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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
====o0o====

DESIGN REPORT
PROJECT II
PROJECT NAME:
DESIGNING & SIMULATING FULL BRIDGE CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
CLASS
:

EE.CTTT. K55

INSTRUCTOR :
STUDENTS
CODE

DR. DO MANH CUONG


:

Nguyn c Tm
: 20102119

Hanoi : 07/31/2014
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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


TABLE OF CONTENT
PREFACE
.2
CHATER 1:GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THYRISTOR.....................................................4
1.The basic theory of thyristor ....
..4
2.Basic principle and state of
thyristor..6
3.Basic parameters of
thyristor
..6
4.Control principle of thyristor.
..7
5.Some advantages and disadvantages of controlled thyristor with other
controlled rectifier..9

CHAPTER 2: CHOOSING AND CALCULATION OF POWER


STAGE..9
1.Requirement for control
stage
.9
2.Choosing and calculating the power
stage..9
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN AND SIMULATING CONTROLLED CIRCUIT AND CONCLUSION.........12
1.Block diagram of controlled
state..12
2.Schematic and simulation
result.17
3.Conclusion
..20

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

4.References
..20

PREFACE
In the recent years, with the very high development of our country and get many
achivements and make basic premiss for our country go to the new period, the period of
industrialization and modernization of the country and the power electronics of electrical
engineering is the most important part of the development of the country.Especially, with the
application of power electronic in all sector of national economy.In our project related to rectifier
using thysistor control we concern about the method to control safety and and accurately.It is the
mission of sector power electronic is needed to solve.Student of sector automation control
engineering need to have more about knowledge power electronic to apply in factory,
enterpriseto enhance productivity and bring atomatic control technology into manufacturing
process.
The project supplies for our many knowledge about power electronic, specially, in
predictive control algorithm control for PWM AC chopper.To help me to reinforce the
knowledge and have some experiences teacher Dr.Do Manh Cuong help our to do project about
predecitve control.From searching project and some document in internet,specially with the help
of my teacher we now complete the project.The main content of this assignment I concentrate 2
problems: determine,calculate,design parameter of circuit and simulating control circuit..The
assignment give our many new knowledge and help me recognize, design one power electronic
circuit better. Although we attempt to make the good project but with the little experiences so the
project has many mistakes, please forget about it!
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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


Student group: Nguyn c Tm

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

Chapter 1
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
I. Motivation
One of the great things ever to happened to mankind in the 20nd century was the invention
of a transistor by John Bardeen,Walter Brattain and Wiliam Shockley in 1947 at Bell,USA
and the successful production of the first transistor in 1954.The transistor is the heart of
power electronic and now has become central to our lives.
As the number of transistor on intergrated circuit doubles,computing power is increasing
and online control of complex and faster processes are becoming more commom.This is due
to shrinking transistor size,higher operating speeds and introduction of more power efficient
semiconductor.As the processor die size is decreasing , the processing speed is increasing and
production costs are decreasing.Low power consumption in the devices has been largely
achieved by decreasing the operating voltage,improvement and introduction of new
semiconductor technology and manufacturing methods.
One of the other side of semiconductor technology, is use of semiconductor in high power
and high voltage electronic.To control these power semiconductors is power supply paths
losses .The control should be able to compute online the medium cost with the real time
measurement using complex control algorithm and be able to apply the control law
immediately to achieve the desired the control object.In this research , a finite set model
predictive control algorithm (FS-MPC) that is presented which can be computed by using
DSP
II. Background
The recent developments in the few of power electronics make it possible to improve the
electrical power system ultility interface.Line commutated AC controller can be replaced by
PWM AC chopper controller which have better overall performance and the above problem can
be improved if there controllers are designed to operate in the chopping mode.In this case ,the
input supply voltage is chopped into segments and the output voltage level is decided by
controlling the duty cycle of the chopping switching function.on easurement using complex
control algorithm and be able to apply the control law immediately to achieve.The growth in
the field of the power electronics has made it possible to improve the performance of electrical
system ultilites through various mean.The solid state power switching devices are employed in
source conditioning by changing either its magnitude or frequency such as inverter,converter,
chopper, regulator.The advantages of using these devices are listed out by Addosweet.They are
below
+ Fast respone
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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


+ Compactness
+ Loss free control
+ Low power demands of control circuitry
Medium,large motor drives and higher power supply inverter in flexible alternate current
transmission system need switching element wich can bear high voltage and current.To
overcome the limitation of semiconductor switches , several new techniques and topologies has
been developed,such as multiple switching elements in one lag of the inverter.
III. Choppers
1.General about DC choppers
A chopper is a static device which is used to obtain a variable dc voltage from a constant dc
voltage source.A chopper is also known as dc-to-dc converter.The thyristor convert offers great
efficiency,faster respone,lower maintenance,small size and smooth control.Choppers are widely
used in trolley cars,control of large number of dc motor,etcThey are also used in regenative
braking of dc motor to return energy back to supply and also as dc voltage regulator.
Choppers are of two types
+ Step-down choppers
+ Step - up choppers
a.Step down choppers

Step down chopper with Resistive load


The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch.When the thyristor is ON ,supply voltage aprear
across the load and when thyristor is OFF, the voltage across the load will be zero.The output
voltage and current waveform are shown in below

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

Step down choppers output voltage and current wavform


Vdc = average value of the output or load voltage
Idc = average value of output or load current
tOFF = time interval for which SCR conducts
tON = time interval for which SCR is OFF
T= tOFF +

tON is period of switching or chopping period

Average output voltage

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


b.Step up choppers

Step up chopper
A step up chopper obtain a load voltage Vo higher than input voltage V.When the choppe is ONN
the inductor L is connected across the supply and when the chooper is OFF the inductor current I
is forced to flow through the diode D and load for a period.Therefore the voltage across load is
given by

When chopper is ON
- Voltage across inductor L=V
Therefore energy store in inductor = V.I.tON
Where TON = ON period of chopper
When chopper is OFF
Energy supplied by inductor L=(V0-V)ItOFF , where tOFF = OFF period of chopper.
Voltage across L = V0 - V
2. The method of control
Pulse Width Modulation is one method of control.The pulse width ( tON) of the output
waveform is varied keeping chopping frequency f varied by varying the ON time.The output
voltage is varied and by varying hence chopping period T constant.Therefore out voltage
waveform for different ON time.
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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

Pulse Width Modulation Control.

3.General about AC choppers.


AC chopper is a static converter which convert AC to AC without changing the frequency and
AC chopper have been widely used to control average load power from a fixed ac source.The
common applictions are industrial heating and ac speed control.
The advantages of AC chopper over DC chopper
+ Simplicity
+ Ability of controlling large amount of power
+ High efficiency
The disadvantages of AC chopper over DC chopper
+ Protection against detrimental switching voltage transients
+ Negative Temperature coefficient
a. Single phase topology
By the supply mode , PWM AC chopper are classified in differential and non-differential .Both
structure are made by two inverter commuanication cells with IGBTs bydirectional in current and
unidirectional in voltage.

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

Basic single phase PWM AC choppers


Both converter have the same control,depending on the voltage source

b.Three phase topology


In the three phase topology the PWM AC chopper operate like unidirectional voltage chopper.In
the second control depending on the voltage source sign the three phase structure operate like
two independent unidirectional voltage chopper.

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


In the buck PWM AC chopper for three phase systems the switches with the smallest voltage
source among three voltage source are fully turned on.

Chapter 2
MODEL PRIDECTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM.
I.

History of model predictive control

The earliest algorithm of Model predictive control was proposed by a French engineer
Richalet in 1978 but the receding horizon principle was proposed as early as 1963 by Propoi in
open loop optimal feedback control
In 1968,Rafal and Stevens presented a control system with a quadratic cost,linear
constraints and moving horizon of one.This was essentially an MPC formulation.MPC later
become popular in the chemical and other slow process industries due to simplicity of the
algorithm and the advent of the computer and the introduction of online optimization.The MPC
control systems was ideal in industrial because of its capability handlding multivariable systems
and constraints
II.

Branches of predictive control

Many control schemes has been proposed and are used power electronics the most common
controller being the linear controller with pulse width modulation.

Converter control method


Predective control further be broken into several control schemes

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

Deadbeat control and MPC with a continuous control set require modulators such as pulse width
modulation which results in fixed switching frequency while hysteresis, trajectory and MPC with
finite set control
Moded predictive control is further divided into two kind: MPC with a continuous control set
MPC with a finite set control
+ MPC with continuous control set requires a modulator.

In an MPC with a finite set control ,the switches position form part of the optimization
process

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

III.

Model predictive control theory

Predective thinking is nautral for people for example during driving the car ,the driver look
ahead and observer the shape of the road and possible obstacles.
The discrete time model of the system can be given by the following equation

Which describe the future state vector


current input vector

as a function of the current state vector and the

Model predictive control refer to a class of control algorithm in which a plant or process dynamic
model is used to control a process or plant by minimizing an objective function.MPC uses
mathematical function model of system to predict the future behavior.MPC process can be
summarized as follow
To take a measurement of a system state and output
Compute a finite horizon sequence
Carry out on-line optimization using a cost function
Apply the vector control variable with the least cos on the controlled plant
A model of plant is necessary for the controller
The success of the controller depend on the accuracy of the model
State and process measurement provide feedback for the system
Acorrding to the component of model predictive control are
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1.Influence of predictions on actions
MPC in constrast computer the affect of the current actions over a finite horizon
2.Prediction are based on model
3.Selecting input
The advantages of MPC
rding to the Volt-Ampere characteristic of Thyristor, the width of control pulse is required that
current through Thyristor increase from 0 to Ith_max . Normally, the width of control pulse is not
smaller than 5ms. If we increase the width if control pulse, the amplitude of control pulse will be
decreased.
3. The raising and falling edge of control pulse
The raising and falling time smaller is better. It will decrease the loss power by heating of
Thyristor especially using many Thyristor in circuit. We try to decrease the value of them to 0,
then the control pulse is look like rectangular pulse.
4. Confidence of circuit
The circuit have to operate exactly in condition having increase of temperature, appear
some noise. The Thyristors are not allow to open when the leakage current appear. The control
pulse is little denpend on heating, oscilation of input voltage, noise ,
IV.

Choosing and calculating the power stage.

1. Calculation and choosing Thyristor


We are consider one phase bridge rectifier using Thyristor, so we have:
-

The maximum reverse voltage of Thyristor is :


URe_max = 2 .U2 = 2 220 = 311(V)

The needed reverse voltage of Thyristor is:

URe_needed = 1.8 UNg_max = 1.8311 = 560(V)


The working current of Thyristor following rated current:
Iv =1/ 3 Irated = 0.577 166 = 95.8(A)

The needed current of Thyristor is:


Ineeded = 3.2 Iv = 3.295.8 = 306.56(A)

From all above parameters, we check in Thyristor parameter table and we choose TF440-06X
with parameters:

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

- The rated current:

Irated = 400(A)

- The maximum reverse voltage:

URe_max = 600(V)

- The peak current:

Ipeak = 4000(A)

- The drop voltage on Thyristor:

Vdrop = 2(V)

- The gate current:

Ig = 200(mA)

- The gate voltage

Vg = 5(V)

- The leakage current:

Ileak = 25(mA)

- The maximum working temperature:

Tmax = 125(oC)

- The maintain current:

Imaintain = 70(mA)

2. Calculation and choosing transformer


2.1. Choosing cross section of iron core S0
S0 = (0.9 0.93) S (mm2)
With S = ab . Choose

a= 3mm, 5mm.We have S = 35=15 (mm2)

So we get S0 = 0.915 = 13.5 (mm2)


The estimation power with cross section wounding S0 :
Pestimate = U2I2

where U1 = 220(V), f = 50(Hz)


U2 = 24(V)

,I2 = 1(A)

Pestimate = U2I2 = 241 = 24(V)


2.2. Choosing the number of winding per volt W
We choose B = 0.7 ( Tesla), so K = 64.
So W = 64/13.5 = 4.74 ( round per volt)
So we choose W = 5.
2.3. Choosing the number of winding in primary W1 and secondary W2,W3
- The number of primary winding :
W1 = WU1 = 5 220 = 1100 ( round)
- The number of secondary winding :
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W2 = W3 = U2 / 2 = 24 / 2 = 12 ( round)
Determine the cross section for winding:
- The cross section of primary winding :
S1 =

P
.U . J

(mm2)

is the effiency of transformer: = 0.85 0.9


J is the current density of winding.

Choosing J = 4 ( A/mm2)
So the cross section of primary core is:
S1 =

24
0.9 220 4

= 0.03 (mm2)

The cross section of secondary windings:


S2 = S3 = I2 / J = 1 / 4 = 0.25 (mm2)
The diameter of a primary winding:
d1 = 1.13 S 1

= 1.13 0.03 = 0.2 ( mm)

The diameter of secondary windings:


d2 = d3 = 1.13 S 2

= 1.13 0.25 = 0.6 ( mm)

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Chapter 3
DESIGN AND SIMULATING THE CONTROL CIRCUIT AND
CONCULSION
I.

Block diagram of control stage.

Source

Comparator

Synchronous

PWM

Isolation

Control
voltage

Figure 3.1: Block diagram of control satge


(Source: From internet)
1. Source block
The main function of source block is provide the AC supply power for control stage with
AC current 50Hz. The wave form of source is sinusoidal wave.
2. Synchronous block
The main function of synchronous block is synchonization the width pulse with the
period of AC supply power 50Hz. Firstly, we use 2 diodes to have full-wave rectifier circuit to
obtain DC supply power. Then we use capacitor which can charge and discharge energy to
generate the sawtooth waveform. We have many sample can be choosed to implement this
function, but we choose sample that using transistor to control charge and discharge of capacitor.

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Figure 3.2: The synchronous block


( Source: from simulation circuit)

This sample is very useful. We can control the openning and closing of transisor at voltage
approximately to 0 that most other sample can not be performed. So we can easy to control the
charging and discharging of capacitor at region very small value of voltage. This sample control
transistor depending on working principle of Operation Amplifier (OPAM).

Figure 3.3: Control transistor depending on OPAM


(Source : From result simulating)
3. Comparator block
To simplize, we choose OPAM comparator to compare the value of sawtooth wave
voltage and control voltage and then generate the pulse.

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Figure 3.4: Comparator block


(Source: From simulation circuit)
In this figure, U1 and U2 are control voltage and sawtooth voltage corresponding. If sawtooth
voltage greater than control voltage, the output voltage will be high level at 5V. Reverstly, the
output voltage of OPAM will be low level at 0V. The advantage of this sample is that it can
generate the control pule very exactly.

Figure 3.5: The voltage control by the comparator block


(Source: Simulation result)

1. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block


When circuit operate in reality, the loss power is a big problem. So we have to find how to
reduce the loss power for circuit, how to reduce the raising heat for circuit, We will using
pulse width modulation methods to get it. We devide the control pulse at high level (5V) into
many small period pulse, that mean the frequency of pulse is very big. It is approximately
10KHz.

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Figure 3.6:Pulse width modulation block


(Source: From simulation circuit)
This block create the pulse with high frequency.

Figure 3.7:The pulse with high frequency


(Source: result simulating)
Because we consider about bridge rectifier, full-wave rectifier, we have to rectifier at 2-half
period of AC sinusoidal input voltage. We using NOT logical gate to generate invert pulse
serving for negative period.

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


Figure 3.8: The NOT logical gate
(Source: From simulation circuit)
Finally, we use AND logical gate with 3 inputs to combine and create the openning pulse for 4
Thyristor.
5. Isolation block
The control stage has low power, but power stage has high power. To ensure security, we have
isolate control stage and power stage. Nowday, OPTO coupler is usually used to isolate control
stage and power stage. Moreover, the structure of circuit is not difficult.

Figure 3.9: Isolation block


(Source: From simulating circuit)
Eventually, we connect the output to the input of thyristor corresponding.
II.

Schematic and simulation result

1. Schematic

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


Figure 3.10: The schematic
(Source:From internet)
2. Simulation result

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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.

Figure 3.11: The simulation result

III.

Conclusion
The our project using thyristor to control current and voltage.It are mainly used where
high current and voltage are involved,and often used to control alternating current,
where the change of polarity of the current causes to devices to switch off ,
automatically.This can be said to operate synchronously as, once the device is open,it
conduct current in phase with the voltage applied over its cathode to anode junction
with no further gate modulation being requires to repliable.

IV.

Refereces

1. Trn Trng Minh


Gio trnh in t cng sut.NXB Gio Dc
2.Nguyn Bnh
in t cng sut v ng dng thyristor.NXB i hc v gio dc chuyn nghip
3.Controlled in power electronic
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Project 1&2 of Designing and Simulating full bridge controlled rectifier.


Marian P.Kazmierkowski and Frede Blaabjerg.

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