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B.V. Shamsundara
Dy. General Manager,
SHL, ARAI, Pune

A 19 yr old driver lost control of his BMW with 4 other young


passengers inside at over 110mph and took off over the central
reservation and collided full on with a land rover killing over 8
people in total including a 2yr old boy, witnesses described the
crash as being like a "bomb explosion".
The crash was so horrific that counseling was offered to
emergency workers and witnesses because the passengers of the
BMW where spread across the motorway.
Speed the main factor in this crash.

A Bird Hit

ROAD ACCIDENTS
(IN THOUSANDS)

PERSONS
KILLED
(IN
THOUSANDS)

PERSONS
INJURED
(IN THOUSANDS)

2004
(Provisional)

429.8

92.5

464.6

2003

406.7

86.0

435.1

2002

407.5

84.7

408.7

2001

405.6

80.9

405.2

2000

391.4

78.9

399.3

1999

386.4

82.0

375.0

1998

385.0

79.9

390.7

1997

373.7

77.0

378.4

1996

371.2

74.6

369.5

1995

348.9

70.6

323.2

1994

320.4

64.0

311.5

YEAR

Sourced From:
Department of Road Transport and Highways.
Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways. Government of India.

Buckling up is the single most effective thing


you can do to protect yourself in a crash.
In 2008, seat belts saved more than 13,000 lives nationwide.
From 2004 to 2008, seat belts saved over 75,000 lives
enough people to fill a large sports arena. During a crash,
being buckled up helps keep you safe and secure inside your
vehicle, whereas being completely thrown out of a vehicle is
almost always deadly. Seat belts are the best defense against
impaired, aggressive, and distracted drivers.

Air bags are designed to work with seat belts, not


replace them.
In fact, if you dont wear your seat belt, you could be thrown
into a rapidly opening frontal air bag; a movement of such
force could injure or even kill you.

How to buckle up safely:


Follow the guidelines shown in the photo
right. As you can see, the lap belt and
shoulder belt are secured across the pelvis
and rib cage, which are more able to
withstand crash forces than other parts of
your body.
Fit matters.
Before you buy a new car, check to see that
its seat belts are a good fit for you. Ask your
dealer about seat belt adjusters, which can
help you get the best fit. If you need a roomier
belt, contact your vehicle manufacturer to
obtain seat belt extenders. If you drive an
older or classic car with lap belts only, check
with your vehicle manufacturer about how to
retrofit your car with todays safer
lap/shoulder belts.

Passenger cars need to meet over 40 safety standards (whereas


LCVs are required to meet only 4 standards). These design and
performance standards include occupant protection during frontal,
side, and rear collisions.
As a result, mainstream cars are required to be designed far more
robustly than LCVs, and this reduces the risk of injury or death to
occupants. However, the level of risk depends on the severity of a
crash and the design and extent of protection offered by individual
models. The risk is therefore reduced but cannot be eliminated.
In rear impact collisions, the head restraints, seat back, seat belts,
and seat anchorages work together to protect the occupants.
In side impact collisions, if the vehicle is equipped with side curtain
air bags, this would reduce the risk of the occupant's head being
struck directly by an intruding vehicle.

Terminology
Crashworthiness
The ability of vehicle structure to absorb mechanical energy resulting
from collision with another object while maintaining integrity of
passenger compartment.
Crush
The amount of exterior deformation of car involved in a crash.
Intrusion
The reduction in an interior dimension due to door footwear or
bulkhead intrusion.
Biomechanics
The study of the mechanics of living things. It demands knowledge
both of Biology and of the various branches of Physics &
Engineering which comprise mechanics.

Crumple-Zone

The structural zone would sacrificially


collapse during frontal impact to help
protect the structural integrity of the
passenger compartment while limiting the
deceleration that the occupant would
experience.

FMVSS Standards related to Crash Testing


The following Federal Motor Vehicle Standards are related to
safety testing.
Interior Testing
FMVSS 201 - Occupant Protection in Interior Impact
FMVSS 202 - Head Restraints
FMVSS 203 - Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering
Control System
FMVSS 204 - Steering Control Rearward Displacement
FMVSS 205 - Glazing Materials
FMVSS 207 - Seating Systems
FMVSS 213 - Child Restraint Systems
FMVSS 225 - Child Restraint Anchorage Systems
Dash Board
FMVSS 201 - Occupant Protection in Interior Impact

Frontal Impact
FMVSS 203 - Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering
Control System
FMVSS 204 - Steering Control Rearward Displacement
FMVSS 205 - Glazing Materials
FMVSS 208 - Occupant Crash Protection
FMVSS 209 - Seat Belt Assemblies
FMVSS 210 - Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages
FMVSS 212 - Windshield Mounting
Side Impact
FMVSS 201 - Occupant Protection in Interior Impact
FMVSS 205 - Glazing Materials
FMVSS 206 - Door Locks and Door Retention Components
FMVSS 214 - Side Impact Protection
Steering Wheel
FMVSS 203 - Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering
Control System
FMVSS 204 - Steering Control Rearward Displacement

Seats
FMVSS 201 - Occupant Protection in Interior Impact
FMVSS 207 - Seating Systems
Seat Belts
FMVSS 208 - Occupant Crash Protection
FMVSS 209 - Seat Belt Assemblies
FMVSS 210 - Seat Beld Assembly Anchorages
FMVSS 213 - Child Restraint Systems
Rear Impact
FMVSS 223 - Rear Impact Guards
FMVSS 224 - Rear Impact Protection
Rollover
FMVSS 201 - Occupant Protection in Interior Impact
FMVSS 208 - Occupant Crash Protection
FMVSS 216 - Roof Crush Resistance
Head Rests
FMVSS 202 - Head Restraints
Roof Crush
FMVSS 216 - Roof Crush Resistance.

EUROPEAN REGULATIONS / DIRECTIVES


Interior Testing
ECE R-12
Reg. 12 - Rev.3 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING
THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE
PROTECTION OF THE DRIVER AGAINST THE STEERING
MECHANISM IN THE EVENT OF IMPACT
ECE R-16
Reg. 16 - Rev.5 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING
THE APPROVAL OF:
I. SAFETY-BELTS, RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, CHILD
RESTRAINT SYSTEMS AND ISOFIX CHILD RESTRAINT
SYSTEMS FOR OCCUPANTS OF POWER-DRIVEN
VEHICLES
II. VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH SAFETY-BELTS,
RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS
AND ISOFIX CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS

ECE R-17
Reg. 17 - Rev.4 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS
CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE SEATS, THEIR
ANCHORAGES AND ANY HEAD RESTRAINTS

ECE R-44
Reg. 44 - Rev.1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS
CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF RESTRAINING
DEVICES FOR CHILD OCCUPANTS OF POWERDRIVEN VEHICLES ("CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM")

Dash Board
ECE R-21
Reg. 21 - Rev.2 Part 1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS
CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THEIR INTERIOR FITTINGS
Reg. 21 - Rev.2 Part 2 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS
CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THEIR INTERIOR FITTINGS
ECE R 32
Reg. 32 - Rev.1 Part 1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS
CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES
WITH REGARD TO THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE
STRUCTURE OF THE IMPACTED VEHICLE IN A
REAR-END COLLISION

ECE R 33
Reg. 33 - Rev.1 Part 1 - UNIFORM
PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD
TO THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE STRUCTURE
OF THE IMPACTED VEHICLE IN A HEADON COLLISION
Reg. 33 - Rev.1 Part 2 - UNIFORM
PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD
TO THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE STRUCTURE
OF THE IMPACTED VEHICLE IN A HEADON COLLISION

Frontal Impact
ECE R-12
Reg. 12 - Rev.3 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE
PROTECTION OF THE DRIVER AGAINST THE STEERING
MECHANISM IN THE EVENT OF IMPACT
ECE R-14
Reg. 14 - Rev.3 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITHREGARD TO SAFETY-BELT
ANCHORAGES

ECE R 94
Reg. 94 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE
PROTECTION OF THE OCCUPANTS IN THE EVENT OF A
FRONTAL COLLISION

Side Impact
ECE R 11
Reg. 11 - Rev.1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO DOOR
LATCHES AND DOOR RETENTION COMPONENTS
ECE R 95
Reg. 95 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE
PROTECTION OF THE OCCUPANTS IN THE EVENT OF A
LATERAL COLLISION
ECE R-44
Reg. 44 - Rev.1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF RESTRAINING DEVICES FOR CHILD
OCCUPANTS OF POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES ("CHILD
RESTRAINT SYSTEM")

Impact
ECE R-42
Reg. 42 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR FRONT
AND REAR PROTECTIVE DEVICES (BUMPERS, ETC.)
Rollover
ECE R-21
Reg. 21 - Rev.2 Part 1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING
THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR
INTERIOR FITTINGS
Reg. 21 - Rev.2 Part 2 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING
THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR
INTERIOR FITTINGS
Head Rests
ECE R-25
Reg. 25 - Rev.1 - UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE
APPROVAL OF HEAD RESTRAINTS (HEADRESTS), WHETHER
OR NOT INCORPORATED IN VEHICLE SEATS

Standards Already Implemented


Sr.
No.

Standard

Description

AIS-005
(ECE R16)

Safety Belt Assemblies

AIS-015
(ECE R14 )

Safety Belt Anchorages

AIS-016
(ECE R17)

Seats, Their Anchorages and


Head Restraints

Seat their anchorages and


AIS-023 head restraints for passenger
(ECE R- vehicles of the categories
80)
other than M1 and Goods
vehicles of category N

Facilities available at
ARAI

Standards Already Implemented


Sr.
No.

Standard

IS:11939
(ECE R12)

Evaluation of Steering Column


Displacement against Front
Collision

IS:15223
(ECE R21)

Interior Fittings

IS: 12009 Side Door Strength for


Passenger Cars

IS:14812,
IS:14682 Rear and Lateral Under Run
(ECE R- Protection Devices
58)

Description

Standards Already Implemented


Sr.
No.

Standard

Description

AIS-029
ECE R-29

Survival Space of the


occupants of
Commercial Vehicle

AIS-031
ECE R-66

Strength of Super
Structure

AIS-006
ECE R-42

Front and Rear


Bumpers

ECE R-93
AIS-069

Front Under Run


Protection

Facilities available

Crash Related Standards to be Implemented


Sr.
No.

Standard

Description

ECE R-94
AIS-098

Protection of occupant in the event of


frontal collision (Offset frontal)

ECE R-95
AIS-099

Protection of occupant in the event of


Lateral Collision

ECE R-32
AIS-096

Requirements of vehicle in head-on


collision

ECE R-33
AIS-101

Rear End Collision

ECE R-44
AIS-072

Child Restraint System

EEVC WG17
AIS-100

Pedestrian Protection

AIS-052
ECE R-107

Bus Body Code: Large Passenger Vehicles


General Construction

Facility Overview
Sled Facility
Bungee Sled Facility
Payload 650 kg.

Velocity 65 km/h
Max. G Level 40 g.

PU Tube Stopping Device


with ECE Regulatory pulses

Facility Overview
Crash Test Facility
ECV system
Onboard Data Acquisition 80 channels from
Kyser Threde, Germany
Full Frontal and Offset Frontal Barriers
Rear Impact and Side Impact Trolleys
Motion Analysis - 2-D and 3-D Motion Analysis
Software
from SAI, USA
Photo-pit 4m X 3m X 2.5m (facility under installation)

Facility Overview
Crash Dummy Facilities
Hybrid III family of Dummies 3 numbers
Side Impact Dummies - One each of ES-I and
ES-II
Child Dummies Planned under facility expansion
Comprehensive Dummy Calibration Facilities available

Facility Overview
Photography and Lighting

Make

Redlake, USA

Model

6 No. HG100K and 2


MotionPro

Resolution

1504 x 1128 Pixels @ 1000


FPS
1,00,000 FPS

Max Frame
rate
Lighting

High Intensity Flicker Free


Lighting System
1.5 Lac Lux level

Facility Expansion Plans


Electrical Drive with a capacity of 3500 kg mass with
propelling velocity of 80 km/hr.
30 Barrier Tests and Pole Barrier Test facility

Decelerating Sled with a payload capacity of 1000 kg and 80


km/hr
velocity and maximum G level of 60.
9 additional High Speed Cameras and 2 mini-High Speed
cameras

2 new FILM-PIT facilities of size 6m 3m 3m with lighting


system

Feasibility of Tests with Expanded Facility


Front and Side Crash
Europe
Test

Rear and rollover Crash


Europe

USA
v
Test
(km/h)

v
(km/h)

50

48.3
-52

Test

USA
v
Test
(km/h)

54

1365 kg, 27
38

56

1100 kg

960 kg

48,3
-52

48.3
-52

50

32
-35

1800 kg

v
(km/h)

1500 kg
48,3
-52