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Type 2 Superconductors

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A Type 2 Layered Cuprate

Type 2 Superconductors
Except for the elements vanadium, technetium and niobium, the Type 2 category of
superconductors is comprised of metallic compounds and alloys. The recently-discovered
superconducting "perovskites" (metal-oxide ceramics that normally have a ratio of 2 metal
atoms to every 3 oxygen atoms) belong to this Type 2 group. They achieve higher Tc's than
Type 1 superconductors by a mechanism that is still not completely understood. Conventional
wisdom holds that it relates to the planar layering within the crystalline structure (see above
graphic). Although, other recent research suggests the holes of hypocharged oxygen in the
charge reservoirs are responsible. (Holes are positively-charged vacancies within the lattice.)
The superconducting cuprates (copper-oxides) have achieved astonishingly high Tc's when you
consider that by 1985 known Tc's had only reached 23 Kelvin. To date, the highest Tc attained
at ambient pressure for a material that will form stoichiometrically (by formula) has been 138
K. And a patent has been applied for a 181K material which does not form stoichiometrically
(see below list). One theory predicts an upper limit of about 200 K for the layered cuprates
(Vladimir Kresin, Phys. Reports 288, 347 - 1997). Others assert there is no limit. Either way, it
is almost certain that other, more-synergistic compounds still await discovery among the hightemperature superconductors.
The first superconducting Type 2 compound, an alloy of lead and bismuth, was fabricated
in 1930 by W. de Haas and J. Voogd. But, was not recognized as such until later, after the
Meissner effect had been discovered. This new category of superconductors was identified by
L.V. Shubnikov at the Kharkov Institute of Science and Technology in the Ukraine in 1936(1)
when he found two distinct critical magnetic fields (known as Hc1 and Hc2) in PbTl2. The first
of the oxide superconductors was created in 1973 by DuPont researcher Art Sleight when Ba
(Pb,Bi)O3 was found to have a Tc of 13K. The superconducting oxocuprates followed in 1986.
Type 2 superconductors - also known as the "hard" superconductors - differ from Type 1 in
that their transition from a normal to a superconducting state is gradual across a region of
"mixed state" behavior. Since a Type 2 will allow some penetration by an external magnetic
field into its surface, this creates some rather novel mesoscopic phenomena like
superconducting "stripes" and "flux-lattice vortices". While there are far too many to list in
totality, some of the more interesting Type 2 superconductors are listed below by similarity
and with descending Tc's. Where available, the lattice structure of the system is also noted.

http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

12.03.2008

Type 2 Superconductors

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Sn1.0Pb0.4In0.6Ba4Tm5Cu7O20+ ~181 K (Patent Pending)


(As a 1245/1212 intergrowth.)

SnInBa4Tm4Cu6O18+

~150 K

(As a 1234/1212 intergrowth)

Sn4Ba4(Tm2Ca)Cu7Ox

~127 K

(TmTm-Ca structure only)

(Hg0.8Tl0.2)Ba2Ca2Cu3O8.33
HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8
HgBa2Ca3Cu4O10+
HgBa2(Ca1-xSrx)Cu2O6+
HgBa2CuO4+

138 K*
133-135 K
125-126 K
123-125 K
94-98 K

Lattice: TET
* Note: Partial substitution within the oxygen site of Hg-1223 by F or Cl has also reportedly
produced a Tc of 138K.

Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10
(Tl1.6Hg0.4)Ba2Ca2Cu3O10+

127-128 K
126 K

TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9+
(Tl0.5Pb0.5)Sr2Ca2Cu3O9
Tl2Ba2CaCu2O6
TlSnBa4TmCaCu4Ox
TlBa2Ca3Cu4O11
TlBa2CaCu2O7+
Tl2Ba2CuO6
TlSnBa4Y2Cu4Ox

123 K
118-120 K
118 K
~115 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
112 K
103 K
95 K
86 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2007)

Lattice: TET

Sn2Ba2(Tm0.5Ca0.5)Cu3O8+
SnInBa4Tm3Cu5Ox
Sn3Ba4Tm3Cu6Ox
Sn3Ba8Ca4Cu11Ox
SnBa4Y2Cu5Ox
Sn4Ba4Tm2YCu7Ox
Sn4Ba4CaTmCu4Ox

~115 K
~113 K
109 K
109 K
107 K
~104 K
~100 K

http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2007)
(One-of-a-Kind Resonant - 2006)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2007)
(First Hi-Tc Reentrant - 2007)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2007)

12.03.2008

Type 2 Superconductors

Sn4Ba4Tm3Cu7Ox
Sn2Ba2(Y0.5Tm0.5)Cu3O8+
Sn3Ba4Y2Cu5Ox
SnInBa4Tm4Cu6Ox
Sn2Ba2(Sr0.5Y0.5)Cu3O8
Sn4Ba4Y3Cu7Ox

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~98 K
~96 K
~91 K
87 K
86 K
~80 K

(Superconductors.ORG - 2006)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2007)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2006)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
(Aleksandrov, et al - 1989)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)

Bi1.6Pb0.6Sr2Ca2Sb0.1Cu3Oy

115 K (thick film on MgO substrate)

Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10***

110 K

Bi2Sr2CaCu2O9***
Bi2Sr2(Ca0.8Y0.2)Cu2O8
Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

110 K
95-96K
91-92K

Lattice: ORTH
*** Though not always listed as a component, a small amount of Lead (x=.2-.26) is often used
with Bismuth compounds to help facilitate a higher-Tc crystalline phase.

(Ca1-xSrx)CuO2
YSrCa2Cu4O8+
(Ba,Sr)CuO2
BaSr2CaCu4O8+
(La,Sr)CuO2

110 K (Highest Tc quaternary compound)


101 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2007)
90 K
90 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2007)
42 K

*** The above 5 compounds are all "infinite layer".

Pb3Sr4Ca3Cu6Ox
Pb3Sr4Ca2Cu5O15+
(Pb1.5Sn1.5)Sr4Ca2Cu5O15+
Pb2Sr2(Ca, Y)Cu3O8

106 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2007)


101 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
~95 K (Superconductors.ORG - 2006)
70 K (Cava, et al - 1989)

AuBa2Ca3Cu4O11
AuBa2(Y, Ca)Cu2O7
AuBa2Ca2Cu3O9

99 K (Kopnin, et al - 2001)
82 K
30 K

Lattice: ORTH

http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

12.03.2008

Type 2 Superconductors

(Y0.5Lu0.5)Ba2Cu3O7
(Y0.5Tm0.5)Ba2Cu3O7
(Y0.5Gd0.5)Ba2Cu3O7
Y2CaBa4Cu7O16
Y3Ba4Cu7O16
NdBa2Cu3O7
Y2Ba4Cu7O15
GdBa2Cu3O7
YBa2Cu3O7
TmBa2Cu3O7
YbBa2Cu3O7
YSr2Cu3O7

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107 K
105 K
97 K
97 K
96 K
96 K
95 K
94 K
92 K
90 K
89 K
62 K

(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)
(YY-Ca phase) (Superconductors.ORG - 2006)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2005)

(See above graphic)

Lattice: TET
Comment: "1-2-3" superconductors actually have the 1212C structure. Thus, the formula for
YBCO could be written CuBa2YCu2O7.

GaSr2(Ca0.5Tm0.5)Cu2O7
Ga2Sr4Y2CaCu5Ox
Ga2Sr4Tm2CaCu5Ox

99 K
85 K
81 K

La2Ba2CaCu5O9+
(Sr,Ca)5Cu4O10
GaSr2(Ca, Y)Cu2O7
(In0.3Pb0.7)Sr2(Ca0.8Y0.2)
Cu2Ox
(La,Sr,Ca)3Cu2O6
La2CaCu2O6+
(Eu,Ce)2(Ba,Eu)2Cu3O10+
(La1.85Sr0.15)CuO4

79 K (Saurashtra Univ., Rajkot, India - 2002)


70 K
70 K
60 K
58 K
45 K
43 K
40 K
40 K

http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

(Superconductors.ORG - 2006)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2006)
(Superconductors.ORG - 2006)

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Type 2 Superconductors

SrNdCuO****
(La,Ba)2CuO4
(Nd,Sr,Ce)2CuO4
Pb2(Sr,La)2Cu2O6
(La1.85Ba.15)CuO4

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35-38 K
35 K
32 K
30 K (First HTS ceramic SC discovered - 1986)

**** First ceramic superconductor discovered without a non-superconducting oxide layer.


Comment: All of the above are copper perovskites, even though their metal-to-oxygen ratios are
not exactly 2-to-3. The best performers are those compounds that contain one or more of the
electron-emitters BaO, SrO or CaO, along with a Period 6 heavy metal like Mercury, Thallium,
Lead, Bismuth, or Gold.

MgB2
Ba0.6K0.4BiO3

39 K (Highest Tc Non-Fullerene Alloy)


30 K (First 4th order phase compound)

Nb3Ge
Nb3Si
Nb3Sn
Nb3Al
V3Si
Ta3Pb
V3Ga
Nb3Ga
V3In

23.2 K
19 K
18.1 K
18 K
17.1 K
17 K
16.8 K
14.5 K
13.9 K

Lattice: A15
Comment: Among the binary alloys, these are some of the best performers; combining Group 5B
metals in a ratio of 3-to-1 with 4A or 3A elements.

PuCoGa5

18.5 K

NbN

16.1 K

(First SC transuranic compound)

Comment: After NbTi (below) NbN is the most widely used low-temperature superconductor.

Nb0.6Ti0.4
MgCNi3

9.8 K
7-8 K

http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

(First superconductive wire)


(First all-metal perovskite superconductor)

12.03.2008

Type 2 Superconductors

C
Nb
Tc
V

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15 K
(as highly-aligned, single-walled nanotubes)
9.25 K
7.80 K
5.40 K

Lattice: C=Fullerene, Nb=BCC, Tc=HEX, V=BCC


Comment: These four are the only elemental Type 2 superconductors.

RuSr2(Gd,Eu,Sm)Cu2O8
ErNi2B2C
YbPd2Sn
UGe2
URhGe2
AuIn3

Tc ~58 K (Ruthenium-oxocuprate)
Tc 10.5 K (Nickel-Borocarbide)
Tc ~2.5 K (Heusler compound)
Tc ~1K (Heavy fermion)
Tc ~1K
(")
Tc 50 uK

Comment: The above 6 compounds are all rare ferromagnetic superconductors.

Sr.08WO3
Tl.30WO3
Rb.27-.29WO3

2-4 K (Tungsten-bronze)
2.0-2.14 K
(")
1.98 K
(")

Lattice: TET

(1.) "History of Physics Research in Ukraine", by Oleksandr Bakai and Yurij Raniuk,
Kharkov Institute of Science and Technology, 1993.
Author's Comment: The Tc's noted on this page were obtained from a variety of sources
including, but not limited to, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, the N.I.S.T.
database, Physica C, industry news sources, and various private researchers. In cases where
there was a discrepancy between sources, the higher Tc or a range of Tc's has been listed. If
you desire the Tc of a compound or alloy not listed on this page, feel free to write.
[Last page rev: January 2008]

http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

12.03.2008

Type 2 Superconductors

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http://superconductors.org/type2.htm

12.03.2008