A
(16)
N/A
(16)
(16)
(15)
(15)
N/A
N/A

DWV Tube is for sanitary drainage


applications. The tubing wall is thinner than
Type M making it both lighter and less
expensive. Research indicates that DWV tube
has a service life of approximately 100 years
considerably longer than any building in which
it might be installed.
The advantages of copper systems are
augmented in DWV installations. Its light
weight makes handling and transportation
easier only 0.34 lb. (0.15 kg) for a 20 ft. (6.1
m) length of size 3. Its thinner wall allows
faster soldering.
These advantages offer an economical option
without sacrificing stability or longevity for
both contractor and the home owner. Further
information will be furnished on request from
NIBCOs Technical Services Department, at
1-888-446-4226

Note: Information and data contained in these charts, as taken from ASTM Specifications B 88.
Rated internal pressure for copper water tube based on the strength of the tube alone and
applicable to systems using suitable mechanical joints.
Based on actual laboratory test data provided by Copper Development Association, Inc.
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 9500 psi (668 kPa).
C
Based upon 150F (65.6C) with an allowable stress of 5100 psi (359 kPa).
A
B

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Copper Water Tube continued


Under normal conditions, the physical properties of copper tubes, when produced by responsible manufacturers are perfectly adapted
for the conveyance of hot and cold water, steam, oil, gas, and air. Copper tubes will stand up under ordinary conditions, but the user is
specifically cautioned against laying underground tube in cinderfill, especially if the ground is apt to be wet. Due to the sulphur
compounds in the cinders, a condition of this kind may corrode the outside of the tubes. This may be overcome either by wrapping the
tube with canvas and asphaltum or by surrounding the tube with a bed of clean sand mixed with lime, or with limestone or broken
plaster. When conditions are doubtful, it is advisable to consult the Copper Development Association, or the tube manufacturer.
Annealed copper tubes are generally recommended for underground use. 1/2" annealed copper tubes have been frozen as many as six
times before finally bursting, eight times for 1" size, and eleven times for 2" size. Hard drawn copper tubes, however, burst during the
first freezing the same as iron pipe. (Condensed from Copper Tube Handbook.)

COMPARATIVE DATA COPPER WATER TUBE AND IRON PIPES


Nominal
Water
Tube Size
(In Inches)

A
New Pipe

3/8

Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron
Coper
Iron

1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4

B
Inside
Diameter
Inch
(mm)

C
Outside
Diameter
Inch
(mm)

.430
.493
.545
.622
.785
.824
1.025
1.049
1.265
1.380
1.505
1.610
1.985
2.067
2.465
2.469
2.945
3.068
3.905
4.026

0.500
0.675
0.625
0.840
0.875
1.050
1.125
1.315
1.375
1.660
1.625
1.900
2.125
2.375
2.625
2.875
3.125
3.5
4.125
4.5

(10.92)
(12.52)
(13.84)
(15.80)
(19.94)
(20.93)
(26.04)
(26.64)
(32.13)
(35.05)
(38.23)
(40.89)
(50.42)
(52.50)
(62.61)
(62.71)
(74.80)
(77.93)
(99.19)
(102.26)

(12.70)
(17.15)
(15.88)
(21.34)
(22.23)
(26.67)
(28.58)
(33.40)
(34.93)
(42.16)
(41.28)
(48.26)
(53.98)
(60.33)
(66.68)
(73.03)
(79.38)
(88.90)
(104.78)
(114.30)

D
Weight
Lb

(Kg)

0.198
0.567
0.285
0.850
0.455
1.130
0.655
1.678
0.884
2.270
1.140
2.720
1.750
3.650
2.480
5.790
3.330
7.58
5.380
10.79

(0.090)
(0.257)
(0.129)
(0.386)
(0.207)
(0.513)
(0.297)
(0.762)
(0.401)
(1.031)
(0.518)
(1.235)
(0.795)
(1.657)
(1.126)
(2.629)
(1.512)
(3.441)
(2.443)
(4.899)

COLUMN A: The copper tube is Type L Standard, meeting the requirements of ASTM
Specification B 88. The iron pipe is standard weight, schedule 40, bare pipe, except as
to Column I where new galvanized pipe is referred to.
COLUMN B: From manufacturers specifications. Slight variations can be noted between
specifications of different manufacturers, but these figures are representative.
COLUMN C: From manufacturers specifications with the same considerations as noted
for Column B.
COLUMN D: From manufacturers specifications.
COLUMN E: Cubic contents of 10 linear feet/3.05 linear metres of tube and have been
calculated from dimeters given in Column B, by the formula for the contents of a cylinder.
COLUMN F: This column has been calculated from Column E and shows the number of
BTUs (kilojoules) required to heat the water content only of 10 feet (3.05 metres) of the
given tube and pipe 100F (38C). It requires 833.6 BTUs (879.5 kJ) to heat 1 gallon
(3.875 litres) of water 100F (38C).
COLUMN G: These figures are calculated from Column D and show the number of BTUs
(kJ) required to raise the temperature of 10 feet (3.05 metres) of empty tube and pipe
100F (38C). Due to difference in the specific heat of the materials, it requires 9.4 BTUs
(9.9 kJ) to raise 1 pound (0.454 kilograms) of copper 100F (38C) and 11.0 BTUs (11.6
kJ) to raise 1 pound (0.454 kilograms) of iron 100F (38C).

E
Volume
Gal/10ft. L/3.05m
0.0754
0.0992
0.1212
0.1578
0.2514
0.2770
0.4287
0.4490
0.6529
0.7770
0.9241
1.0580
1.6080
1.7430
2.4790
2.4870
3.5390
3.8400
6.2220
6.6130

(0.2854)
(0.3755)
(0.4587)
(0.5973)
(0.9515)
(1.0484)
(1.6226)
(1.6995)
(2.4712)
(2.9409)
(3.4977)
(4.0045)
(6.0863)
(6.5973)
(9.3830)
(9.4133)
(13.3951)
(14.5344)
(23.5503)
(25.0302)

BTUs to Raise 100F/38C


F
G
Water
Pipe

H
Heat Loss

I
Flow

BTU

kJ

BTU

kJ

BTU

kJ

GPM

LPM

62.89
82.66
101.20
131.60
209.60
230.10
357.30
374.30
544.30
647.70
770.40
881.60
1340.00
1453.00
2066.00
2073.00
2945.00
3201.00
5186.00
5513.00

(66.4)
(87.2)
(106.8)
(138.8)
(221.1)
(242.8)
(377.0)
(394.9)
(574.3)
(683.4)
(812.8)
(930.1)
(1413.8)
(1533.0)
(2179.7)
(2187.1)
(3107.1)
(3377.2)
(5471.5)
(5816.5)

18.61
62.37
26.70
93.50
42.67
124.30
61.38
184.58
82.91
249.70
107.16
298.10
164.50
401.50
233.00
636.90
313.20
832.70
505.72
1186.90

(19.6)
(65.8)
(28.2)
(98.6)
(45.0)
(131.1)
(64.8)
(194.7)
(87.5)
(263.4)
(113.1)
(314.5)
(173.6)
(423.6)
(245.8)
(672.0)
(330.4)
(878.5)
(533.6)
(1252.2)

No Data
No Data
0.34
5.94
0.41
7.16
0.50
8.62
0.62
10.65
0.69
11.97
0.84
14.61
1.01
17.42
1.13
20.63
1.50
26.00

No Data
No Data
(0.36)
(6.27)
(0.44)
(7.55)
(0.53)
(9.09)
(0.65)
(11.24)
(0.73)
(12.63)
(0.89)
(15.41)
(1.07)
(18.38)
(1.19)
(21.77)
(1.58)
(27.43)

1.873
2.464
3.565
4.585
9.599
9.720
19.80
18.53
35.05
38.56
56.16
58.20
119.10
113.50
214.30
182.50
347.40
326.00
747.10
673.80

(7.089)
(9.326)
(13.494)
(17.354)
(36.332)
(36.790)
(74.94)
(70.14)
(132.66)
(145.95)
(212.57)
(220.29)
(450.79)
(429.60)
(811.13)
(690.76)
(1314.91)
(1233.91)
(2827.77)
(2550.33)

COLUMN H: This column shows the heat emission from 10 feet (3.05 metres) of the given
tube and pipe placed horizontally. The column in terms of BTUs lost per hour (kilojoules
lost per hour) for each degree of difference in temperature between the pipe and the
surrounding air. The figures for iron are taken from experimental data obtained at the
Mellon Institute. Figures for copper have been calculated with reference to those for iron
on the basis of the known ratio of heat emission between the two materials.
COLUMN I: This column shows the number of gallons (litres) of water which will flow
through 100 feet (30.48 metres) of the given tube and pipe with a pressure loss of 10
pounds per square inch (70 kilopascals). Flow is based on diameters in Column B
according to Professor Dawsons formulae for NEW galvanized iron pipe and NEW
copper tube. Due to the corrosion of iron and its tendency to accumulate sediments and
other foreign matter, Prof. Dawson suggests that 15% be deducted from the figures for
iron pipe in order to arrive at a reasonable performance expectancy for such pipe in
service. Because copper resists rust and is inherently more smooth, Professor Dawson
suggests a deduction of only 5% from the figures given for copper tube.

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

54

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EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION


In the majority of low-pressure heating systems employing copper
tube and installed in small houses or private dwellings, provision for
expansion and contraction is relatively simple. Mains, risers, and
branches to radiators should be free or floating at one end of the
line. Holes should be large enough to permit free movement of the
tube, and care should be exercised so that pipe hangers and
supports permit unrestricted movement and do not anchor the tube.
Wrought copper tube hangers that are both practicable and neat in
appearance are available.
Unusually long runs of copper tubing should be provided with an
expansion bend or loop. By bending soft temper copper tube, a
simple form of expansion loop can be made. With the addition of
combination flared-tube to solder joint fittings, as illustrated in
Figure 1, these types of loops can be used when space or other
limitations exist. The correct proportions of such expansion loop to
meet various conditions are shown in the accompanying table.
The above chart is calculated using 10ft (3.05m) of copper tubing as
the reference point. You may use it as follows: 100ft (30.5m) of
copper tube, with a 200F (93.3C) temperature change. Reference
point .2256 inches for 10ft, (5.73mm for 3.05m), multipy by 10 for
100ft (30.5m), resulting in an answer of 2.256 inches (57.3mm) of
expansion or contraction.
NOTE: Calculations for expansion and contraction should be based
on the average coefficient of expansion of copper which is
0.0000094 per F (0.00001692 per C) between 77F and 212F
(25C and 100C). For example, the expansion for each 10ft (3.05m)
of any size of tube heated from room temperature of 70F (21.1C) to
170F (76.7C), that is, 100F (55.6C) rise, is:

FIGURE 1
a. U-Bend

b. Coiled Loop

Rise

Coefficient

100F
10ft
(55.6C) x (3.05m) x

c. Offset and
Return

12 inches
(1000mm)

0.000094 =
x (0.00001692)

0.1128 in.
(2.87mm)

RADII OF COILED EXPANSION LOOPS AND DEVELOPED LENGTHS OF EXPANSION OFFSETS


Expected Expansion
Nominal
1/2
1
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
Tube
R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L
R
L
Size
Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm) Inch (mm)
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5

6
7
8
9
11
13
15
16
18
19
20
23

(152.4)
(177.8)
(203.2)
(228.6)
(279.4)
(330.2)
(381.0)
(406.4)
(457.2)
(482.6)
(508.0)
(584.2)

38
44
50
59
67
80
91
102
111
120
128
142

(965.2)
(1117.6)
(1270.0)
(1498.6)
(1701.8)
(2032.0)
(2311.4)
(2590.8)
(2819.4)
(3048.0)
(3251.2)
(3606.8)

9
10
11
13
15
18
21
23
25
27
29
32

(228.6)
(254.0)
(279.4)
(330.2)
(381.0)
(457.2)
(533.4)
(584.2)
(635.0)
(685.8)
(736.6)
(812.8)

54
63
70
83
94
113
129
144
157
169
180
201

(1371.6)
(1600.2)
(1778.0)
(2108.2)
(2387.6)
(2870.2)
(3276.6)
(3657.6)
(3987.8)
(4292.6)
(4572.0)
(5105.4)

11
12
14
16
18
22
25
28
30
33
35
39

(279.4)
(304.8)
(355.6)
(406.4)
(457.2)
(558.8)
(635.0)
(711.2)
(762.0)
(838.2)
(889.0)
(990.6)

66
77
89
101
115
138
158
176
191
206
220
245

(1676.4)
(1955.8)
(2260.6)
(2565.4)
(2921.0)
(3505.2)
(4013.2)
(4470.4)
(4851.4)
(5232.4)
(5588.0)
(6223.0)

12
14
16
19
21
25
29
32
35
38
41
45

(304.8)
(355.6)
(406.4)
(482.6)
(533.4)
(635.0)
(736.6)
(812.8)
(889.0)
(965.2)
(1041.4)
(1143.0)

77
89
99
117
133
160
183
203
222
239
255
284

(1955.8)
(2260.6)
(2514.6)
(2971.8)
(3378.2)
(4064.0)
(4648.2)
(5156.2)
(5638.8)
(6070.6)
(6477.0)
(7213.6)

14
16
18
21
24
29
33
36
40
43
45
51

(355.6)
(406.4)
(457.2)
(533.4)
(609.6)
(736.6)
(838.2)
(914.4)
(1016.0)
(1092.2)
(1143.0)
(1295.4)

86
99
111
131
149
179
205
227
248
267
285
318

(2184.4)
(2514.6)
(2819.4)
(3327.4)
(3784.6)
(4546.6)
(5207.0)
(5765.8)
(6299.2)
(6781.8)
(7239.0)
(8077.2)

15
17
19
23
26
31
36
40
43
47
50
55

(381.0)
(431.8)
(482.6)
(584.2)
(660.4)
(787.4)
(914.4)
(1016.0)
(1092.2)
(1193.8)
(1270.0)
(1397.0)

94
109
122
143
163
196
224
249
272
293
312
348

(2387.6)
(2768.6)
(3098.8)
(3632.2)
(4140.2)
(4978.4)
(5689.6)
(6324.6)
(6908.8)
(7442.2)
(7924.8)
(8839.2)

16
19
21
25
28
34
39
43
47
50
54
60

(406.4)
(482.6)
(533.4)
(635.0)
(711.2)
(863.6)
(990.6)
(1092.2)
(1193.8)
(1270.0)
(1371.6)
(1524.0)

102
117
131
155
176
212
242
269
293
316
337
376

(2590.8)
(2971.8)
(3327.4)
(3937.0)
(4470.4)
(5384.8)
(6146.8)
(6832.6)
(7442.2)
(8026.4)
(8559.8)
(9550.4)

17
20
22
26
30
36
41
46
50
54
57
64

(431.8)
(508.0)
(558.8)
(660.4)
(762.0)
(914.4)
(1041.4)
(1168.4)
(1270.0)
(1371.6)
(1447.8)
(1625.6)

109 (2768.6)
126 (3200.4)
140 (3556.0)
166 (4216.4)
188 (4775.2)
226 (5740.4)
259 (6578.6)
288 (7315.2)
314 (7975.6)
338 (8585.2)
361 (9169.4)
402(10210.8)

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
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Copper Water Tube continued


SELECTION OF TUBE SIZES
The smooth interior of copper tube, and the design of both solder joint and flared-tube-type fittings, which have no shoulders projecting into
the flow of water, decrease friction loss. With the use of copper tube, no allowance is necessary for the accumulation of rust deposits in supply
and service lines. Consequently, copper tube lines are usually figured one size smaller than iron pipe for the same service. This rule does not
apply to lines from a well to a pump where the nominal diameters specified by the pump manufacturer must be adhered to strictly.
Water passing through any pipe line encounters resistance by friction. The resistance is increased by bends and turns in the line, which should
be taken into account in complex piping systems. For example, a one-inch 90 elbow will cause friction loss equivalent to that of one foot
(0.305m) of straight one-inch tube. (See below for allowance to be made for fittings and valves in equivalent lengths of tube.) Friction loss in
terms of head loss must be taken into consideration in calculating tube sizes to be used for various types of installations.
For most average-size-house installations with water pressures 40 PSI (275.8kPa) and higher, 3/4" copper tube will be ample for main supply
lines, and 1/2" copper tube can be used for risers and branches to all fixtures. The smaller 3/8" tube is adequate to supply branches, but with
pressures at 40 PSI (275.8kPa) and higher, water hammer becomes a concern when the flow is suddenly stopped.
APPROXIMATE FRICTION LOSS ALLOWANCES FOR FITTINGS AND VALVES IN FEET OF STRAIGHT TUBE
Wrought-Copper Fittings
Nominal
Tube Size
(In Inches)
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6

90
45
Tee
Tee
Elbow
Elbow
Run
Side Outlet
Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m)
0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 1 (0.31)
0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 1 (0.31)
0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 2 (0.61)
1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 2 (0.61)
1 (0.31) 1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 3 (0.92)
2 (0.61) 1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 4 (1.22)
2 (0.61) 2 (0.61) 1 (0.31) 5 (1.53)
2 (0.61) 2 (0.61) 1 (0.31) 7 (2.14)
2 (0.61) 3 (0.92) 2 (0.61) 9 (2.75)
3 (0.92) 4 (1.22)

4 (1.22)

Cast Copper Alloy Fittings and Valves


90
180
90
45
Tee
Tee
Bend
Bend
Elbow
Elbow
Run
Side Outlet
Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m)
0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 2 (0.61)
0.5 (0.15) 1 (0.31) 1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 0.5 (0.15) 2 (0.61)
1 (0.31) 1 (0.31) 2 (0.61) 1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 3 (0.92)
1 (0.31) 2 (0.61) 2 (0.61) 1 (0.31) 0.5 (0.15) 3 (0.92)
2 (0.61) 2 (0.61) 4 (1.22) 2 (0.61) 0.5 (0.15) 5 (1.53)
2 (0.61) 3 (0.92) 5 (1.53) 2 (0.61) 1 (0.31) 7 (2.14)
2 (0.61) 4 (1.22) 8 (2.44) 3 (0.92) 1 (0.31) 9 (2.75)
3 (0.92) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.36) 5 (1.53) 2 (0.61) 12 (3.66)
4 (1.22) 16 (4.88) 14 (4.27) 8 (2.44) 2 (0.61) 16 (4.88)
5 (1.53) 20 (6.10) 18 (5.49) 11 (3.36) 2 (0.61) 20 (6.10)
7 (2.14) 24 (7.32) 24 (7.32) 14 (4.27) 2 (0.61) 31 (9.46)
8 (2.44) 28 (8.54) 28 (8.54) 17 (5.19) 2 (0.61) 37 (11.29)
10 (3.05) 37 (11.29) 41 (12.51) 22 (6.71) 2 (0.61) 48 (14.64)
13 (3.97) 47 (14.34) 52 (15.86) 28 (8.54) 2 (0.61) 61 (18.61)

Comp.
Globe
Gate
Stop
Valve
Valve
Feet (m) Feet (m) Feet (m)
9 (2.75)

13 (3.97)

17 (5.19)

21 (6.41)

30 (9.15)

1 (0.31)

53 (16.17) 1 (0.31)

66 (20.13) 2 (0.61)

90 (27.45) 2 (0.61)

2 (0.61)

2 (0.61)

2 (0.61)

2 (0.61)

Notes: This table is based on tests conducted at Harvard University (1948).


If the type of fitting is not known i.e., whether wrought copper or cast alloy use cast copper alloy values for design.

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

56

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COPPER WATER TUBE INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES*


Nominal
Tube Size
(In Inches)
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

Service Temperature F (C)


200F (93.3C)
300F (148.9C)
S = 4800psi (331 bars)
S=4700 psi (324 bars)

100F (37.8C)
S = 6000psi (414 bars)
Type K

Type L

1210 (83.43)
1275 (87.91)
1005 (69.29)
830 (57.23)
950 (65.50)
725 (49.99)
590 (40.68)
550 (37.92)
485 (33.44)
450 (31.03)
430 (29.65)
410 (28.27)
400 (27.58)
385 (26.55)
385 (26.55)
410 (28.27)
410 (28.27)
410 (28.27)

1025 (70.67)
890 (61.37)
810 (55.85)
705 (48.61)
645 (44.47)
550 (37.92)
495 (34.13)
455 (31.37)
405 (27.92)
375 (25.86)
355 (24.48)
340 (23.44)
325 (22.41)
300 (20.69)
280 (19.31)
300 (20.69)
300 (20.69)
280 (19.31)

Type M

625
560

450
380
375
370
335
305
280
280
280
260
240
255
255
225

(43.09)
(38.61)

(31.03)
(26.20)
(25.86)
(25.51)
(23.10)
(21.03)
(19.31)
(19.31)
(19.31)
(17.93)
(16.55)
(17.58)
(17.58)
(15.51)

Type K
850
930
730
600
700
540
440
410
350
330
320
300
295
290
280
300
310
310

(58.61)
(64.12)
(50.33)
(41.37)
(48.27)
(37.23)
(30.34)
(28.27)
(24.13)
(22.75)
(22.06)
(20.69)
(20.34)
(20.00)
(19.31)
(20.69)
(21.37)
(21.37)

Type L
700
630
580
500
470
400
370
340
310
275
260
250
240
220
205
220
225
210

(48.27)
(43.44)
(39.99)
(34.48)
(32.41)
(27.58)
(25.51)
(23.44)
(21.37)
(18.96)
(17.93)
(17.24)
(16.55)
(15.17)
(14.13)
(15.17)
(15.51)
(14.48)

Type M

460
415

325
270
270
270
240
220
205
200
200
190
180
190
190
190

(31.72)
(28.61)

(22.41)
(18.62)
(18.62)
(18.62)
(16.55)
(15.17)
(14.13)
(13.79)
(13.79)
(13.10)
(12.41)
(13.10)
(13.10)
(13.10)

Type K
830
910
720
580
690
530
430
400
345
320
315
300
290
280
280
300
305
305

(57.23)
(62.74)
(49.64)
(39.99)
(47.58)
(36.54)
(29.65)
(27.58)
(23.79)
(22.06)
(21.72)
(20.69)
(20.00)
(19.31)
(19.31)
(20.69)
(21.03)
(21.03)

Type L
690
610
570
500
460
400
360
330
305
270
255
245
235
215
200
215
220
205

(47.58)
(42.06)
(39.30)
(34.48)
(31.72)
(27.58)
(24.82)
(22.75)
(21.03)
(18.62)
(17.58)
(16.89)
(16.20)
(14.82)
(13.79)
(14.82)
(15.17)
(14.13)

400F (204.4C)
S=3000 psi (207 bars)
Type K
530
590
460
380
440
340
280
260
230
210
210
190
190
180
190
200
200
200

(36.54)
(40.68)
(31.72)
(26.20)
(30.34)
(23.44)
(19.31)
(17.93)
(15.86)
(14.48)
(14.48)
(13.10)
(13.10)
(12.41)
(13.10)
(13.79)
(13.79)
(13.79)

Type L
450
400
370
330
300
260
230
220
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
140
150
140

(31.03)
(27.58)
(25.51)
(22.75)
(20.69)
(17.93)
(15.86)
(15.17)
(13.10)
(12.41)
(11.72)
(11.03)
(10.34)
(9.65)
(8.96)
(9.65)
(10.34)
(9.65)

Formulas
tm =

PD
+C
2S + 0.8P
or

P=

2 S tm
when C is O
D - 0.8 tm

tm Minimum tube wall thickness


P Maximum rated internal
working pressure
D Outside diameter of tube
S Allowable stress in material
due to internal pressure at
operating temperature
C Allowance for threading, mechanical
strength and/or corrosion

*Rated internal pressures for Copper Water Tube based on the strength of the tube alone and
applicable to systems using suitable mechanical joints.
The values are based on the formula in the American Standard Code,
Power Piping ANSI/ASME B31.1 1992.

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
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TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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1/4" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.3760 inches (9.550 mm)


0.3740 inches (9.499 mm)
0.0350 inches (0.089 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.3750 inches (9.525 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.3050 inches (7.747 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.0731 sq. inches (47.14 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00

3.77
13.62
28.86
49.17
74.33
104.18
138.60
177.49
220.75
268.32

8.81
31.77
67.27
114.54
173.08
242.51
322.54
412.92
513.46
623.96

2.20
4.39
6.59
8.78
10.98
13.17
15.37
17.57
19.76
21.96

32
63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315

0.85
3.08
6.53
11.12
16.81
23.57
31.35
40.15
49.94
60.70

8.81
31.77
67.27
114.54
173.08
242.51
322.54
412.92
513.46
623.96

0.67
1.34
2.01
2.68
3.35
4.02
4.68
5.35
6.02
6.69

1/4" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.3760 inches (9.550 mm)


0.3740 inches (9.499 mm)
0.0300 inches (0.076 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.3750 inches (9.525 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.3150 inches (8.001 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.0779 sq. inches (50.28 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00

3.22
11.64
24.67
42.02
63.53
89.05
118.47
151.71
188.68
229.34

7.53
27.16
57.50
97.90
147.94
207.28
275.69
352.94
438.87
533.32

2.06
4.12
6.18
8.23
10.29
12.35
14.41
16.47
18.53
20.58

32
63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315

0.73
2.63
5.58
9.51
14.37
20.14
26.80
34.32
42.68
51.88

7.53
27.16
57.50
97.90
147.94
207.28
275.69
352.94
438.87
533.32

0.63
1.25
1.88
2.51
3.14
3.76
4.39
5.02
5.65
6.27

3/8" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.5010 inches (12.725 mm)


0.4990 inches (12.674 mm)
0.0490 inches (1.244 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.5000 inches (12.700 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.4020 inches (10.210 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.1269 sq. inches (81.89 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

3.55
7.53
12.83
19.39
27.18
36.16
46.31
57.60
70.01
83.52
98.13
113.81
130.55
148.34
167.18
187.04
207.93
229.83
252.73

8.29
17.55
29.89
45.16
63.28
84.16
107.74
133.97
162.80
194.19
228.11
264.51
303.38
344.68
388.40
434.49
482.96
533.76
586.89

2.53
3.79
5.06
6.32
7.58
8.85
10.11
11.37
12.64
13.90
15.17
16.43
17.69
18.96
20.22
21.49
22.75
24.01
25.28

63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315
347
379
410
442
473
505
536
568
599
631

0.80
1.70
2.90
4.39
6.15
8.18
10.48
13.03
15.84
18.89
22.20
25.74
29.53
33.56
37.82
42.31
47.03
51.99
57.17

8.29
17.55
29.89
45.16
63.28
84.16
107.74
133.97
162.80
194.19
228.11
264.51
303.38
344.68
388.40
434.49
482.96
533.76
586.89

0.77
1.16
1.54
1.93
2.31
2.70
3.08
3.47
3.85
4.24
4.62
5.01
5.39
5.78
6.16
6.55
6.93
7.32
7.70

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

58

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

3/8" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.5010 inches (12.725 mm)


0.4990 inches (12.675 mm)
0.0350 inches (0.889 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.5000 inches (12.700 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.4500 inches (10.211 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.1590 sq. inches (102.61 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

2.56
5.43
9.24
13.98
19.59
26.06
33.37
41.51
50.45
60.19
70.72
82.01
94.08
106.90
120.48
134.79
149.84
165.62
182.13

5.97
12.65
21.54
32.54
45.60
60.65
77.64
96.54
117.32
139.94
164.38
190.62
218.63
248.40
279.90
313.12
348.04
384.65
422.94

2.21
3.31
4.42
5.52
6.63
7.73
8.84
9.94
11.05
12.15
13.26
14.36
15.46
16.57
17.67
18.78
19.88
20.99
22.09

63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315
347
379
410
442
473
505
536
568
599
631

0.58
1.23
2.09
3.16
4.43
5.90
7.55
9.39
11.41
13.62
16.00
18.55
21.28
24.18
27.25
30.49
33.90
37.47
41.20

5.97
12.65
21.54
32.54
45.60
60.65
77.64
96.54
117.32
139.94
164.38
190.62
218.63
248.40
279.90
313.12
348.04
384.65
422.94

0.67
1.01
1.35
1.68
2.02
2.36
2.69
3.03
3.37
3.70
4.04
4.38
4.71
5.05
5.39
5.72
6.06
6.40
6.73

3/8" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.5010 inches (12.725 mm)


0.4990 inches (12.675 mm)
0.0250 inches (0.635 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.5000 inches (12.700 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.4020 inches (10.211 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.1269 sq. inches (81.89 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

2.05
4.35
7.41
11.20
15.70
20.89
26.75
33.27
40.44
48.25
56.68
65.74
75.41
85.69
96.57
108.04
120.11
132.76
145.99

4.79
10.14
17.26
26.09
36.55
48.61
62.23
77.39
94.04
112.17
131.76
152.79
175.25
199.10
224.35
250.98
278.97
308.32
339.01

2.02
3.03
4.03
5.04
6.05
7.06
8.07
9.08
10.09
11.09
12.10
13.11
14.12
15.13
16.14
17.15
18.16
19.16
20.17

63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315
347
379
410
442
473
505
536
568
599
631

0.46
0.98
1.68
2.53
3.55
4.73
6.05
7.53
9.15
10.91
12.82
14.87
17.06
19.38
21.84
24.44
27.17
30.03
33.02

4.79
10.14
17.26
26.09
36.55
48.61
62.23
77.39
94.04
112.17
131.76
152.79
175.25
199.10
224.35
250.98
278.97
308.32
339.01

0.61
0.92
1.23
1.54
1.84
2.15
2.46
2.77
3.07
3.38
3.69
4.00
4.30
4.61
4.92
5.23
5.53
5.84
6.15

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

59

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1/2" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.626 inches (15.900 mm)


0.624 inches (15.850 mm)
0.049 inches (1.245 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.6250 inches (15.875 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.527 inches (13.3858 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.2181 sq. inches (140.73 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
12.00
12.50
13.00
13.50
14.00

0.95
2.02
3.44
5.19
7.28
9.69
12.40
15.43
18.75
22.37
26.28
30.48
34.97
39.73
44.78
50.10
55.69
61.56
67.69
74.10
80.76
87.69
94.88
102.34
110.05
118.01
126.23

2.22
4.70
8.00
12.10
16.95
22.54
28.86
35.88
43.61
52.01
61.10
70.85
81.26
92.32
104.03
116.38
129.36
142.97
157.20
172.05
187.51
203.58
220.26
237.54
255.41
273.89
292.95

1.47
2.21
2.94
3.68
4.41
5.15
5.88
6.62
7.35
8.09
8.83
9.56
10.30
11.03
11.77
12.50
13.24
13.97
14.71
15.44
16.18
16.91
17.65
18.39
19.12
19.86
20.59

63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315
347
379
410
442
473
505
536
568
599
631
662
694
725
757
789
820
852
883

0.22
0.46
0.78
1.18
1.65
2.19
2.81
3.49
4.24
5.06
5.95
6.90
7.91
8.99
10.13
11.33
12.60
13.93
15.31
16.76
18.27
19.84
21.46
23.15
24.89
26.70
28.56

2.22
4.70
8.00
12.10
16.95
22.54
28.86
35.88
43.61
52.01
61.10
70.85
81.26
92.32
104.03
116.38
129.36
142.97
157.20
172.05
187.51
203.58
220.26
237.54
255.41
273.89
292.95

0.45
0.67
0.90
1.12
1.34
1.57
1.79
2.02
2.24
2.47
2.69
2.91
3.14
3.36
3.59
3.81
4.03
4.26
4.48
4.71
4.93
5.16
5.38
5.60
5.83
6.05
6.28

1/2" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.626 inches (15.900 mm)


0.624 inches (15.850 mm)
0.049 inches (1.245 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.6250 inches (15.875 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.5450 inches (13.843 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.2333 sq. inches (150.50 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
12.00
12.50
13.00
13.50
14.00

0.81
1.71
2.92
4.41
6.18
8.23
10.53
13.10
15.92
19.00
22.32
25.89
29.70
33.74
38.03
42.55
47.30
52.28
57.49
62.92
68.59
74.47
80.58
86.91
93.46
100.22
107.20

1.89
3.99
6.80
10.27
14.39
19.14
24.51
30.47
37.03
44.17
51.89
60.17
69.01
78.41
88.35
98.83
109.86
121.41
133.50
146.11
159.24
172.89
187.05
201.73
216.91
232.60
248.78

1.38
2.06
2.75
3.44
4.13
4.81
5.50
6.19
6.88
7.56
8.25
8.94
9.63
10.31
11.00
11.69
12.38
13.07
13.75
14.44
15.13
15.82
16.50
17.19
17.88
18.57
19.25

63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315
347
379
410
442
473
505
536
568
599
631
662
694
725
757
789
820
852
883

0.18
0.39
0.66
1.00
1.40
1.86
2.38
2.96
3.60
4.30
5.05
5.86
6.72
7.63
8.60
9.62
10.70
11.83
13.00
14.23
15.51
16.85
18.23
19.66
21.14
22.67
24.25

1.89
3.99
6.80
10.27
14.39
19.14
24.51
30.47
37.03
44.17
51.89
60.17
69.01
78.41
88.35
98.83
109.86
121.41
133.50
146.11
159.24
172.89
187.05
201.73
216.91
232.60
248.78

0.42
0.63
0.84
1.05
1.26
1.47
1.68
1.89
2.10
2.31
2.52
2.72
2.93
3.14
3.35
3.56
3.77
3.98
4.19
4.40
4.61
4.82
5.03
5.24
5.45
5.66
5.87

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

60

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1/2" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.626 inches (15.900 mm)


0.624 inches (15.850 mm)
0.028 inches (0.711 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.6250 inches (15.875 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.5690 inches (14.4526 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.2543 sq. inches (164.05 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
12.00
12.50
13.00
13.50
14.00

0.66
1.39
2.37
3.58
5.01
6.67
8.54
10.62
12.91
15.41
18.10
20.99
24.08
27.36
30.83
34.50
38.35
42.39
46.61
51.02
55.61
60.39
65.34
70.47
75.78
81.26
86.93

1.53
3.24
5.51
8.33
11.67
15.52
19.87
24.71
30.03
35.82
42.07
48.79
55.96
63.57
71.64
80.14
89.08
98.45
108.25
118.47
129.12
140.19
151.67
163.57
175.88
188.60
201.72

1.26
1.89
2.52
3.15
3.79
4.42
5.05
5.68
6.31
6.94
7.57
8.20
8.83
9.46
10.09
10.72
11.36
11.99
12.62
13.25
13.88
14.51
15.14
15.77
16.40
17.03
17.66

63
95
126
158
189
221
252
284
315
347
379
410
442
473
505
536
568
599
631
662
694
725
757
789
820
852
883

0.15
0.31
0.54
0.81
1.13
1.51
1.93
2.40
2.92
3.48
4.09
4.75
5.45
6.19
6.98
7.80
8.68
9.59
10.54
11.54
12.58
13.66
14.78
15.94
17.14
18.38
19.66

1.53
3.24
5.51
8.33
11.67
15.52
19.87
24.71
30.03
35.82
42.07
48.79
55.96
63.57
71.64
80.14
89.08
98.45
108.25
118.47
129.12
140.19
151.67
163.57
175.88
188.60
201.72

0.38
0.58
0.77
0.96
1.15
1.35
1.54
1.73
1.92
2.12
2.31
2.50
2.69
2.88
3.08
3.27
3.46
3.65
3.85
4.04
4.23
4.42
4.61
4.81
5.00
5.19
5.38

5/8" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.751 inches (19.075 mm)


0.749 inches (19.025 mm)
0.049 inches (1.245 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.7500 inches (19.050 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.6520 inches (16.5608 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.3339 sq. inches (215.40 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00

0.34
1.22
2.58
4.40
6.66
9.33
12.41
15.90
19.77
24.03
28.67
33.69
39.07
44.82
50.92
57.39
64.21
71.38
78.89
86.76
94.96
103.51

0.79
2.84
6.02
10.24
15.48
21.69
28.85
36.93
45.92
55.81
66.57
78.20
90.68
104.00
118.16
133.14
148.95
165.56
182.98
201.19
220.19
239.98

0.96
1.92
2.88
3.84
4.80
5.77
6.73
7.69
8.65
9.61
10.57
11.53
12.49
13.45
14.41
15.37
16.34
17.30
18.26
19.22
20.18
21.14

63
126
189
252
315
379
442
505
568
631
694
757
820
883
946
1009
1072
1136
1199
1262
1325
1388

0.08
0.28
0.58
1.00
1.51
2.11
2.81
3.60
4.47
5.44
6.49
7.62
8.84
10.14
11.52
12.98
14.52
16.15
17.85
19.63
21.48
23.41

0.79
2.84
6.02
10.24
15.48
21.69
28.85
36.93
45.92
55.81
66.57
78.20
90.68
104.00
118.16
133.14
148.95
165.56
182.98
201.19
220.19
239.98

0.29
0.59
0.88
1.17
1.46
1.76
2.05
2.34
2.64
2.93
3.22
3.51
3.81
4.10
4.39
4.69
4.98
5.27
5.56
5.86
6.15
6.44

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

61

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A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

5/8" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.751 inches (19.075 mm)


0.749 inches (19.025 mm)
0.042 inches (1.067 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.7500 inches (19.050 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.6660 inches (16.9164 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.3484 sq. inches (224.75 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00

0.30
1.10
2.33
3.97
6.00
8.41
11.20
14.34
17.83
21.67
25.86
30.38
35.23
40.41
45.92
51.75
57.90
64.37
71.15
78.24
85.64
93.34

0.71
2.56
5.43
9.24
13.96
19.56
26.02
33.31
41.41
50.33
60.03
70.52
81.77
93.79
106.56
120.07
134.32
149.30
165.01
181.43
198.57
216.42

0.92
1.84
2.76
3.68
4.60
5.53
6.45
7.37
8.29
9.21
10.13
11.05
11.97
12.89
13.81
14.74
15.66
16.58
17.50
18.42
19.34
20.26

63
126
189
252
315
379
442
505
568
631
694
757
820
883
946
1009
1072
1136
1199
1262
1325
1388

0.07
0.25
0.53
0.90
1.36
1.90
2.53
3.24
4.03
4.90
5.85
6.87
7.97
9.14
10.39
11.71
13.10
14.56
16.09
17.70
19.37
21.11

0.71
2.56
5.43
9.24
13.96
19.56
26.02
33.31
41.41
50.33
60.03
70.52
81.77
93.79
106.56
120.07
134.32
149.30
165.01
181.43
198.57
216.42

0.28
0.56
0.84
1.12
1.40
1.68
1.96
2.25
2.53
2.81
3.09
3.37
3.65
3.93
4.21
4.49
4.77
5.05
5.33
5.61
5.89
6.18

3/4" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.876 inches (22.250 mm)


0.874 inches (22.200 mm)
0.065 inches (1.651 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.8750 inches (22.225 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.7450 inches (18.923 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.4359 sq. inches (281.24 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00

0.64
2.30
4.88
8.31
12.56
17.61
23.42
30.00
37.31
45.35
54.10
63.56
73.72
84.56
96.09

1.49
5.35
11.34
19.30
29.17
40.87
54.36
69.59
86.54
105.16
125.44
147.34
170.86
195.97
222.65

1.47
2.94
4.42
5.89
7.36
8.83
10.30
11.78
13.25
14.72
16.19
17.66
19.14
20.61
22.08

126
252
379
505
631
757
883
1009
1136
1262
1388
1514
1640
1766
1893

0.14
0.52
1.10
1.88
2.84
3.98
5.30
6.79
8.44
10.26
12.24
14.38
16.68
19.13
21.74

1.49
5.35
11.34
19.30
29.17
40.87
54.36
69.59
86.54
105.16
125.44
147.34
170.86
195.97
222.65

0.45
0.90
1.35
1.79
2.24
2.69
3.14
3.59
4.04
4.49
4.94
5.38
5.83
6.28
6.73

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

62

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

3/4" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.876 inches (22.250 mm)


0.874 inches (22.200 mm)
0.045 inches (1.143 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.8750 inches (22.225 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.7850 inches (19.939 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.4840 sq. inches (312.25 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00

0.4944
1.7846
3.7815
6.4425
9.7393
13.6513
18.1618
23.2573
28.9264
35.1590
41.9465
49.2811
57.1557
65.5641
74.5002

1.1517
4.1519
8.7905
14.9675
22.6169
31.6896
42.1472
53.9578
67.0944
81.5338
97.2555
114.2412
132.4747
151.9408
172.6261

1.3258
2.6516
3.9774
5.3032
6.6290
7.9548
9.2806
10.6064
11.9322
13.2580
14.5838
15.9096
17.2354
18.5613
19.8871

126.17
252.35
378.52
504.69
630.87
757.04
883.21
1009.39
1135.56
1261.73
1387.91
1514.08
1640.25
1766.43
1892.60

0.1118
0.4037
0.8554
1.4573
2.2031
3.0880
4.1083
5.2610
6.5434
7.9532
9.4886
11.1477
12.9290
14.8311
16.8525

1.1517
4.1519
8.7905
14.9675
22.6169
31.6896
42.1472
53.9578
67.0944
81.5338
97.2555
114.2412
132.4747
151.9408
172.6261

0.4041
0.8082
1.2123
1.6164
2.0205
2.4246
2.8287
3.2328
3.6369
4.0411
4.4452
4.8493
5.2534
5.6575
6.0616

3/4" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

0.876 inches (22.250 mm)


0.874 inches (22.200 mm)
0.032 inches (0.813 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 0.8750 inches (22.225 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.8110 inches (20.5994 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.5156 sq. inches (333.27 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00

0.42
1.52
3.23
5.50
8.31
11.65
15.50
19.85
24.69
30.00
35.80
42.06
48.78
55.95
63.58

0.98
3.54
7.50
12.77
19.30
27.04
35.97
46.05
57.26
69.58
83.00
97.49
113.05
129.66
147.32

1.24
2.48
3.73
4.97
6.21
7.45
8.70
9.94
11.18
12.42
13.66
14.91
16.15
17.39
18.63

126
252
379
505
631
757
883
1009
1136
1262
1388
1514
1640
1766
1893

0.10
0.34
0.73
1.24
1.88
2.64
3.51
4.49
5.58
6.79
8.10
9.51
11.03
12.66
14.38

0.98
3.54
7.50
12.77
19.30
27.04
35.97
46.05
57.26
69.58
83.00
97.49
113.05
129.66
147.32

0.38
0.76
1.14
1.51
1.89
2.27
2.65
3.03
3.41
3.79
4.16
4.54
4.92
5.30
5.68

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

63

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.1265 inches (28.613 mm)


1.1235 inches (28.537 mm)
0.0650 inches (1.651 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.1250 inches (28.575 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 0.9850 inches (25.273 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.7776 sq. inches (501.65 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
22.50
25.00
27.50
30.00
32.50
35.00
37.50
40.00
42.50
45.00
47.50
50.00
52.50
55.00

0.24
0.85
1.80
3.07
4.65
6.51
8.66
11.09
13.80
16.77
20.01
23.51
27.27
31.28
35.54
40.05
44.81
49.81
55.06
60.55
66.27
72.24

0.55
1.98
4.19
7.14
10.78
15.11
20.10
25.73
31.99
38.88
46.37
54.47
63.17
72.45
82.31
92.75
103.76
115.33
127.47
140.15
153.39
167.18

1.03
2.06
3.09
4.13
5.16
6.19
7.22
8.25
9.28
10.32
11.35
12.38
13.41
14.44
15.47
16.50
17.54
18.57
19.60
20.63
21.66
22.69

158
315
473
631
789
946
1104
1262
1419
1577
1735
1893
2050
2208
2366
2523
2681
2839
2997
3154
3312
3470

0.05
0.19
0.41
0.70
1.05
1.47
1.96
2.51
3.12
3.79
4.53
5.32
6.17
7.08
8.04
9.06
10.14
11.27
12.46
13.70
14.99
16.34

0.55
1.98
4.19
7.14
10.78
15.11
20.10
25.73
31.99
38.88
46.37
54.47
63.17
72.45
82.31
92.75
103.76
115.33
127.47
140.15
153.39
167.18

0.31
0.63
0.94
1.26
1.57
1.89
2.20
2.52
2.83
3.14
3.46
3.77
4.09
4.40
4.72
5.03
5.34
5.66
5.97
6.29
6.60
6.92

1" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.1265 inches (28.613 mm)


1.1235 inches (28.537 mm)
0.0500 inches (1.270 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.1250 inches (28.575 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.0250 inches (26.035 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.8252 sq. inches (532.36 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
22.50
25.00
27.50
30.00
32.50
35.00
37.50
40.00
42.50
45.00
47.50
50.00
52.50
55.00

0.20
0.74
1.56
2.66
4.02
5.64
7.50
9.60
11.94
14.52
17.32
20.35
23.60
27.07
30.76
34.66
38.78
43.11
47.65
52.40
57.36
62.52

0.48
1.71
3.63
6.18
9.33
13.08
17.39
22.27
27.69
33.65
40.13
47.14
54.67
62.70
71.24
80.27
89.80
99.81
110.31
121.29
132.75
144.68

0.97
1.94
2.92
3.89
4.86
5.83
6.80
7.78
8.75
9.72
10.69
11.66
12.64
13.61
14.58
15.55
16.52
17.50
18.47
19.44
20.41
21.38

158
315
473
631
789
946
1104
1262
1419
1577
1735
1893
2050
2208
2366
2523
2681
2839
2997
3154
3312
3470

0.05
0.17
0.35
0.60
0.91
1.27
1.70
2.17
2.70
3.28
3.92
4.60
5.34
6.12
6.96
7.84
8.77
9.75
10.78
11.85
12.97
14.14

0.48
1.71
3.63
6.18
9.33
13.08
17.39
22.27
27.69
33.65
40.13
47.14
54.67
62.70
71.24
80.27
89.80
99.81
110.31
121.29
132.75
144.68

0.30
0.59
0.89
1.19
1.48
1.78
2.07
2.37
2.67
2.96
3.26
3.56
3.85
4.15
4.44
4.74
5.04
5.33
5.63
5.93
6.22
6.52

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

64

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.1265 inches (28.613 mm)


1.1235 inches (28.537 mm)
0.0350 inches (0.889 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.1250 inches (28.575 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.0558 inches (26.797 mm)
Flow Area
= 0.8742 sq. inches (563.98 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
22.50
25.00
27.50
30.00
32.50
35.00
37.50
40.00
42.50
45.00
47.50
50.00
52.50
55.00

0.18
0.64
1.36
2.31
3.49
4.90
6.52
8.34
10.38
12.61
15.05
17.68
20.51
23.52
26.73
30.12
33.70
37.47
41.41
45.54
49.84
54.33

0.41
1.49
3.15
5.37
8.11
11.36
15.11
19.35
24.06
29.24
34.88
40.97
47.51
54.49
61.91
69.76
78.04
86.74
95.87
105.41
115.37
125.74

0.92
1.84
2.75
3.67
4.59
5.51
6.42
7.34
8.26
9.18
10.09
11.01
11.93
12.85
13.76
14.68
15.60
16.52
17.43
18.35
19.27
20.19

158
315
473
631
789
946
1104
1262
1419
1577
1735
1893
2050
2208
2366
2523
2681
2839
2997
3154
3312
3470

0.04
0.14
0.31
0.52
0.79
1.11
1.47
1.89
2.35
2.85
3.40
4.00
4.64
5.32
6.05
6.81
7.62
8.47
9.37
10.30
11.28
12.29

0.41
1.49
3.15
5.37
8.11
11.36
15.11
19.35
24.06
29.24
34.88
40.97
47.51
54.49
61.91
69.76
78.04
86.74
95.87
105.41
115.37
125.74

0.28
0.56
0.84
1.12
1.40
1.68
1.96
2.24
2.52
2.80
3.08
3.36
3.64
3.92
4.19
4.47
4.75
5.03
5.31
5.59
5.87
6.15

1 1/4" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.3765 inches (34.963 mm)


1.3735 inches (34.887 mm)
0.0650 inches (1.651 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.3750 inches (34.925 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.2450 inches (31.623 mm)
Flow Area
= 1.2174 sq. inches (785.41 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00

0.29
1.03
2.19
3.73
5.64
7.90
10.51
13.46
16.74
20.35
24.27
28.52
33.07
37.94
43.11
48.58

0.67
2.40
5.08
8.65
13.06
18.30
24.34
31.17
38.75
47.09
56.18
65.99
76.52
87.76
99.71
112.35

1.32
2.64
3.95
5.27
6.59
7.91
9.22
10.54
11.86
13.18
14.49
15.81
17.13
18.45
19.77
21.08

315
631
946
1262
1577
1893
2208
2523
2839
3154
3470
3785
4101
4416
4732
5047

0.06
0.23
0.49
0.84
1.27
1.79
2.38
3.04
3.79
4.60
5.49
6.45
7.48
8.58
9.75
10.99

0.67
2.40
5.08
8.65
13.06
18.30
24.34
31.17
38.75
47.09
56.18
65.99
76.52
87.76
99.71
112.35

0.40
0.80
1.20
1.61
2.01
2.41
2.81
3.21
3.61
4.02
4.42
4.82
5.22
5.62
6.02
6.43

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

65

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1 1/4" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.3765 inches (34.963 mm)


1.3735 inches (34.887 mm)
0.0550 inches (1.397 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.375 inches (34.925 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.265 inches (32.131 mm)
Flow Area
= 1.2568 sq. inches (810.85 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00

0.26
0.96
2.02
3.45
5.22
7.31
9.73
12.45
15.49
18.83
22.46
26.39
30.61
35.11
39.89
44.96

0.62
2.22
4.70
8.00
12.09
16.94
22.53
28.84
35.86
43.58
51.98
61.06
70.81
81.21
92.27
103.97

1.28
2.55
3.83
5.11
6.38
7.66
8.93
10.21
11.49
12.76
14.04
15.32
16.59
17.87
19.15
20.42

315
631
946
1262
1577
1893
2208
2523
2839
3154
3470
3785
4101
4416
4732
5047

0.06
0.22
0.46
0.78
1.18
1.65
2.20
2.82
3.50
4.26
5.08
5.97
6.92
7.94
9.02
10.17

0.62
2.22
4.70
8.00
12.09
16.94
22.53
28.84
35.86
43.58
51.98
61.06
70.81
81.21
92.27
103.97

0.39
0.78
1.17
1.56
1.95
2.33
2.72
3.11
3.50
3.89
4.28
4.67
5.06
5.45
5.84
6.22

1 1/4" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.3765 inches (34.963 mm)


1.3735 inches (34.887 mm)
0.0420 inches (1.067 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.3750 inches (34.925 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.2910 inches (32.7914 mm)
Flow Area
= 1.3090 sq. inches (844.52 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00

0.24
0.87
1.83
3.12
4.72
6.62
8.81
11.28
14.03
17.05
20.34
23.90
27.72
31.80
36.13
40.72

0.56
2.01
4.26
7.25
10.95
15.34
20.40
26.12
32.48
39.47
47.08
55.31
64.14
73.56
83.57
94.17

1.23
2.45
3.68
4.90
6.13
7.35
8.58
9.80
11.03
12.25
13.48
14.71
15.93
17.16
18.38
19.61

315
631
946
1262
1577
1893
2208
2523
2839
3154
3470
3785
4101
4416
4732
5047

0.05
0.20
0.41
0.71
1.07
1.50
1.99
2.55
3.17
3.86
4.60
5.41
6.27
7.19
8.17
9.21

0.56
2.01
4.26
7.25
10.95
15.34
20.40
26.12
32.48
39.47
47.08
55.31
64.14
73.56
83.57
94.17

0.37
0.75
1.12
1.49
1.87
2.24
2.61
2.99
3.36
3.74
4.11
4.48
4.86
5.23
5.60
5.98

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

66

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1 1/2" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.6270 inches (41.326 mm)


1.6230 inches (41.224 mm)
0.0720 inches (1.829 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.6250 inches (41.275 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.4810 inches (38.227 mm)
Flow Area
= 1.7227 sq. inches (1111.39 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
95.00
100.00
105.00
110.00
115.00

0.12
0.44
0.94
1.60
2.42
3.39
4.52
5.78
7.19
8.74
10.43
12.26
14.21
16.30
18.53
20.88
23.36
25.97
28.70
31.56
34.55
37.66
40.89

0.29
1.03
2.18
3.72
5.61
7.87
10.46
13.39
16.65
20.24
24.14
28.36
32.88
37.72
42.85
48.28
54.01
60.04
66.35
72.96
79.85
87.03
94.49

0.93
1.86
2.79
3.72
4.66
5.59
6.52
7.45
8.38
9.31
10.24
11.17
12.11
13.04
13.97
14.90
15.83
16.76
17.69
18.62
19.56
20.49
21.42

315
631
946
1262
1577
1893
2208
2523
2839
3154
3470
3785
4101
4416
4732
5047
5362
5678
5993
6309
6624
6940
7255

0.03
0.10
0.21
0.36
0.55
0.77
1.02
1.31
1.63
1.98
2.36
2.77
3.22
3.69
4.19
4.72
5.28
5.87
6.49
7.14
7.82
8.52
9.25

0.29
1.03
2.18
3.72
5.61
7.87
10.46
13.39
16.65
20.24
24.14
28.36
32.88
37.72
42.85
48.28
54.01
60.04
66.35
72.96
79.85
87.03
94.49

0.28
0.57
0.85
1.14
1.42
1.70
1.99
2.27
2.55
2.84
3.12
3.41
3.69
3.97
4.26
4.54
4.83
5.11
5.39
5.68
5.96
6.24
6.53

1 1/2" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.6270 inches (41.326 mm)


1.6230 inches (41.224 mm)
0.0600 inches (1.524 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.6250 inches (41.275 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.5050 inches (37.6174 mm)
Flow Area
= 1.7789 sq. inches (1147.71 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
95.00
100.00
105.00
110.00
115.00

0.11
0.41
0.87
1.48
2.24
3.14
4.18
5.35
6.65
8.09
9.65
11.33
13.14
15.08
17.13
19.31
21.60
24.01
26.54
29.19
31.95
34.82
37.81

0.26
0.95
2.02
3.44
5.19
7.27
9.67
12.39
15.40
18.72
22.32
26.22
30.41
34.88
39.63
44.65
49.95
55.52
61.36
67.47
73.84
80.48
87.38

0.90
1.80
2.71
3.61
4.51
5.41
6.31
7.21
8.12
9.02
9.92
10.82
11.72
12.62
13.53
14.43
15.33
16.23
17.13
18.03
18.94
19.84
20.74

315
631
946
1262
1577
1893
2208
2523
2839
3154
3470
3785
4101
4416
4732
5047
5362
5678
5993
6309
6624
6940
7255

0.03
0.09
0.20
0.34
0.51
0.71
0.94
1.21
1.50
1.83
2.18
2.56
2.97
3.41
3.88
4.37
4.89
5.43
6.00
6.60
7.23
7.88
8.55

0.26
0.95
2.02
3.44
5.19
7.27
9.67
12.39
15.40
18.72
22.32
26.22
30.41
34.88
39.63
44.65
49.95
55.52
61.36
67.47
73.84
80.48
87.38

0.27
0.55
0.82
1.10
1.37
1.65
1.92
2.20
2.47
2.75
3.02
3.30
3.57
3.85
4.12
4.40
4.67
4.95
5.22
5.50
5.77
6.05
6.32

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

67

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

1 1/2" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

1.6270 inches (41.326 mm)


1.6230 inches (41.224 mm)
0.0490 inches (1.2446 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 1.6250 inches (41.275 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.5270 inches (38.7858 mm)
Flow Area
= 1.8313 sq. inches (1181.50 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
95.00
100.00
105.00
110.00
115.00

0.11
0.38
0.81
1.38
2.09
2.93
3.89
4.98
6.20
7.53
8.99
10.56
12.25
14.05
15.96
17.99
20.13
22.38
24.73
27.20
29.77
32.45
35.23

0.25
0.89
1.88
3.20
4.84
6.78
9.02
11.54
14.35
17.44
20.80
24.44
28.34
32.50
36.92
41.61
46.55
51.74
57.18
62.87
68.81
74.99
81.42

0.88
1.75
2.63
3.50
4.38
5.26
6.13
7.01
7.88
8.76
9.64
10.51
11.39
12.26
13.14
14.02
14.89
15.77
16.64
17.52
18.40
19.27
20.15

315
631
946
1262
1577
1893
2208
2523
2839
3154
3470
3785
4101
4416
4732
5047
5362
5678
5993
6309
6624
6940
7255

0.02
0.09
0.18
0.31
0.47
0.66
0.88
1.13
1.40
1.70
2.03
2.39
2.77
3.18
3.61
4.07
4.55
5.06
5.59
6.15
6.73
7.34
7.97

0.25
0.89
1.88
3.20
4.84
6.78
9.02
11.54
14.35
17.44
20.80
24.44
28.34
32.50
36.92
41.61
46.55
51.74
57.18
62.87
68.81
74.99
81.42

0.27
0.53
0.80
1.07
1.33
1.60
1.87
2.14
2.40
2.67
2.94
3.20
3.47
3.74
4.00
4.27
4.54
4.81
5.07
5.34
5.61
5.87
6.14

2" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

2.1270 inches (54.026 mm)


2.1230 inches (53.924 mm)
0.0830 inches (2.1082 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 2.1250 inches (53.975 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.9590 inches (49.7586 mm)
Flow Area
= 3.0141 sq. inches (1944.58 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.11
0.41
0.87
1.48
2.24
3.14
4.18
5.35
6.66
8.09
9.66
11.34
13.16
15.09
17.15
19.33
21.62
24.04
26.57
29.22

0.26
0.95
2.02
3.43
5.19
7.27
9.67
12.38
15.39
18.71
22.32
26.21
30.40
34.86
39.61
44.63
49.93
55.50
61.34
67.44

1.06
2.13
3.19
4.26
5.32
6.39
7.45
8.52
9.58
10.64
11.71
12.77
13.84
14.90
15.97
17.03
18.10
19.16
20.22
21.29

631
1262
1893
2523
3154
3785
4416
5047
5678
6309
6940
7570
8201
8832
9463
10094
10725
11356
11986
12617

0.03
0.09
0.20
0.34
0.51
0.71
0.95
1.21
1.51
1.83
2.18
2.57
2.98
3.41
3.88
4.37
4.89
5.44
6.01
6.61

0.26
0.95
2.02
3.43
5.19
7.27
9.67
12.38
15.39
18.71
22.32
26.21
30.40
34.86
39.61
44.63
49.93
55.50
61.34
67.44

0.32
0.65
0.97
1.30
1.62
1.95
2.27
2.60
2.92
3.24
3.57
3.89
4.22
4.54
4.87
5.19
5.52
5.84
6.16
6.49

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

68

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

2" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

2.1270 inches (54.026 mm)


2.1230 inches (53.924 mm)
0.0700 inches (1.778 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 2.1250 inches (53.975 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 1.9850 inches (50.419 mm)
Flow Area
= 3.0946 sq. inches (1996.54 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.11
0.39
0.82
1.39
2.10
2.95
3.92
5.02
6.24
7.59
9.06
10.64
12.34
14.15
16.08
18.13
20.28
22.54
24.92
27.40

0.25
0.89
1.89
3.22
4.87
6.82
9.07
11.61
14.44
17.55
20.93
24.58
28.51
32.70
37.15
41.86
46.83
52.05
57.53
63.25

1.04
2.07
3.11
4.15
5.18
6.22
7.26
8.29
9.33
10.37
11.40
12.44
13.48
14.51
15.55
16.59
17.62
18.66
19.70
20.73

631
1262
1893
2523
3154
3785
4416
5047
5678
6309
6940
7570
8201
8832
9463
10094
10725
11356
11986
12617

0.02
0.09
0.18
0.31
0.48
0.67
0.89
1.14
1.41
1.72
2.05
2.41
2.79
3.20
3.64
4.10
4.59
5.10
5.64
6.20

0.25
0.89
1.89
3.22
4.87
6.82
9.07
11.61
14.44
17.55
20.93
24.58
28.51
32.70
37.15
41.86
46.83
52.05
57.53
63.25

0.32
0.63
0.95
1.26
1.58
1.90
2.21
2.53
2.84
3.16
3.48
3.79
4.11
4.42
4.74
5.06
5.37
5.69
6.00
6.32

2" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

2.1270 inches (54.026 mm)


2.1230 inches (53.924 mm)
0.0580 inches (1.4732 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 2.1250 inches (53.975 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.0090 inches (51.0286 mm)
Flow Area
= 3.1699 sq. inches (2045.11 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.10
0.36
0.77
1.31
1.98
2.78
3.70
4.74
5.89
7.16
8.54
10.03
11.64
13.35
15.17
17.10
19.13
21.26
23.50
25.84

0.23
0.84
1.78
3.04
4.59
6.43
8.55
10.95
13.62
16.55
19.74
23.19
26.89
30.84
35.04
39.48
44.17
49.09
54.26
59.66

1.01
2.02
3.04
4.05
5.06
6.07
7.08
8.10
9.11
10.12
11.13
12.15
13.16
14.17
15.18
16.19
17.21
18.22
19.23
20.24

631
1262
1893
2523
3154
3785
4416
5047
5678
6309
6940
7570
8201
8832
9463
10094
10725
11356
11986
12617

0.02
0.08
0.17
0.30
0.45
0.63
0.84
1.07
1.33
1.62
1.93
2.27
2.63
3.02
3.43
3.87
4.33
4.81
5.32
5.85

0.23
0.84
1.78
3.04
4.59
6.43
8.55
10.95
13.62
16.55
19.74
23.19
26.89
30.84
35.04
39.48
44.17
49.09
54.26
59.66

0.31
0.62
0.93
1.23
1.54
1.85
2.16
2.47
2.78
3.08
3.39
3.70
4.01
4.32
4.63
4.94
5.24
5.55
5.86
6.17

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

69

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

2 1/2" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

2.6270 inches (66.7258 mm)


2.6230 inches (66.6242 mm)
0.0950 inches (2.413 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 2.6250 inches (66.675 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.4350 inches (61.849 mm)
Flow Area
= 4.6568 sq. inches (3004.380 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320

0.14
0.51
1.09
1.86
2.81
3.94
5.24
6.71
8.34
10.14
12.10
14.21
16.48
18.91
21.48
24.21

0.33
1.19
2.52
4.30
6.49
9.10
12.10
15.49
19.26
23.41
27.92
32.79
38.03
43.62
49.55
55.84

1.38
2.76
4.13
5.51
6.89
8.27
9.65
11.02
12.40
13.78
15.16
16.53
17.91
19.29
20.67
22.05

1262
2523
3785
5047
6309
7570
8832
10094
11356
12617
13879
15141
16403
17664
18926
20188

0.03
0.12
0.25
0.42
0.64
0.89
1.18
1.52
1.89
2.29
2.74
3.21
3.73
4.28
4.86
5.48

0.33
1.19
2.52
4.30
6.49
9.10
12.10
15.49
19.26
23.41
27.92
32.79
38.03
43.62
49.55
55.84

0.42
0.84
1.26
1.68
2.10
2.52
2.94
3.36
3.78
4.20
4.62
5.04
5.46
5.88
6.30
6.72

2 1/2" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

2.6270 inches (66.7258 mm)


2.6230 inches (66.6242 mm)
0.0800 inches (2.032 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 2.6250 inches (66.675 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.4650 inches (62.611 mm)
Flow Area
= 4.7723 sq. inches (3078.87 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320

0.13
0.48
1.03
1.75
2.65
3.71
4.93
6.32
7.86
9.55
11.40
13.39
15.53
17.81
20.24
22.81

0.31
1.12
2.38
4.05
6.12
8.57
11.40
14.59
18.15
22.05
26.30
30.90
35.83
41.09
46.69
52.61

1.34
2.69
4.03
5.38
6.72
8.07
9.41
10.76
12.10
13.45
14.79
16.13
17.48
18.82
20.17
21.51

1262
2523
3785
5047
6309
7570
8832
10094
11356
12617
13879
15141
16403
17664
18926
20188

0.03
0.11
0.23
0.40
0.60
0.84
1.12
1.43
1.78
2.16
2.58
3.03
3.51
4.03
4.58
5.16

0.31
1.12
2.38
4.05
6.12
8.57
11.40
14.59
18.15
22.05
26.30
30.90
35.83
41.09
46.69
52.61

0.41
0.82
1.23
1.64
2.05
2.46
2.87
3.28
3.69
4.10
4.51
4.92
5.33
5.74
6.15
6.56

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

70

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

2 1/2" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

2.6270 inches (66.7258 mm)


2.6230 inches (66.6242 mm)
0.0650 inches (1.651 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 2.6250 inches (66.675 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.4950 inches (63.373 mm)
Flow Area
= 4.8891 sq. inches (3154.27 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320

0.13
0.46
0.97
1.65
2.50
3.50
4.65
5.96
7.41
9.01
10.75
12.62
14.64
16.80
19.09
21.51

0.29
1.06
2.24
3.82
5.77
8.08
10.75
13.76
17.11
20.79
24.80
29.13
33.78
38.75
44.02
49.60

1.31
2.62
3.94
5.25
6.56
7.87
9.19
10.50
11.81
13.12
14.44
15.75
17.06
18.37
19.69
21.00

1262
2523
3785
5047
6309
7570
8832
10094
11356
12617
13879
15141
16403
17664
18926
20188

0.03
0.10
0.22
0.37
0.56
0.79
1.05
1.35
1.68
2.04
2.43
2.86
3.31
3.80
4.32
4.87

0.29
1.06
2.24
3.82
5.77
8.08
10.75
13.76
17.11
20.79
24.80
29.13
33.78
38.75
44.02
49.60

0.40
0.80
1.20
1.60
2.00
2.40
2.80
3.20
3.60
4.00
4.40
4.80
5.20
5.60
6.00
6.40

3" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

3.1270 inches (79.4258 mm)


3.1230 inches (79.3242 mm)
0.1090 inches (2.7686 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 3.1250 inches (79.375 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.9070 inches (73.8378 mm)
Flow Area
= 6.6371 sq. inches (4282.01 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425

0.09
0.33
0.70
1.19
1.79
2.51
3.34
4.28
5.33
6.47
7.72
9.07
10.52
12.07
13.72
15.46
17.29

0.21
0.76
1.61
2.74
4.14
5.80
7.72
9.88
12.29
14.94
17.82
20.93
24.27
27.83
31.62
35.63
39.86

1.21
2.42
3.63
4.83
6.04
7.25
8.46
9.67
10.88
12.08
13.29
14.50
15.71
16.92
18.13
19.34
20.54

1577
3154
4732
6309
7886
9463
11040
12617
14195
15772
17349
18926
20503
22080
23658
25235
26812

0.02
0.07
0.16
0.27
0.41
0.57
0.76
0.97
1.20
1.46
1.75
2.05
2.38
2.73
3.10
3.50
3.91

0.21
0.76
1.61
2.74
4.14
5.80
7.72
9.88
12.29
14.94
17.82
20.93
24.27
27.83
31.62
35.63
39.86

0.37
0.74
1.11
1.47
1.84
2.21
2.58
2.95
3.32
3.68
4.05
4.42
4.79
5.16
5.53
5.89
6.26

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

71

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

3" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

3.1270 inches (79.4258 mm)


3.1230 inches (79.3242 mm)
0.0900 inches (2.286 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 3.1250 inches (79.375 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.9450 inches (74.803 mm)
Flow Area
= 6.8118 sq. inches (4394.69 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425

0.09
0.31
0.65
1.11
1.68
2.36
3.14
4.02
5.00
6.08
7.25
8.52
9.88
11.33
12.88
14.51
16.24

0.20
0.71
1.51
2.57
3.89
5.45
7.25
9.28
11.54
14.02
16.72
19.65
22.78
26.13
29.69
33.45
37.42

1.18
2.35
3.53
4.71
5.89
7.06
8.24
9.42
10.60
11.77
12.95
14.13
15.31
16.48
17.66
18.84
20.02

1577
3154
4732
6309
7886
9463
11040
12617
14195
15772
17349
18926
20503
22080
23658
25235
26812

0.02
0.07
0.15
0.25
0.38
0.53
0.71
0.91
1.13
1.37
1.64
1.93
2.23
2.56
2.91
3.28
3.67

0.20
0.71
1.51
2.57
3.89
5.45
7.25
9.28
11.54
14.02
16.72
19.65
22.78
26.13
29.69
33.45
37.42

0.36
0.72
1.08
1.44
1.79
2.15
2.51
2.87
3.23
3.59
3.95
4.31
4.67
5.02
5.38
5.74
6.10

3" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

3.1270 inches (79.4258 mm)


3.1230 inches (79.3242 mm)
0.0720 inches (1.8288 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 3.1250 inches (79.375 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 2.9810 inches (75.7174 mm)
Flow Area
= 6.9793 sq. inches (4502.79 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425

0.08
0.29
0.62
1.05
1.59
2.22
2.96
3.79
4.71
5.73
6.83
8.03
9.31
10.68
12.14
13.68
15.30

0.19
0.67
1.42
2.43
3.67
5.14
6.83
8.75
10.88
13.22
15.76
18.52
21.47
24.63
27.98
31.53
35.27

1.15
2.30
3.45
4.60
5.75
6.90
8.04
9.19
10.34
11.49
12.64
13.79
14.94
16.09
17.24
18.39
19.54

1577
3154
4732
6309
7886
9463
11040
12617
14195
15772
17349
18926
20503
22080
23658
25235
26812

0.02
0.07
0.14
0.24
0.36
0.50
0.67
0.86
1.07
1.30
1.55
1.82
2.11
2.42
2.75
3.09
3.46

0.19
0.67
1.42
2.43
3.67
5.14
6.83
8.75
10.88
13.22
15.76
18.52
21.47
24.63
27.98
31.53
35.27

0.35
0.70
1.05
1.40
1.75
2.10
2.45
2.80
3.15
3.50
3.85
4.20
4.55
4.90
5.25
5.60
5.95

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

72

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

3 1/2" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

3.6270 inches (92.1258 mm)


3.6230 inches (92.0242 mm)
0.1200 inches (3.048 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 3.6250 inches (92.075 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 3.3850 inches (85.979 mm)
Flow Area
= 6.9993 sq. inches (5805.97 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575
600

0.04
0.16
0.33
0.57
0.85
1.20
1.59
2.04
2.54
3.09
3.68
4.33
5.02
5.76
6.54
7.37
8.25
9.17
10.13
11.14
12.20
13.29
14.43
15.62

0.10
0.36
0.77
1.31
1.98
2.77
3.68
4.71
5.86
7.12
8.49
9.98
11.57
13.27
15.08
16.99
19.01
21.12
23.35
25.67
28.10
30.62
33.25
35.97

0.89
1.78
2.67
3.57
4.46
5.35
6.24
7.13
8.02
8.91
9.80
10.70
11.59
12.48
13.37
14.26
15.15
16.04
16.93
17.83
18.72
19.61
20.50
21.39

1577
3154
4732
6309
7886
9463
11040
12617
14195
15772
17349
18926
20503
22080
23658
25235
26812
28389
29966
31543
33121
34698
36275
37852

0.01
0.04
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.27
0.36
0.46
0.57
0.70
0.83
0.98
1.13
1.30
1.48
1.67
1.87
2.07
2.29
2.52
2.76
3.01
3.26
3.53

0.10
0.36
0.77
1.31
1.98
2.77
3.68
4.71
5.86
7.12
8.49
9.98
11.57
13.27
15.08
16.99
19.01
21.12
23.35
25.67
28.10
30.62
33.25
35.97

0.27
0.54
0.81
1.09
1.36
1.63
1.90
2.17
2.44
2.72
2.99
3.26
3.53
3.80
4.07
4.35
4.62
4.89
5.16
5.43
5.70
5.98
6.25
6.52

3 1/2" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

3.6270 inches (92.1258 mm)


3.6230 inches (92.0242 mm)
0.1000 inches (2.540 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 3.6250 inches (92.075 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 3.4250 inches (86.995 mm)
Flow Area
= 9.2132 sq. inches (5944.00 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575
600

0.04
0.15
0.31
0.53
0.81
1.13
1.51
1.93
2.40
2.91
3.48
4.09
4.74
5.44
6.18
6.96
7.79
8.66
9.57
10.52
11.52
12.55
13.63
14.75

0.09
0.34
0.73
1.23
1.87
2.61
3.48
4.45
5.53
6.73
8.02
9.42
10.93
12.53
14.24
16.05
17.95
19.95
22.05
24.25
26.54
28.92
31.40
33.97

0.87
1.74
2.61
3.48
4.35
5.22
6.09
6.96
7.84
8.71
9.58
10.45
11.32
12.19
13.06
13.93
14.80
15.67
16.54
17.41
18.28
19.15
20.02
20.89

1577
3154
4732
6309
7886
9463
11040
12617
14195
15772
17349
18926
20503
22080
23658
25235
26812
28389
29966
31543
33121
34698
36275
37852

0.01
0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.26
0.34
0.44
0.54
0.66
0.79
0.92
1.07
1.23
1.40
1.57
1.76
1.96
2.16
2.38
2.61
2.84
3.08
3.34

0.09
0.34
0.73
1.23
1.87
2.61
3.48
4.45
5.53
6.73
8.02
9.42
10.93
12.53
14.24
16.05
17.95
19.95
22.05
24.25
26.54
28.92
31.40
33.97

0.27
0.53
0.80
1.06
1.33
1.59
1.86
2.12
2.39
2.65
2.92
3.18
3.45
3.71
3.98
4.25
4.51
4.78
5.04
5.31
5.57
5.84
6.10
6.37

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

73

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

3 1/2" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

3.6270 inches (92.1258 mm)


3.6230 inches (92.0242 mm)
0.0830 inches (2.1082 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 3.6250 inches (92.075 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 3.4590 inches (87.8586 mm)
Flow Area
= 9.397 sq. inches (6062.59 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575
600

0.04
0.14
0.30
0.51
0.77
1.08
1.44
1.84
2.29
2.78
3.31
3.89
4.52
5.18
5.89
6.63
7.42
8.25
9.12
10.03
10.98
11.96
12.99
14.06

0.09
0.33
0.69
1.18
1.78
2.49
3.31
4.24
5.27
6.41
7.65
8.98
10.41
11.94
13.57
15.29
17.11
19.02
21.02
23.11
25.29
27.56
29.93
32.38

0.85
1.71
2.56
3.41
4.27
5.12
5.97
6.83
7.68
8.54
9.39
10.24
11.10
11.95
12.80
13.66
14.51
15.36
16.22
17.07
17.92
18.78
19.63
20.49

1577
3154
4732
6309
7886
9463
11040
12617
14195
15772
17349
18926
20503
22080
23658
25235
26812
28389
29966
31543
33121
34698
36275
37852

0.01
0.03
0.07
0.12
0.17
0.24
0.32
0.42
0.52
0.63
0.75
0.88
1.02
1.17
1.33
1.50
1.68
1.87
2.06
2.27
2.48
2.71
2.94
3.18

0.09
0.33
0.69
1.18
1.78
2.49
3.31
4.24
5.27
6.41
7.65
8.98
10.41
11.94
13.57
15.29
17.11
19.02
21.02
23.11
25.29
27.56
29.93
32.38

0.26
0.52
0.78
1.04
1.30
1.56
1.82
2.08
2.34
2.60
2.86
3.12
3.38
3.64
3.90
4.16
4.42
4.68
4.94
5.20
5.46
5.72
5.98
6.24

4" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

4.1270 inches (104.8258 mm)


4.1230 inches (104.7242 mm)
0.1340 inches (3.4036 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 4.1250 inches (104.775 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 3.8570 inches (97.9678 mm)
Flow Area
= 11.6839 sq. inches (7538.01 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

0.08
0.30
0.63
1.08
1.64
2.29
3.05
3.91
4.86
5.90
7.04
8.27
9.60
11.01
12.51
14.10
15.77
17.53
19.38
21.31

0.19
0.69
1.47
2.50
3.77
5.29
7.03
9.00
11.19
13.60
16.23
19.06
22.10
25.35
28.80
32.45
36.30
40.35
44.60
49.04

1.37
2.75
4.12
5.49
6.86
8.24
9.61
10.98
12.36
13.73
15.10
16.48
17.85
19.22
20.59
21.97
23.34
24.71
26.09
27.46

3154
6309
9463
12617
15772
18926
22080
25235
28389
31543
34698
37852
41006
44161
47315
50469
53624
56778
59932
63087

0.02
0.07
0.14
0.24
0.37
0.52
0.69
0.88
1.10
1.34
1.59
1.87
2.17
2.49
2.83
3.19
3.57
3.97
4.38
4.82

0.19
0.69
1.47
2.50
3.77
5.29
7.03
9.00
11.19
13.60
16.23
19.06
22.10
25.35
28.80
32.45
36.30
40.35
44.60
49.04

0.42
0.84
1.26
1.67
2.09
2.51
2.93
3.35
3.77
4.18
4.60
5.02
5.44
5.86
6.28
6.70
7.11
7.53
7.95
8.37

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

74

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

4" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

4.1270 inches (104.8258 mm)


4.1230 inches (104.7242 mm)
0.1100 inches (2.794 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 4.1250 inches (104.775 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 3.9050 inches (99.187 mm)
Flow Area
= 11.9766 sq. inches (7726.80 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

0.08
0.28
0.60
1.02
1.54
2.16
2.87
3.68
4.57
5.56
6.63
7.79
9.04
10.37
11.78
13.27
14.85
16.51
18.25
20.07

0.18
0.65
1.38
2.35
3.55
4.98
6.62
8.48
10.54
12.81
15.28
17.95
20.81
23.87
27.12
30.56
34.18
38.00
41.99
46.17

1.34
2.68
4.02
5.36
6.70
8.04
9.38
10.72
12.05
13.39
14.73
16.07
17.41
18.75
20.09
21.43
22.77
24.11
25.45
26.79

3154
6309
9463
12617
15772
18926
22080
25235
28389
31543
34698
37852
41006
44161
47315
50469
53624
56778
59932
63087

0.02
0.06
0.14
0.23
0.35
0.49
0.65
0.83
1.03
1.26
1.50
1.76
2.04
2.34
2.66
3.00
3.36
3.73
4.13
4.54

0.18
0.65
1.38
2.35
3.55
4.98
6.62
8.48
10.54
12.81
15.28
17.95
20.81
23.87
27.12
30.56
34.18
38.00
41.99
46.17

0.41
0.82
1.22
1.63
2.04
2.45
2.86
3.27
3.67
4.08
4.49
4.90
5.31
5.72
6.12
6.53
6.94
7.35
7.76
8.17

4" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

4.1270 inches (104.8258 mm)


4.1230 inches (104.7242 mm)
0.0950 inches (2.413 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 4.1250 inches (104.775 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 3.9350 inches (99.949 mm)
Flow Area
= 12.1613 sq. inches (7845.87 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

0.08
0.27
0.58
0.98
1.48
2.08
2.77
3.54
4.41
5.36
6.39
7.51
8.71
9.99
11.35
12.79
14.31
15.91
17.58
19.33

0.17
0.63
1.33
2.27
3.42
4.80
6.38
8.17
10.15
12.34
14.72
17.29
20.05
23.00
26.13
29.44
32.93
36.61
40.46
44.49

1.32
2.64
3.96
5.28
6.60
7.91
9.23
10.55
11.87
13.19
14.51
15.83
17.15
18.47
19.79
21.11
22.42
23.74
25.06
26.38

3154
6309
9463
12617
15772
18926
22080
25235
28389
31543
34698
37852
41006
44161
47315
50469
53624
56778
59932
63087

0.02
0.06
0.13
0.22
0.34
0.47
0.63
0.80
1.00
1.21
1.45
1.70
1.97
2.26
2.57
2.89
3.24
3.60
3.98
4.37

0.17
0.63
1.33
2.27
3.42
4.80
6.38
8.17
10.15
12.34
14.72
17.29
20.05
23.00
26.13
29.44
32.93
36.61
40.46
44.49

0.40
0.80
1.21
1.61
2.01
2.41
2.81
3.22
3.62
4.02
4.42
4.82
5.23
5.63
6.03
6.43
6.83
7.24
7.64
8.04

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

75

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

5" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

5.1270 inches (130.2258 mm)


5.1230 inches (130.1242 mm)
0.1600 inches (4.064 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 5.1250 inches (130.175 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 4.8050 inches (122.047 mm)
Flow Area
= 18.1333 sq. inches (11698.87 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150

0.03
0.10
0.22
0.37
0.56
0.79
1.05
1.34
1.67
2.03
2.42
2.84
3.29
3.78
4.29
4.84
5.41
6.02
6.65
7.32
8.01
8.73
9.48

0.07
0.24
0.50
0.86
1.30
1.81
2.41
3.09
3.84
4.67
5.57
6.54
7.59
8.70
9.89
11.14
12.46
13.85
15.31
16.83
18.42
20.08
21.80

0.88
1.77
2.65
3.54
4.42
5.31
6.19
7.08
7.96
8.85
9.73
10.62
11.50
12.39
13.27
14.15
15.04
15.92
16.81
17.69
18.58
19.46
20.35

3154
6309
9463
12617
15772
18926
22080
25235
28389
31543
34698
37852
41006
44161
47315
50469
53624
56778
59932
63087
66241
69395
72550

0.01
0.02
0.05
0.08
0.13
0.18
0.24
0.30
0.38
0.46
0.55
0.64
0.75
0.85
0.97
1.09
1.22
1.36
1.50
1.65
1.81
1.97
2.14

0.07
0.24
0.50
0.86
1.30
1.81
2.41
3.09
3.84
4.67
5.57
6.54
7.59
8.70
9.89
11.14
12.46
13.85
15.31
16.83
18.42
20.08
21.80

0.27
0.54
0.81
1.08
1.35
1.62
1.89
2.16
2.43
2.70
2.97
3.24
3.51
3.77
4.04
4.31
4.58
4.85
5.12
5.39
5.66
5.93
6.20

5" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

5.1270 inches (130.2258 mm)


5.1230 inches (130.1242 mm)
0.1250 inches (3.175 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 5.1250 inches (130.175 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 4.8750 inches (123.825 mm)
Flow Area
= 18.6655 sq. inches (12042.22 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150

0.03
0.10
0.20
0.35
0.52
0.73
0.98
1.25
1.55
1.89
2.25
2.65
3.07
3.52
4.00
4.51
5.05
5.61
6.20
6.82
7.46
8.13
8.83

0.06
0.22
0.47
0.80
1.21
1.69
2.25
2.88
3.58
4.35
5.19
6.10
7.07
8.11
9.21
10.38
11.61
12.91
14.27
15.69
17.17
18.71
20.32

0.86
1.72
2.58
3.44
4.30
5.16
6.02
6.88
7.73
8.59
9.45
10.31
11.17
12.03
12.89
13.75
14.61
15.47
16.33
17.19
18.05
18.91
19.77

3154
6309
9463
12617
15772
18926
22080
25235
28389
31543
34698
37852
41006
44161
47315
50469
53624
56778
59932
63087
66241
69395
72550

0.01
0.02
0.05
0.08
0.12
0.17
0.22
0.28
0.35
0.43
0.51
0.60
0.69
0.80
0.91
1.02
1.14
1.27
1.40
1.54
1.69
1.84
2.00

0.06
0.22
0.47
0.80
1.21
1.69
2.25
2.88
3.58
4.35
5.19
6.10
7.07
8.11
9.21
10.38
11.61
12.91
14.27
15.69
17.17
18.71
20.32

0.26
0.52
0.79
1.05
1.31
1.57
1.83
2.10
2.36
2.62
2.88
3.14
3.41
3.67
3.93
4.19
4.45
4.72
4.98
5.24
5.50
5.76
6.02

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

76

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

5" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

5.1270 inches (130.2258 mm)


5.1230 inches (130.1242 mm)
0.1090 inches (2.7686 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 5.1250 inches (130.175 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 4.9070 inches (124.6378 mm)
Flow Area
= 18.9113 sq. inches (12200.83 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150

0.03
0.09
0.20
0.34
0.51
0.71
0.95
1.21
1.51
1.83
2.18
2.56
2.97
3.41
3.88
4.37
4.89
5.43
6.01
6.60
7.23
7.88
8.56

0.06
0.21
0.45
0.77
1.17
1.64
2.18
2.79
3.47
4.22
5.03
5.91
6.85
7.86
8.93
10.06
11.25
12.51
13.82
15.20
16.63
18.13
19.68

0.85
1.70
2.54
3.39
4.24
5.09
5.94
6.79
7.63
8.48
9.33
10.18
11.03
11.88
12.72
13.57
14.42
15.27
16.12
16.97
17.81
18.66
19.51

3154
6309
9463
12617
15772
18926
22080
25235
28389
31543
34698
37852
41006
44161
47315
50469
53624
56778
59932
63087
66241
69395
72550

0.01
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.11
0.16
0.21
0.27
0.34
0.41
0.49
0.58
0.67
0.77
0.88
0.99
1.11
1.23
1.36
1.49
1.64
1.78
1.94

0.06
0.21
0.45
0.77
1.17
1.64
2.18
2.79
3.47
4.22
5.03
5.91
6.85
7.86
8.93
10.06
11.25
12.51
13.82
15.20
16.63
18.13
19.68

0.26
0.52
0.78
1.03
1.29
1.55
1.81
2.07
2.33
2.59
2.84
3.10
3.36
3.62
3.88
4.14
4.40
4.65
4.91
5.17
5.43
5.69
5.95

6" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

6.1270 inches (155.6258 mm)


6.1230 inches (155.5242 mm)
0.1920 inches (4.8768 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 6.1250 inches (155.575 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 5.7410 inches (145.8214 mm)
Flow Area
= 25.8860 sq. inches (16700.61 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

0.04
0.16
0.33
0.56
0.85
1.19
1.59
2.04
2.53
3.08
3.67
4.31
5.00
5.74
6.52
7.35
8.22
9.14

0.10
0.36
0.76
1.30
1.96
2.75
3.66
4.69
5.83
7.08
8.45
9.92
11.50
13.19
14.99
16.89
18.90
21.00

1.24
2.48
3.72
4.96
6.20
7.44
8.68
9.92
11.15
12.39
13.63
14.87
16.11
17.35
18.59
19.83
21.07
22.31

6309
12617
18926
25235
31543
37852
44161
50469
56778
63087
69395
75704
82013
88321
94630
100939
107247
113556

0.01
0.04
0.07
0.13
0.19
0.27
0.36
0.46
0.57
0.70
0.83
0.98
1.13
1.30
1.47
1.66
1.86
2.07

0.10
0.36
0.76
1.30
1.96
2.75
3.66
4.69
5.83
7.08
8.45
9.92
11.50
13.19
14.99
16.89
18.90
21.00

0.38
0.76
1.13
1.51
1.89
2.27
2.64
3.02
3.40
3.78
4.16
4.53
4.91
5.29
5.67
6.04
6.42
6.80

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

77

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

6" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

6.1270 inches (155.6258 mm)


6.1230 inches (155.5242 mm)
0.1400 inches (3.556 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 6.1250 inches (155.575 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 5.8450 inches (148.463 mm)
Flow Area
= 26.8324 sq. inches (17311.17 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

0.04
0.14
0.30
0.52
0.78
1.09
1.46
1.87
2.32
2.82
3.36
3.95
4.58
5.26
5.98
6.73
7.53
8.38

0.09
0.33
0.70
1.19
1.80
2.52
3.35
4.29
5.34
6.49
7.74
9.09
10.54
12.09
13.74
15.48
17.32
19.25

1.20
2.39
3.59
4.78
5.98
7.17
8.37
9.57
10.76
11.96
13.15
14.35
15.54
16.74
17.94
19.13
20.33
21.52

6309
12617
18926
25235
31543
37852
44161
50469
56778
63087
69395
75704
82013
88321
94630
100939
107247
113556

0.01
0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.52
0.64
0.76
0.89
1.04
1.19
1.35
1.52
1.70
1.89

0.09
0.33
0.70
1.19
1.80
2.52
3.35
4.29
5.34
6.49
7.74
9.09
10.54
12.09
13.74
15.48
17.32
19.25

0.36
0.73
1.09
1.46
1.82
2.19
2.55
2.92
3.28
3.64
4.01
4.37
4.74
5.10
5.47
5.83
6.20
6.56

6" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

6.1270 inches (155.6258 mm)


6.1230 inches (155.5242 mm)
0.1220 inches (3.0988 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 6.1250 inches (155.575 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 5.8810 inches (149.3774 mm)
Flow Area
= 27.1639 sq. inches (17525.07 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

0.04
0.14
0.29
0.50
0.76
1.06
1.41
1.81
2.25
2.74
3.27
3.84
4.45
5.10
5.80
6.54
7.31
8.13

0.09
0.32
0.68
1.16
1.75
2.45
3.26
4.17
5.18
6.30
7.51
8.82
10.23
11.74
13.33
15.02
16.81
18.68

1.18
2.36
3.54
4.72
5.91
7.09
8.27
9.45
10.63
11.81
12.99
14.17
15.35
16.54
17.72
18.90
20.08
21.26

6309
12617
18926
25235
31543
37852
44161
50469
56778
63087
69395
75704
82013
88321
94630
100939
107247
113556

0.01
0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.24
0.32
0.41
0.51
0.62
0.74
0.87
1.01
1.15
1.31
1.48
1.65
1.84

0.09
0.32
0.68
1.16
1.75
2.45
3.26
4.17
5.18
6.30
7.51
8.82
10.23
11.74
13.33
15.02
16.81
18.68

0.36
0.72
1.08
1.44
1.80
2.16
2.52
2.88
3.24
3.60
3.96
4.32
4.68
5.04
5.40
5.76
6.12
6.48

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

78

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

8" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

8.1270 inches (206.4258 mm)


8.1210 inches (206.2734 mm)
0.2710 inches (6.8834 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 8.1240 inches (206.3496 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 7.5820 inches (192.5828 mm)
Flow Area
= 45.1500 sq. inches (29128.95 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000

0.04
0.15
0.31
0.53
0.80
1.11
1.48
1.90
2.36
2.87
3.42
4.02
4.67
5.35
6.08
6.85
7.67
8.53
9.42
10.36

0.09
0.34
0.71
1.21
1.83
2.56
3.41
4.36
5.43
6.60
7.87
9.24
10.72
12.29
13.96
15.73
17.60
19.57
21.62
23.78

1.42
2.84
4.26
5.68
7.11
8.53
9.95
11.37
12.79
14.21
15.63
17.05
18.48
19.90
21.32
22.74
24.16
25.58
27.00
28.42

12617
25235
37852
50469
63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347

0.01
0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.25
0.34
0.43
0.53
0.65
0.77
0.91
1.06
1.21
1.38
1.55
1.73
1.93
2.13
2.34

0.09
0.34
0.71
1.21
1.83
2.56
3.41
4.36
5.43
6.60
7.87
9.24
10.72
12.29
13.96
15.73
17.60
19.57
21.62
23.78

0.43
0.87
1.30
1.73
2.17
2.60
3.03
3.47
3.90
4.33
4.76
5.20
5.63
6.06
6.50
6.93
7.36
7.80
8.23
8.66

8" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

8.1270 inches (206.4258 mm)


8.1210 inches (206.2734 mm)
0.2000 inches (5.080 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 8.1240 inches (206.3496 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 7.7240 inches (196.1896 mm)
Flow Area
= 46.8570 sq. inches (30230.26 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000

0.04
0.13
0.28
0.48
0.73
1.02
1.35
1.73
2.16
2.62
3.13
3.68
4.26
4.89
5.56
6.26
7.01
7.79
8.61
9.47

0.09
0.31
0.65
1.11
1.67
2.34
3.12
3.99
4.96
6.03
7.19
8.44
9.79
11.23
12.76
14.38
16.08
17.88
19.76
21.72

1.37
2.74
4.11
5.48
6.85
8.22
9.59
10.96
12.32
13.69
15.06
16.43
17.80
19.17
20.54
21.91
23.28
24.65
26.02
27.39

12617
25235
37852
50469
63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347

0.01
0.03
0.06
0.11
0.16
0.23
0.31
0.39
0.49
0.59
0.71
0.83
0.96
1.11
1.26
1.42
1.58
1.76
1.95
2.14

0.09
0.31
0.65
1.11
1.67
2.34
3.12
3.99
4.96
6.03
7.19
8.44
9.79
11.23
12.76
14.38
16.08
17.88
19.76
21.72

0.42
0.83
1.25
1.67
2.09
2.50
2.92
3.34
3.76
4.17
4.59
5.01
5.43
5.84
6.26
6.68
7.10
7.51
7.93
8.35

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

79

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A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

8" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

8.1270 inches (206.4258 mm)


8.1210 inches (206.2734 mm)
0.1700 inches (4.3180 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 8.1240 inches (206.3496 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 7.7840 inches (197.7136 mm)
Flow Area
= 47.5878 sq. inches (30701.74 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000

0.04
0.13
0.27
0.46
0.70
0.98
1.30
1.67
2.08
2.53
3.01
3.54
4.11
4.71
5.35
6.03
6.75
7.50
8.29
9.12

0.08
0.30
0.63
1.07
1.61
2.26
3.00
3.84
4.78
5.80
6.92
8.13
9.43
10.81
12.29
13.85
15.49
17.22
19.03
20.92

1.35
2.70
4.05
5.39
6.74
8.09
9.44
10.79
12.14
13.48
14.83
16.18
17.53
18.88
20.23
21.57
22.92
24.27
25.62
26.97

12617
25235
37852
50469
63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347

0.01
0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.22
0.30
0.38
0.47
0.57
0.68
0.80
0.93
1.07
1.21
1.36
1.53
1.70
1.88
2.06

0.08
0.30
0.63
1.07
1.61
2.26
3.00
3.84
4.78
5.80
6.92
8.13
9.43
10.81
12.29
13.85
15.49
17.22
19.03
20.92

0.41
0.82
1.23
1.64
2.05
2.47
2.88
3.29
3.70
4.11
4.52
4.93
5.34
5.75
6.16
6.58
6.99
7.40
7.81
8.22

10" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

10.1270 inches (257.2258 mm)


10.1190 inches (257.0226 mm)
0.3380 inches (8.5852 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 10.1230 inches (257.1242 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 9.4470 inches (239.9538 mm)
Flow Area
= 70.0935 sq. inches (45221.52 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400

0.01
0.05
0.11
0.18
0.27
0.38
0.51
0.65
0.81
0.98
1.17
1.38
1.60
1.84
2.09
2.35
2.63
2.92
3.23
3.55
3.89
4.24

0.03
0.12
0.24
0.42
0.63
0.88
1.17
1.50
1.86
2.26
2.70
3.17
3.68
4.22
4.79
5.40
6.04
6.71
7.42
8.16
8.93
9.73

0.92
1.83
2.75
3.66
4.58
5.49
6.41
7.32
8.24
9.15
10.07
10.99
11.90
12.82
13.73
14.65
15.56
16.48
17.39
18.31
19.22
20.14

12617
25235
37852
50469
63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347
264964
277581

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.27
0.31
0.36
0.42
0.47
0.53
0.60
0.66
0.73
0.80
0.88
0.96

0.03
0.12
0.24
0.42
0.63
0.88
1.17
1.50
1.86
2.26
2.70
3.17
3.68
4.22
4.79
5.40
6.04
6.71
7.42
8.16
8.93
9.73

0.28
0.56
0.84
1.12
1.40
1.67
1.95
2.23
2.51
2.79
3.07
3.35
3.63
3.91
4.19
4.46
4.74
5.02
5.30
5.58
5.86
6.14

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

80

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

10" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

10.1270 inches (257.2258 mm)


10.1190 inches (257.0226 mm)
0.2500 inches (6.3500 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 10.1230 inches (257.1242 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 9.6230 inches (244.4242 mm)
Flow Area
= 72.7295 sq. inches (46922.19 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400

0.01
0.05
0.10
0.16
0.25
0.35
0.46
0.60
0.74
0.90
1.07
1.26
1.46
1.68
1.91
2.15
2.40
2.67
2.95
3.25
3.56
3.88

0.03
0.11
0.22
0.38
0.57
0.80
1.07
1.37
1.70
2.07
2.47
2.90
3.36
3.85
4.38
4.93
5.52
6.13
6.78
7.45
8.16
8.89

0.88
1.76
2.65
3.53
4.41
5.29
6.18
7.06
7.94
8.82
9.70
10.59
11.47
12.35
13.23
14.12
15.00
15.88
16.76
17.65
18.53
19.41

12617.33
25234.67
37852.00
50469.33
63086.67
75704.00
88321.33
100938.67
113556.00
126173.33
138790.67
151408.00
164025.33
176642.67
189260.00
201877.33
214494.67
227112.00
239729.33
252346.67
264964.00
277581.33

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.11
0.13
0.17
0.20
0.24
0.29
0.33
0.38
0.43
0.49
0.54
0.60
0.67
0.73
0.80
0.88

0.03
0.11
0.22
0.38
0.57
0.80
1.07
1.37
1.70
2.07
2.47
2.90
3.36
3.85
4.38
4.93
5.52
6.13
6.78
7.45
8.16
8.89

0.27
0.54
0.81
1.08
1.34
1.61
1.88
2.15
2.42
2.69
2.96
3.23
3.50
3.76
4.03
4.30
4.57
4.84
5.11
5.38
5.65
5.92

10" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

10.1270 inches (257.2258 mm)


10.1190 inches (257.0226 mm)
0.2120 inches (5.3848 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 10.1230 inches (257.1242 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 9.6990 inches (247.3546 mm)
Flow Area
= 73.8829 sq. inches (47666.28 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400

0.01
0.04
0.09
0.16
0.24
0.34
0.45
0.57
0.71
0.87
1.03
1.21
1.41
1.62
1.84
2.07
2.31
2.57
2.84
3.13
3.42
3.73

0.03
0.10
0.21
0.37
0.55
0.77
1.03
1.32
1.64
1.99
2.37
2.79
3.23
3.71
4.21
4.75
5.31
5.90
6.53
7.17
7.85
8.56

0.87
1.74
2.61
3.47
4.34
5.21
6.08
6.95
7.82
8.68
9.55
10.42
11.29
12.16
13.03
13.90
14.76
15.63
16.50
17.37
18.24
19.11

12617
25235
37852
50469
63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347
264964
277581

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.16
0.20
0.23
0.27
0.32
0.37
0.42
0.47
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.71
0.77
0.84

0.03
0.10
0.21
0.37
0.55
0.77
1.03
1.32
1.64
1.99
2.37
2.79
3.23
3.71
4.21
4.75
5.31
5.90
6.53
7.17
7.85
8.56

0.26
0.53
0.79
1.06
1.32
1.59
1.85
2.12
2.38
2.65
2.91
3.18
3.44
3.71
3.97
4.24
4.50
4.76
5.03
5.29
5.56
5.82

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

81

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

12" TYPE K COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

12.1270 inches (308.0258 mm)


12.1190 inches (307.8226 mm)
0.4050 inches (10.2870 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 12.1230 inches (307.9242 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 11.3130 inches (287.3502 mm)
Flow Area
= 100.5184 sq. inches (64850.43 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200

0.11
0.16
0.21
0.27
0.34
0.41
0.49
0.57
0.67
0.76
0.87
0.98
1.09
1.22
1.34
1.48
1.62
1.76
1.92
2.07
2.24
2.40
2.58
2.76
2.94
3.13
3.33

0.26
0.37
0.49
0.62
0.77
0.94
1.12
1.32
1.53
1.75
1.99
2.25
2.51
2.79
3.09
3.39
3.71
4.05
4.39
4.75
5.13
5.51
5.91
6.32
6.75
7.18
7.63

3.19
3.83
4.47
5.11
5.75
6.38
7.02
7.66
8.30
8.94
9.58
10.21
10.85
11.49
12.13
12.77
13.41
14.04
14.68
15.32
15.96
16.60
17.24
17.87
18.51
19.15
19.79

63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347
264964
277581
290199
302816
315433
328051
340668
353285
365903
378520
391137

0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.20
0.22
0.25
0.28
0.30
0.33
0.37
0.40
0.43
0.47
0.51
0.54
0.58
0.62
0.67
0.71
0.75

0.26
0.37
0.49
0.62
0.77
0.94
1.12
1.32
1.53
1.75
1.99
2.25
2.51
2.79
3.09
3.39
3.71
4.05
4.39
4.75
5.13
5.51
5.91
6.32
6.75
7.18
7.63

0.97
1.17
1.36
1.56
1.75
1.95
2.14
2.33
2.53
2.72
2.92
3.11
3.31
3.50
3.70
3.89
4.09
4.28
4.48
4.67
4.86
5.06
5.25
5.45
5.64
5.84
6.03

12" TYPE L COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

12.1270 inches (308.0258 mm)


12.1190 inches (307.8226 mm)
0.2800 inches (7.1120 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 12.1230 inches (307.9242 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 11.5630 inches (293.7002 mm)
Flow Area
= 105.0101 sq. inches (67748.29 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200

0.10
0.14
0.19
0.24
0.30
0.37
0.44
0.52
0.60
0.69
0.78
0.88
0.98
1.09
1.21
1.33
1.46
1.59
1.72
1.86
2.01
2.16
2.32
2.48
2.65
2.82
2.99

0.23
0.33
0.44
0.56
0.70
0.85
1.01
1.19
1.37
1.58
1.79
2.02
2.26
2.51
2.77
3.05
3.34
3.64
3.95
4.27
4.61
4.96
5.31
5.68
6.07
6.46
6.86

3.06
3.67
4.28
4.89
5.50
6.11
6.72
7.33
7.94
8.55
9.17
9.78
10.39
11.00
11.61
12.22
12.83
13.44
14.05
14.67
15.28
15.89
16.50
17.11
17.72
18.33
18.94

63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347
264964
277581
290199
302816
315433
328051
340668
353285
365903
378520
391137

0.02
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.25
0.27
0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.42
0.45
0.49
0.52
0.56
0.60
0.64
0.68

0.23
0.33
0.44
0.56
0.70
0.85
1.01
1.19
1.37
1.58
1.79
2.02
2.26
2.51
2.77
3.05
3.34
3.64
3.95
4.27
4.61
4.96
5.31
5.68
6.07
6.46
6.86

0.93
1.12
1.30
1.49
1.68
1.86
2.05
2.23
2.42
2.61
2.79
2.98
3.17
3.35
3.54
3.72
3.91
4.10
4.28
4.47
4.66
4.84
5.03
5.21
5.40
5.59
5.77

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

82

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

www.nibco.com
A H E A D

O F

T H E

F L O W

Revision 5/14/02

12" TYPE M COPPER TUBE WATER FLOW AND FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET
Maximum O.D.
Minimum O.D.
Nominal Wall Thickness
C Factor

Hazen Williams Formula

=
=
=
=

12.1270 inches (308.0258 mm)


12.1190 inches (307.8226 mm)
0.2540 inches (6.4516 mm)
150

Nominal O.D. = 12.1230 inches (307.9242 mm)


Nominal I.D. = 11.6150 inches (295.021 mm)
Flow Area
= 105.9567 sq. inches (68359.01 sq. mm)

FLOW, Q
(GPM)

Pressure Loss
(psi/100 ft)

Head Loss
(ft/100 ft)

Velocity
(ft./sec.)

FLOW, Q
(cu. cm/sec.)

Pressure Loss
(kPa/100 m)

Head Loss
(m/100 m)

Velocity
(m/sec.)

1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200

0.10
0.14
0.19
0.24
0.30
0.36
0.43
0.51
0.59
0.67
0.76
0.86
0.96
1.07
1.18
1.30
1.42
1.55
1.68
1.82
1.97
2.11
2.27
2.43
2.59
2.76
2.93

0.23
0.32
0.43
0.55
0.68
0.83
0.99
1.16
1.35
1.54
1.75
1.98
2.21
2.46
2.71
2.98
3.27
3.56
3.87
4.18
4.51
4.85
5.20
5.56
5.93
6.32
6.71

3.03
3.63
4.24
4.84
5.45
6.06
6.66
7.27
7.87
8.48
9.08
9.69
10.30
10.90
11.51
12.11
12.72
13.32
13.93
14.53
15.14
15.75
16.35
16.96
17.56
18.17
18.77

63087
75704
88321
100939
113556
126173
138791
151408
164025
176643
189260
201877
214495
227112
239729
252347
264964
277581
290199
302816
315433
328051
340668
353285
365903
378520
391137

0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.24
0.27
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.38
0.41
0.44
0.48
0.51
0.55
0.59
0.62
0.66

0.23
0.32
0.43
0.55
0.68
0.83
0.99
1.16
1.35
1.54
1.75
1.98
2.21
2.46
2.71
2.98
3.27
3.56
3.87
4.18
4.51
4.85
5.20
5.56
5.93
6.32
6.71

0.92
1.11
1.29
1.48
1.66
1.85
2.03
2.22
2.40
2.58
2.77
2.95
3.14
3.32
3.51
3.69
3.88
4.06
4.25
4.43
4.61
4.80
4.98
5.17
5.35
5.54
5.72

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.
NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
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Revision 5/14/02

Copper Water Tube continued


COPPER TUBE TYPES, STANDARDS, APPLICATIONS, TEMPERS AND LENGTHS
Commercially Available Lengths
Nominal or Standard Sizes
Drawn

Tube Type

Color Code

Standard

Application

Type K

Green

ASTM B 88

Domestic Water Service Distribution

Straight Lengths:

1 4

/ -inch to 8-inch

10-inch

18 ft. (5.5m)

18 ft. (5.5m)

Solar

12-inch

12 ft. (3.7m)

12 ft. (3.7m)

Coils:

1 4

/ -inch to 1-inch

60 ft. (18.3m)

100 ft. (30.5m)

11/4-inch & 11/2-inch

60 ft. (18.3m)

2-inch

40 ft. (12.2m)
45 ft. (13.7m)
20 ft. (6.1m)
18 ft. (5.5m)

HVAC
Snow Melting

Blue

ASTM B 88

Annealed
20 ft. (6.1m)

Fire Protection
Fuel/Fuel Oil

Type L

20 ft. (6.1m)

Domestic Water Service Distribution


Fire Protection

Straight Lengths:

1 4

20 ft. (6.1m)
18 ft. (5.5m)

Coils:

1 4

60 ft. (18.3m)

100 ft. (30.5m)


60 ft. (18.3m)

/ -inch to 10-inch
12-inch

Solar
Fuel/Fuel Oil
Natural Gas

/ -inch to 1-inch

Liquified Petroleum (LP) Gas

Type M

Red

ASTM B 88

HVAC

11/4-inch & 11/2-inch

Snow Melting

2-inch

40 ft. (12.2m)

45 ft. (13.7m)

/4-inch to 12-inch

20 ft. (6.1m)

N/A

Straight Lengths: 11/4-inch to 8-inch

20 ft. (6.1m)

N/A

20 ft. (6.1m)

20 ft. (6.1m)1

50 ft. (15.3m)1

/4-inch to 8-inch

20 ft. (6.1m)

N/A

/8-inch to 11/8-inch

12 ft. (3.7m)

12 ft. (3.7m)1

20 ft. (6.1m)

20 ft. (6.1m)1

60 ft. (18.3m)1

100 ft. (30.5m)1

Domestic Water Service Distribution

Straight Lengths:

Fire Protection
Solar
Fuel/Fuel Oil
HVAC
DWV

Yellow

ASTM B 306

Snow Melting
Drain
Waste
Vent
HVAC

ACR

Blue

Solar
Air Conditioning

Straight Lengths:

Natural Gas

Coils:

1 8

ASTM B 819

Liquified Petroleum (LP) Gas


Medical Gas

Straight Lengths:

ASTM B 837

Natural Gas

Straight Lengths:

Coils:

3 8

ASTM B 280

/4-inch to 41/8-inch

Refrigeration

OXY

Type K

MED

Green

/ -inch to 15/8-inch

OXY/MED
OXY/ACR

Type L

ACR/MED

Blue

Type G

Yellow

Liquified Petroleum (LP) Gas

7 8

/ -inch to / -inch

Available as special order only.

U.S. customary units in this document are the standard; the metric units are provided for
reference only. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents.

84

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TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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The Fine Art


of Soldering
When adjoining surfaces of copper and copper alloys meet under proper conditions of cleanliness and temperature,
solder will make a perfect adhesion. The strength of joint is equal to or even greater than the strength of tube alone.
Surface tension seals the joint. Capillary attraction draws solder into, around, and all about the joint. Its easy to learn
to make a perfect solder joint when you use NIBCO Fittings.
WITH 95-5 SOLDER AND INTERMEDIATELY CORROSIVE FLUX
1. Cut tube end square, ream, burr and size.

2. Use sand cloth or steel wire brush to clean tube and cup to a
bright metal finish.

3. Apply solder flux to outside of tube and inside of cup


of fitting carefully so that surfaces to be joined are completely
covered. Use flux sparingly.

4. Apply flame to the fitting to heat tube and solder cup of fitting
until solder melts when placed at joint of tube and fitting.

5. Remove flame and feed solder into the joint at one or


two points until a ring of solder appears at the end of the fitting.
The correct amount of solder is approximately equal to 11/2 the
diameter of the fitting 3/4" (20mm) solder for 1/2" fitting, etc.

6. Remove excess solder with a small brush or wiping cloth while


the solder is plastic.

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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The Fine Art


of Brazing
Best results will be obtained by a skilled operator employing the step-by-step brazing technique that follows:
1. The tube should be cut to desired length with a square cut,
preferably in a square-end sawing vise. The cutting wheel of the
type specifically designed for cutting copper tube will also do a
satisfactory job. The tube should be the exact length needed, so that
the tube will enter the cup of the fitting all the way to the shoulder
of the cup. Remove all slivers and burrs left from cutting the tube, by
reaming and filing, both inside and outside.
2. To make a proper brazing joint, the clearance between the solder
cup and the tube should be approximately 0.001" to 0.010"
(0.0254mm to 0.254mm). Maintaining a good fit on parts to be
brazed insures:
Ease of Application Excessively wide tolerances tend to break
capillary force; and, as a result the alloy will either fail to flow
throughout the joint or may flush out of the joint.
Corrosion Resistance There is also a direct relation between the
corrosion resistance of a joint and the clearance between members.
Economy If brazing alloys are to be used economically, they, of
necessity, must be applied in the joint proper and in minimum
quantities, using merely enough alloy to fill the area between the
members.
3. The surfaces to be joined must be clean and free from oil,
grease and heavy oxides. The end of the tube
need be cleaned only for a distance
slightly more than it is to
enter the cup. Special
wire brushes
designed to clean
tube ends may be
used, but they should
be carefully used so
that an excessive amount
of metal will not be
removed from the tube. Fine sand cloth or emery cloth
may also be used with the same precautions. The cleaning should
not be done with steel wool, because of the likelihood of leaving
small slivers of the steel or oil in the joint.
4. The cup of the fitting should be
cleaned by methods similar
to those used for the tube
end, and care should be
observed in removing
residues of the cleaning
medium. Attempting to
braze a contaminated or an
improperly cleaned surface will

86

result in an unsatisfactory joint. Brazing alloys will not flow over or


bond to oxides; and oily or greasy surfaces tend to repel fluxes,
leaving bare spots which will oxidize, resulting in voids and
inclusions.
5. Flux should be applied to
the tube and solder cup
sparingly and in a fairly
thin consistency. Avoid
flux on areas not cleaned.
Particularly avoid getting
excess flux into the inside
of the tube itself. Flux has
three principal functions
to perform:
A. It prevents the oxidation of the metal surfaces during the heating
operation by excluding oxygen.
B. It absorbs and dissolves residual oxides that are on the surface
and those oxides which may form during the heating operation.
C. It assists in the flow of the alloy by presenting a clean nascent
surface for the melted alloy to flow over. In addition, it is an
excellent temperature indicator, especially if an indicating flux is
used.
6. Immediately after fluxing, the parts to be brazed should be
assembled. If fluxed parts are allowed to stand, the water in
the flux will
evaporate, and
dried flux is liable to
flake off, exposing
the metal surfaces
to oxidation from
the heat. Assemble
the joint by inserting
the tube into the
cup, hard against
the stop. The
assembly should be firmly supported so that it will remain in
alignment during the brazing operation.

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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7. Brazing is started by applying heat to the parts to be joined. The


preferred method is by the oxyacetylene flame. Propane and other
gases are sometimes used on smaller sizes. A slightly reducing
flame should be used, with a slight feather on the inner blue cone;
the outer portion of the flame, pale green. Heat the tube first,
beginning at about one inch from the edge of the fitting. Sweep the
flames around the tube in short strokes up and down at right angles
to the run of the tube. It is very important that the flame be in
continuous motion and should not be allowed to remain on any one
point to avoid burning through the tube. Generally, the flux may be
used as a guide as to how long to heat the tube, continuing heating
after the flux starts to bubble or work, and until the flux becomes
quiet and transparent, like clear water. The flux will pass through
four stages:
A. At 212F (100C) the water boils off.
B. At 600F (315.6C) the flux becomes white and slightly puffy and
starts to work.
C. At 800F (426.7C) it lays against the surface and has a milky
appearance.
D. At 1100F (593.3C) it is completely clear and active and has the
appearance of water.
8. Now switch the flame to the fitting at the
base of the cup. Heat uniformly,
sweeping the flame from the
fitting to the tube until the flux on
the fitting becomes quiet.
Avoid excessive heating
of cast fittings.
9. When the flux appears liquid
and transparent on both the
tube and the fitting, start sweeping
the flame back and forth along the axis of the joint to maintain heat
on the parts to be joined, especially toward the base of the cup of
the fitting. The flame must be kept moving to avoid burning the tube
or the fitting.
10. Apply the brazing wire or rod at a point
where the tube enters the socket of the
fitting. The temperature of the joint
should be hot enough to melt the
brazing alloy. Keep the flame away
from the rod or wire as it is fed
into the joint. Keep both the
fitting and the tube heated by
moving the flame back and
forth from one to the other
as the alloy is drawn into the
joint. When the proper
temperature is reached, the alloy will flow readily into the space
between the tube outer wall and the fitting socket, drawn in by the
natural force of capillary attraction. When the joint is filled, a
continuous fillet of brazing alloy will be visible completely around
the joint. Stop feeding as soon as the joint is filled, using table on
page 54 as a guide for the alloy consumption.

Revision 5/14/02

NOTE: For tubing one inch and larger, it is


difficult to bring the whole joint up to heat
at one time. It frequently will be found
desirable to use a double-tip torch to
maintain the proper temperature over the
larger area. A mild pre-heating of the
whole fitting is recommended. The
heating then can proceed as in steps 7, 8,
9, and 10. If difficulty is encountered in
getting the whole joint up to heat at one
time, then when the joint is nearly up to
the desired temperature the alloy is
concentrated in a limited area. At the
brazing temperature the alloy is fed into
the joint and the torch is then moved to an
adjacent area and the operation carried
on progressively all around the joint.
HORIZONTAL JOINTS When making
horizontal joints, it is preferable to
start applying the brazing alloy at the
5 oclock position, then move around
to the 7 oclock position and then
move up the sides to the top of the
joint, making sure that the
operations overlap.
VERTICAL JOINTS On vertical
joints, it is immaterial where the
start is made. If the opening of the
cup is pointed down, care should be taken to avoid overheating the
tube, as this may cause the alloy to run down the tube. If this condition
is encountered, take the heat away and allow the alloy to set. Then
reheat the solder cup of the fitting to draw up the alloy.
After the brazing alloy has set,
remove residual flux from the joint
area as it is corrosive and presents
an unclean appearance and
condition. Hot water or steam and a
soft cloth should be used. Wrot
fittings may be chilled; however it is
advisable to allow cast fittings to
cool naturally to some extent before
applying a swab. All flux must be removed before inspection and
pressure testing.

TROUBLE SPOTS
If the alloy fails to flow or has a tendency to ball up, it indicates
oxidation on the metal surfaces, or insufficient heat on the parts to
be joined. If work starts to oxidize during heating, it indicates too
little flux, or a flux of too thin consistency. If the brazing alloy
refuses to enter the joint and tends to flow over the outside of either
member of the joint, it indicates this member is overheated, or the
other is underheated, or both. In both cases, operations should be
stopped and the joints disassembled, recleaned and fluxed.

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Polyethylene
(PEX) Tubing
FITTING SYSTEM INSERT/CRIMP TYPE*

Making a Connection
1. Using a tube cutter, cut tubing squarely and remove burrs.

2. Slide copper crimp ring on tubing.

3. Insert ribbed fitting into tubing until tubing contacts the fitting shoulder
(tube stop). Position the crimp ring on the tubing so
that the edge of the ring is 1/8" to 1/4" (3 to 6mm) from the
end of the tube.

4. Center the crimping tool jaws exactly over the ring while maintaining its
position relative to the fitting. Crimp the ring by closing the handles
together to the positive stop on the tool. Check the after-crimped
diameter of each ring with the crimp gauge. If the small flats on the
gauge do not fit over the crimped ring, the ring is under-crimped. Cut out
any under-crimped rings and fittings and completely replace. DO NOT
RE-CRIMP.

*NIBCO recommends the use of copper crimp rings ONLY and a properly calibrated
full circle crimping tool for joining PEX tubing and copper barbed fittings.

88

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
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Revision 5/14/02

Polybutylene
Tubing
FITTING SYSTEM INSERT/CRIMP TYPE MADE BY NIBCO

Making a Connection
1. Using a tube cutter,
cut tubing squarely
and remove burrs.

2. Slide copper crimp ring on tubing. Only copper crimp rings should be
used to ensure the highest quality connection.

3. Insert fitting into tubing, then position crimp ring squarely


over barbs. Proper alignment is important for making the
best connection.

4. Center the crimping tool jaws exactly over the ring, and bring
the tool handles together until totally closed to the stop indicator. Check
each crimp ring with the caliper gauge after completion.
If the small flats on the gauge do not fit over the crimped ring,
the ring is undercrimped. Cut out any undercrimped rings and fittings,
and completely replace.

TOOLS AND RINGS


Use tools recommended by fitting and tubing manufacturers.
All tools must make a full-circle crimp.
Check tool adjustment at least daily, and readjust as necessary.
Use crimp rings of copper as recommended by NIBCO INC.

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Revision 5/14/02

Frequently Asked
Questions
Q:
A:

Q:
A:

What is the pressure rating of a given fitting?


Fittings are rated per Table 1 of ASME B16.22. The system rated
pressure shall be the lowest of the fitting, tube or joint.

When copper fails in a system, what is the problem?


MOST COMMON:
1. Velocity fluid is moving too fast. Recommendation:
2-3 fps (0.0508-0.0762 m/s) hot water 140F, 5-8 fps (0.1270.2032 m/s) cold water. Refer to pages 68-93.
2. Turbulence burrs left on the cut tubing causes a tumbling
effect causing localized erosion and eventual failure.
3. Aggressive Waters tend to cause pitting or green staining of
fixtures. Aggressive, hard well waters that cause pitting
typically are found to have total dissolved solids including
suflates and chlorides, a pH in the range of 7.2 to 7.8, a high
content of carbon dioxide gas and the pressence of dissolved
oxygen gas. Soft acidic waters that cause green staining
typically tend to be more corrosive. Low alkalinity, low
mineralization, pH levels of 7 or lower should be avoided.
LESS COMMON:
1. Flux Corrosion using too much flux when making
joints can potentially leave residue and cause isolated
corrosion. Flux should be used sparingly and system adequately
flushed.
2. Electrolysis stray (D.C.) current; inadequate grounding for the
piping.
3. Sand or other solid particulates erosion/corrosion problems
can occur. Lower velocities must be maintained
if solids are present in flow media.
4. Galvanic Corrosion destruction of a material by
electrochemical interaction between the environment
and the material.

Q:
A:

90

Q:
A:

Q:
A.

Can dissimilar metals (i.e., copper and iron) be joined together


without use of dielectric insulators to prevent corrosion?
In most situations dissimilar metals (copper/iron/steel) can be
joined successfully without using dielectric insulators. Factors to
consider:
1. The composition of the two metals.
2. The rate of liquid flow past the two metals.
3. Chemicals in the water which could enhance or destroy
protective films.
4. The relative areas of the two metals - unless the surface area
of the less noble (steel) material is less that 5% of the more
noble (copper) material, the need for a dielectric separator is
not needed. (Failures due to galvanic corrosion are very unusual
and only occur under very strict conditions.)
5. Local code requirements.

What should the installer of copper unions know and do in order to


assure a proper leak-free installation?
The following should be done:
1. Make sure the ground-joint(mating area of unions tail and
thread pieces) are free of nicks and scratches.
2. Spray the ground-joint area with a food grade silicone spray or
apply bees wax to enhance seating.
3. Make sure alignment of line does not put lateral stress on the
ground-joint seal.
4. Make sure that excess solder (droplets) do not reach the
ground-joint area.

Copper tubing wall thickness is designated K, L or M. What


are the copper fittings applicable to?
Copper fittings wall thickness is determined by standards (ASME
B-16:22 and MSS-SP-104). These standards address minimum wall
thickness (per size) for the full range of copper fittings and are not
intended to match tubing wall thicknesses.

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
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Residential
Copper Plumbing Products
Limited Warranty
What the warranty terms mean
In this warranty Manufacturer refers to the company listed below
which manufactured the Product and any person or company that
assumes its obligations under this warranty. Homeowner means
you as the owner of the residential building in the United States in
which the Product has been installed and also means any succeeding
owner during the original warranty term. Product means the copper
water tube and/or copper or brass fittings manufactured by the
Manufacturer for the residential building market in the United States.
Each Manufacturer listed below separately and individually warrants
only Products it has manufactured and does not warrant Products of
any other company, whether or not listed below.
Date the warranty begins
The warranty begins on the date of the new home purchase,
or in the case of home additions or renovations, on the date the
installation is completed. The warranty is transferable to succeeding
Homeowners for the remainder of the original warranty term, in
which case the date the warranty begins shall continue without
change.
What is covered
The Manufacturer warrants to the Homeowner for a period
of 50 years from the date the warranty begins that its properly
installed Product will be free of failure as a result of defects in
material or workmanship in manufacturing the Product.
What the manufacturer will do for you
As long as (1) such a failure occurs within 50 years from the date the
warranty begins and (2) the Homeowner promptly notifies the
Manufacturer of the Product of that failure by contacting it through its
800 phone number listed below, the Manufacturer will correct that
failure by repairing or replacing the Product within a reasonable time,
without charge. This warranty is limited to the cost of repairing or
replacing the Product, including installation.

NIBCO TECHNICAL SERVICE


1-888-446-4226

What is not covered: Disclaimer of liability for consequential


and other damages
The Manufacturer does NOT warrant against failure:
1. of any product, parts, or systems that it has not manufactured;
2. if the Product is used for purposes other than residential
plumbing applications;
3. caused by, contributed in whole or in part by, or resulting from,
any of the following:
(a) improper installation;
(b) abuse, such as, without limitation, vandalism;
(c) natural disasters, such as, without limitation, flooding,
windstorm and lightning;
(d) attachments or modifications to the Product that the
Manufacturer did not authorize;
(e) external causes, where external, physical or chemical
qualities produce damage to the Product, such as, without
limitation, aggressive water or an unsuitable or hostile
environment; or
(f) any other cause beyond the Manufacturers control.
The Manufacturer shall NOT be liable under any circumstances for
any other direct or any indirect, incidental or consequential damages
of any kind.
This is the only warranty
This warranty is the only warranty for the Product provided by the
Manufacturer, and is and shall be in lieu of any and all other
warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to an implied
warranty of merchantability, and of all other obligations or liabilities
on the part of the Manufacturer. None of the Manufacturers
employees, and no other person or business, is authorized to make
any other warranty on the Manufacturers behalf covering the
product.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have
other rights which vary from state to state. Some states do not allow
the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so
the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.

NIBCO INC. WORLD HEADQUARTERS 1516 MIDDLEBURY ST. ELKHART, IN 46516-4740 USA PH: 1.800.234.0227
TECH SERVICES PH: 1.888.446.4226 FAX: 1.800.234.0557 INTERNATIONAL SERVICE PH: +1.574.295.3221 FAX: +1.574.295.3455
www.nibco.com

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