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his booklet provides brief presentations of the research in the Area of

Advance Materials Science in Gothenburg, a strong scientific community with governmental funding for strategic research environments. It
includes research in materials science at Chalmers and at the Department of Biomaterials at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg
(GU). To provide a flavor of the activities we present the academic staff
at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials engaged in the Area of Advance.

The Area of Advance is based on five excellence profiles: Materials for


Health, Materials for Energy Applications, Sustainable Materials, Experimental Methods, and Theory and Modeling. The first three are directed
towards applications and grand challenges for the society while the two
latter are generic, laying the foundation for breakthroughs in materials
science.
The researchers presented in the brochure are all active in one or more
of the five profiles. Together they perform cutting edge research with
the aim to contribute to finding solutions to important challenges in the
materials field such as:
More materials must be based on renewable feedstock
Construction materials must become lighter; lighter constructions save
both energy and materials
New and improved ways for supply, transport, storage and conversion
of energy require innovative new materials
Functional materials, i.e. materials that utilize the native properties and
functions of their own to achieve an intelligent action, will become
more important
Regenerative medicine will put high demands on the materials involving both mechanical aspects and functionality
The aim of the Area of Advance is to combine scientific excellence and
relevance for society. It stretches from education on the master and PhD
levels to innovation. It includes five departments at Chalmers and the
Department of Biomaterials at University of Gothenburg.
There are several centers of excellence in materials science operating
under the umbrella of the Area of Advance Materials Science. These
centers normally have long term joint funding from the Swedish government and from a consortium of industries. The Centers for Catalysis,
High Temperature Corrosion, Railway Mechanics, Supramolecular Biomaterials, and BIOMATCELL, as well as the Wallenberg Wood Science
Center are all strong entities with ten years or longer funding.

Gothenburg, August 2013

Aleksandar Matic
Director

Anders Palmqvist
Co-Director

Peter Thomsen
Responsible at GU

Johan Ahlstrm Engineering metals for demanding applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


Martin Andersson Nanomaterials for Biological Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Mats Andersson Polymer Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hans-Olof Andrn Detailed microstructure of materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Yu Cao Materials Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Per-Anders Carlsson Surface chemistry - heterogeneous catalysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Dinko Chakarov Physics with applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Alexandre Dmitriev Functional optical nanomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Magnus Ekh Material mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Karin Ekstrm The role of exosomes and microvesicles in tissue healing and regeneration at the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Annika Enejder Molecular Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Paul Erhart Electronic and atomic scale modeling of materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Sten Eriksson Inorganic Materials - focus on complex oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Lena K. L. Falk Microstructures of Inorganic Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Mark Foreman Industrial Materials Recycling and Nuclear Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Paul Gatenholm Structure property relationship in biopolymer based materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Stanislaw Gubanski High Voltage Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Sheng Guo High-entropy Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Hanna Hrelind Lean NOx reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Anders Hellman Use of computational methods to find sustainable ways to produce and utilize energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Anne-Marie Hermansson Microstructure design of soft materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Krister Holmberg Surfactants and biomolecules at interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Fredrik Hk Small-scale sensors and cell-membrane manipulation for life science applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Per Hyldgaard Theory of materials binding and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Patrik Johansson Next Generation Batteries (NGB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Alexey Kalabukhov Physics of functional oxide films and heterostructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Maths Karlsson Structure and dynamics in functional oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Uta Klement Materials Characterization/Nanomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Anette Larsson Design of new polymer materials for controlled release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Ragnar Larsson Computational continuum-atomistic modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Johan Liu Manufacturing and characterisation of nanomaterials and processes for thermal management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Anna Martinelli Ionic liquid derived materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Aleksandar Matic Soft Matter Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Bengt-Erik Mellander Innovative energy conversion devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Kasper Moth-Poulsen Design and synthesis of new self-assembled molecular materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Christian Mller Polymer Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Stefan Norberg Disordered Crystalline Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Lars Nordstierna Soft Matter Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Mats Norell Engineering metal surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Lars Nyborg Surface and Interface Engineering of PM materials and Advanced Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Lars hrstrm Metal-Organic Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Louise Olsson Emission cleaning from vehicles using heterogeneous catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Eva Olsson Functional structures of nanostructured materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Anders Palmquist Osseointegration: from macro to nano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Anders Palmqvist Functional Materials Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Christer Persson Materials Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Mikael Rigdahl Polymeric materials and composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Jonas Ringsberg Lightweight Structures and Material Characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Per Rudquist Liquid Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Elsebeth Schrder Atomic scale theory for sparse matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Magnus Skoglundh Emission Control and Energy-related Catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Krystyna Stiller Material Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Jan-Erik Svensson Materials chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Jan Swenson Physics of soft and biological materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Luping Tang Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Pentti Tengvall Biomaterials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Peter Thomsen Biomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Gran Wahnstrm Materials Modelling and Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Shumin Wang Semiconductor heterostructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Ergang Wang Polymer Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Gunnar Westman Soft Matter Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Dag Winkler Complex metal oxide heterostructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
August Yurgens Low-dimensional electron systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Engineering metals for demanding


applications

Johan Ahlstrm
Docent
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7721532
johan.ahlstrom@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Influence of short heat pulses on properties of martensite in medium
carbon steels; K. Cvetkovski, J. Ahlstrm and B. Karlsson; Materials
Science and Engineering: A, 561, 321-328 (2013)

Some properties of engineering metals are inherent from the elements they are
composed of, for example stiffness and density. Other properties like strength
or hardness and toughness can be tailored during material and component manufacturing. For estimates of the performance in the application, it is important
to evaluate the material characteristics in the component and also consider the
stability of properties during service, which often comprises high mechanical
and thermal loads. A combination of testing and modelling is needed for the
evaluation.
The experimental work includes studies of monotonic and cyclic deformation
behaviour and its relation to microstructure, temperature and strain rate. The
results are used both for physical interpretation of the material behaviour and
used as input for numerical modelling of mechanical property development both
in production and later, during service. Also connected phenomena like phase
transformations, residual stresses and crack growth are studied.
An example is outlined in the figure which shows computed residual stresses in
a martensitic coin (=22.5 mm, t=3 mm) after laser heating of top surface centre to 575C for 2 s. Deformations are enlarged 50x to show volume shrinkage
on martensite tempering. Material models were achieved by laser irradiation experiments, dilatometry and mechanical testing at elevated temperatures [Ref 1].

Modeling of Distortion during Casting and Machining of Aluminum


Engine Blocks with Cast-in Gray Iron Liners; J. Ahlstrm and R. Larsson;
Materials Performance and Characterization, 9 (5) 1-19 (2012)
Mechanical behaviour of a rephosphorised steel for car body
applications: Effects of temperature, strain rate and pretreatment; Y.
Cao, J. Ahlstrm and B. Karlsson; Journal of Engineering Materials and
Technology, 133, 021019-1 - 021019-11 (2011)

Stresses in martensitic
coin after laser heating

Nanomaterials for Biological Applications

Martin Andersson
Associate Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722966
martina@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Formation of bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using self-assembled
liquid crystals; W. He, P. Kjellin, F. Currie, P. Handa, C. Knee, J. Bielecki, R.
L. Wallenberg and M. Andersson; Chem. Mater. 24, 892-902 (2012)

We utilize nanochemistry to design nanomaterials for biological applications.


Even though the field originates from the field of chemistry, the subject is highly
multidisciplinary including biology, medicine and physics. Our research interests
are:
BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS: Inspired by nature, we are mimicking the natural bottom up fabrication approach of synthesizing structures on the nanometer length
scale. In specific, we are synthesizing various types of calcium phosphates,
titania and silica having designed nano-sized features.
REGENERATIVE MEDICINE: In the field of regenerative medicine we are
focusing on nanostructured implant surfaces both to increase and speed up their
integration in tissue and to be able to control the release of certain drugs. In this
research field we are collaborating with leading surgeons to perform preclinical
studies.
NANOTOXICOLOGY: Major concerns have recently been directed towards the
possible toxicity of nanomaterials. Within this research field we are focusing on
how the properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, crystallinity and surface
chemistry effects their toxicity and ability to penetrate biological barriers such as
the skin.

Meso-ordered soft hydrogels, M. Claesson, K. Engberg, C.W. Frank and


M. Andersson; Soft Matter 8, 8149-8156 (2012)
Osteoporosis drugs in mesoporous titanium oxide thin films improve
implant fixation to bone; N. Harmankaya, J. Karlsson, A. Palmquist, M.
Halvarsson, K. Igawa, M. Andersson and P. Tengvall; Acta Biomater. 9,
7064-7073 (2013)

A cross-sectional TEM image of a


drug containing mesoporous implant
surface ex vivo

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Polymer Technology

Mats Andersson
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723401
mats.andersson@chalmers.se

A large part of our research is directed towards polymer electronics. A major


advantage with polymer electronics is the ease by which the semiconducting
polymers can be deposited. It is no more difficult than printing a color magazine!
The idea of printed electronics is realized today. Not on a commercial full scale
production, but on an advanced research level and the progress depends strongly on the development of new and better polymers.
The aim with the research is mainly focused on the design and synthesis of
new conjugated polymers for efficient and stable electronics such as solar cells,
photo diodes, light-emitting diodes, lasers, thin film field effect transistors, electrochemical devices, sensors and to relate the chemical structure of the polymer
to the device performance. If successful, this research is not only scientifically interesting but can also result in for example cheap solar cells and energy efficient
lightning, which would be very beneficial for the environment and mankind.
Another central part of our research is focused on bulk polymers. One important
task within this field is focused on developing isolating materials for high voltage
cables, mainly in cooperation with different companies in the Gothenburg region.

Selected Publications
Semi-Transparent Tandem Organic Solar Cells with 90% Internal
Quantum Efficiency; Z. Tang, Z. George, Z.F. Ma, J. Bergqvist, K.
Tvingstedt, K. Vandewal, E. Wang, L.M. Andersson, M.R. Andersson,
F.L. Zhang, O. Ingans; Advanced Energy Materials 2(12), 1467-1476
(2012)
An Easily Accessible Isoindigo-Based Polymer for High-Performance
Polymer Solar Cells; E. Wang, Z.F. Ma, Z. Zhang, K. Vandewal, P.
Henriksson, O. Ingans, F. Zhang, M.R. Andersson; Journal of the
American Chemical Society 133(36), 14244-14247 (2011)
Polymer Photovoltaics with Alternating Copolymer/Fullerene Blends
and Novel Device Architectures; O. Ingans, F. Zhang, K. Tvingstedt, L.M.
Andersson, S. Hellstrm, M.R. Andersson; Advanced Materials 22(20),
E100-E116 (2010)

Solutions of different conjugated


polymers designed for the use in
solar cells

Detailed microstructure of materials

Hans-Olof Andrn
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723309
andren@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Effect of boron on carbide coarsening at 600C in 9-12% chromium
steels; F Liu, DHR Fors, A Golpayegani, H-O Andrn and G Wahnstrm;
Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 4053-4062 (2012)

We work with microscopy and microanalysis of primarily metallic materials using


high-resolution methods such as atom probe tomography (APT) in combination with
electron microscopy.
1. Design of new martensitic chromium steels for steam power plants. Todays steels
have limited creep and oxidation resistance. In collaboration with the Technical
University of Denmark, Siemens and DONG we explore new ways of hardening by
boron additions (Paper 1) and nanometer-sized Z-phase precipitates. The aim is
to increase the service temperature from 600 to 650C. This would increase the
thermal efficiency by several percent and mean very large savings in CO2 emissions,
since 70% of the Worlds electricity is generated in fossil fueled steam power plants.
2. Plastic deformation of cemented carbides. Interfaces control e.g. sintering and
plastic deformation behaviour of cemented carbides used for metal cutting operations. In collaboration with atomistic modelling at Chalmers, Sandvik and Seco Tools,
plastic deformation and detailed microstructure is studied in detail (Paper 2, Figure).
3. Hydrogen pick-up of zirconium alloys. In collaboration with Westinghouse, Vattenfall, Sandvik and EPRI, we study the mechanisms of hydrogen pick-up during corrosion of zirconium fuel cladding materials in water reactors. A pathway for hydrogen in
the oxide was recently found (Paper 3).

Transition metal solubilities in WC in cemented carbide materials; J


Weidow, S Johansson, H-O Andrn and G Wahnstrm; J. Amer. Cer. Soc.
94, 605-610 (2011)
Enrichment of Fe and Ni at metal and oxide grain boundaries in corroded
Zircaloy-2; G Sundell, M Thuvander and H-O Andrn; Corr. Sci. 65,
10-12 (2012)

WC/(Ta,W)C/Co with submonolayer Co (blue) segregation to


boundaries; APT image

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Materials Characterization

Yu Cao
Assistant Professor
MSc Central South University, Changsha
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 77212 52
yu.cao@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Role of Nitrogen Uptake During the Oxidation of 304L and 904L
Austenitic Stainless Steels; Y. Cao and M. Norell; Oxidation of Metals
DOI 10.1007/s11085-013-9391-1 (2013)

I have been working in the area of materials characterization focusing on the


surface and interface analysis, with an emphasis on the spectroscopy such as
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
with the sampling depth less than 10 nm. Surface analyses have found wide
applications at both basic and applied research levels in the areas including microelectronics, sustainable energy sources, metallurgy, catalysis, coatings, polymer, corrosion, nanotechnology, tribology, and biomaterials. The ability of surface
analysis techniques to generate a deep understanding of surface phenomena is
demonstrated by the investigations of, for instance: i) Silicides contacts on semiconductor SiC contacts; ii) Systematic in-situ XPS study of transition metal silicides; iii) High temperature material for turbine structures - crack growth in grain
boundaries; iv) High temperature corrosion in diesel exhaust gas after-treatment
systems; v) Atmospheric corrosion of Mg alloys.
Another research focus is on the mechanical behaviours of engineering metals
and the correlation with microstructure, temperature and strain rate. Examples
of research topics include i) Effect of trace elements on structure and properties
of Cu-based elastic alloy; ii) Materials behaviour in automotive crash situations influence of mechanical and thermal pre-treatment.

Materials Science and Engineering A 528 (6), 2570-2580 (2011)


Mechanical behaviour of a rephosphorised steel for car body
applications: Effects of temperature, strain rate and pretreatment; Y.
Cao, J. Ahlstrm and B. Karlsson; Journal of Engineering Materials and
Technology, 133, 021019-1 - 021019-11 (2011)

XPS core level Ni 2p3/2 spectra


from different silicides

Surface chemistry - heterogeneous


catalysis

Per-Anders Carlsson
Associate Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722924
per-anders.carlsson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
In situ spectroscopic investigation of low-temperature oxidation of
methane over alumina-supported platinum during periodic operation, E.
Becker, P.-A. Carlsson, L. Kylhammar, M. A. Newton and M. Skoglundh, J.
Phys. Chem. C 115, 944-951 (2011)

My research concerns surface chemistry with particular focus on the design


and studies of new catalyst-based concepts for environmental and sustainable energy applications. I adopt a research approach that balances chemistry
and physics with some elements of chemical engineering, which is suitable for
heterogeneous catalysis research. I strive for cross-disciplinary collaborations
joining methods from traditionally different disciplines as to advance the field of
time-resolved in situ studies of the surface chemistry of heterogeneous catalytic
reactions at the atomic scale. The aim is to better understand mechanisms and
basic principles behind activity, selectivity and durability for generic as well as
more specialised catalytic processes.
One recent example concerns characterisation of structure-function relationships in methane oxidation over both supported catalysts and surfaces
studied primarily at large-scale European research facilities (ESRF/Grenoble,
PETRA III/Hamburg and MAX-lab/Lund). Time-resolved mass spectrometry
and infrared spectroscopy with synchronous x-ray absorption spectroscopy or
high-energy x-ray diffraction have been used in situ during transient conditions
to correlate activity/selectivity with adsorbate composition and chemical state
and physical structure of the catalyst. Also high-energy surface x-ray diffraction
and high-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to study
surfaces in situ.

Ph
ysi
cs

Mechanisms behind sulfur promoted low-temperature oxidation of


methane; D. Bounechada, S. Fouladvand, L. Kylhammar, T. Pingel E.
Olsson, M. Skoglundh, J. Gustafson, M. Di Michiel, M. A. Newton and P.-A.
Carlsson; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 8648-8661 (2013)

y
istr
em
Ch

The active phase of Pd during methane oxidation, A. Hellman, A. Resta,


N.M. Martin, J. Gustafson, A. Trinchero, P.-A. Carlsson, O. Balmes, R.
Felici, R. van Rijn, J.W.M. Frenken, J. N. Andersen, E. Lundgren and H.
Grnbeck, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 678-682 (2012)

Catalysis

Heterogeneous catalysis involves


several research areas

Engineering

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Physics with applications

Dinko Chakarov
Professor
MSc Sofia University
PhD Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
+46 (0) 31 7723375
dinko.chakarov@chalmers.se

For an experimental physicist within the interdisciplinary area of Surface Science


the scientific challenges are numerous. My research interests are towards examination of the fundamental energy and charge transfer between substrate and
the adsorbed layer as result of adsorption and during electron, ion and photon
irradiation. Specifically, experimental evaluation of the mechanisms of optical
excitations in nanoparticle- and nanocavity arrays and the related physical and
chemical processes at their interfaces. Physics and chemistry of ice and carbon
materials are of special interest.
As an example, three characteristic configurations of plasmonic NPs in the
model photocatalysts are examined in detail: Configuration S1 has metal NPs
in contact with the TiO2 films and the reactive environment; In S2, a separation
layer of SiO2 isolates NPs from both the TiO2 films and the reactive environment;
and in S3, the NPs are in contact with the TiO2 films but not with the reactive
environment.

Selected Publications
Photoinduced crystallization of amorphous ice films on Graphite; D.
Chakarov and B. Kasemo, Physical Review Letters, 81, 23, 5181-5184
(1998)
Grating formation by metal-nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into
waveguided modes; L. Eurenius, C. Hgglund, B. Kasemo, E. Olsson and
Dinko Chakarov, Nature Photonics, 2, 6, 360-364 (2008)
Photodesorption of NO from graphite(0001) surface mediated by silver
clusters; K. Wettergren, B. Kasemo and D. Chakarov, Surface Science,
593, 1-3, 235-241 (2005)

Plasmonics for solar photo catalysis

Functional optical nanomaterials

Alexandre Dmitriev
Associate Professor
MSc Rostov State University
PhD EPFL, Switzerland / Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart
+46 (0) 31 7725177
alexd@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Plasmonic efficiency enhancement of high performance organic solar
cells with a nanostructured rear electrode; B. Niesen, B.P. Rand, P. van
Dorpe, D. Cheyns, L. Tong, A. Dmitriev and P. Heremans; Advanced
Energy Materials, 2, 145-150 (2013)

Our research explores functional bottom-up low-dimensional nanomaterials


- with focus on magnetoplasmonics (nanoplasmonics + magnetism), nano-photovoltaics and fundamentals of nano-optics. Low-dimensional means ultra-thin
nanostructured layers that are patterned on solid supports. Bottom-up emphasizes that such nanomaterials are produced by self-assembly nanofabrication, in
particular by the method developed at Chalmers - hole-mask colloidal lithography, HCL.
Particular interest is in nanomaterials that support surface plasmon polaritons (or
localized surface plasmons, LSP) - collective oscillations of the charge carriers,
induced by the electromagnetic radiation. The excited LSP resonances exist in
confined geometries - like fabricated with colloidal lithography nanoarchitectures (arrays of nanodisks, nanoellipses, nanocones and many others) - and
are characterized by the strong absorption and scattering of the incoming light,
along with strongly enhanced electromagnetic fields in the direct proximity of the
nanostructures. These features allow to address the fundamentals of light-matter
interactions, to design the next generation of solar cells and to drive the studies
on optical manipulation of magnetization, to name the few.

Designer magnetoplasmonics with nickel nanoferromagnets; V. Bonanni,


S. Bonetti, T. Pakizeh, Z. Pirzadeh, J. Chen, J. Nogus, P. Vavassori, R.
Hillenbrand, J. kerman and A. Dmitriev; Nano Lett., 11, 5333-5338
(2011)
Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect;
A. Dmitriev, C. Hgglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Kll,and
D.S. Sutherland; Nano Lett., 8, 3893-3898 (2008)

Magnetoplasmonic
nanoferromagnets (left);
plasmon nanoantennas,
absorbing solar light

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Material mechanics

Magnus Ekh
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723479
magnus.ekh@chalmers.se

My research area is modeling of the mechanical behavior of the cyclic behavior


of metals. Current research projects deal with modeling of applications such as
steel components in the railway industry and superalloy components in gas-turbines subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue loading.
A focus area is the development of macroscopic models for steel that should
capture, e.g., the cyclic ratcheting behavior and, for large strains, the evolution
of anisotropy. Similar models can be used for superalloys subjected the high
temperatures. But in this case we must also consider difficulties such as creep
effects and the variation of temperature.
Another focus area is multi-scale models for polycrystalline materials. In this
modeling approach we typically model the grains by using crystal plasticity
models and then use computational homogenization to obtain the macroscopic
response. A specific challenge has been to capture the Hall-Petch effect. This
goal has been targeted by developing gradient crystal plasticity models.

Selected Publications
Hybrid micro-macromechanical modelling of anisotropy evolution in
pearlitic steel; N. Larijani, G. Johansson and M. Ekh; European Journal of
Mechanics - A/Solids, 38, 38-47 (2013)
Experiments and modelling of the cyclic behaviour of Haynes 282, R.
Brommesson and M. Ekh; Technische Mechanik, 32 (2-5), 130-145
(2012)
Microscopic temperature field prediction during adiabatic loading
using gradient extended crystal plasticity; S. Bargmann and M. Ekh;
International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50 (6), 899-906 (2013)

Accumulated plastic slip in an


idealized polycrystal during
shear loading

The role of exosomes and microvesicles


in tissue healing and regeneration at the
interface

Karin Ekstrm
Researcher
MSc University of Gothenburg
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7862919
karin.ekstrom@biomaterials.gu.se

Selected Publications
Importance of RNA isolation methods for analysis of exosomal RNA:
evaluation of different methods; M. Eldh, J. Ltvall, C. Malmhll, K.
Ekstrm; Mol Immunol. 50(4), 278-86 (2012)

The mechanisms of early bone formation at implant surfaces and the factors
influencing the maintenance of bone-implant contact, stability and function are
not fully understood. An increased understanding of the signalling during such
events is important to obtain a basic understanding of the biological process in
addition to the possibilities to facilitate such events.
During recent years, exosomes have obtained extensive interest due to their
role in cell-cell communication as well as their potential use as biomarkers and
in therapy. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles (~100 nm) of endocytic
origin, consisting of a lipid membrane, proteins as well as different types of RNA.
Exosomes are regarded as powerful mediators in cell-cell communication due
to their ability to shuttle functional RNA and proteins between cells, either in the
microenvironment or over a distance, thus regulating other cells.
The aim of our research is to examine the role of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the communication between cells important during bone
regeneration and implant healing. Currently, we study exosomes from cells that
are involved in inflammation, repair and regeneration (e.g human monocytes
and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have shown that exosomes
take part in the communication between inflammatory cells and MSCs as well
in between MSCs. We aim to further evaluate the role of EVs in such events.
Furthermore, we aim to investigate the potential use of exosomes to facilitate
bone regeneration.

The stimulation of an osteogenic response by classical monocyte


activation; O.M. Omar, C. Granli, K. Ekstrm, C. Karlsson, A. Johansson,
J. Lausmaa, C.L. Wexell, P. Thomsen; Biomaterials. Nov, 32(32),
8190-204 (2011)
Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel
mechanism of genetic exchange between cells; H. Valadi, K. Ekstrm,
A. Bossios, M. Sjstrand, J.J. Lee, J.O. Ltvall; Nat Cell Biol. 9(6), 654-9
(2007)
Transmission electron microscopy
picture of exosomes, bar 20 nm

10

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Molecular Microscopy

Annika Enejder
Associate Professor
MSc Lund University of Technology
PhD Lund University
+46 (0) 31 7723840
enejder@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Monitoring of lipid storage in C. elegans using CARS microscopy; T.
Hellerer, C. Axng, C.Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder,
PNAS 104, 14658-14663 (2007)
In situ imaging of collagen synthesis by osteoprogenitor cells in
microporous bacterial cellulose scaffolds; C. Brackmann, M. Zaborowska,
J. Sundberg. P. Gatenholm and A. Enejder; Tissue Engineering C 18,
227-234 (2012), Image selected for cover page

With the aim to visualize the molecular composition and structure of innovative
materials, we develop and apply a new category of microscopy techniques
(CARS, SHG, THG, TERS ...) mapping inherent molecular vibrations of polymers, biomolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, structural proteins etc.) and metallic
nanostructures requiring no artificial labeling. It opens up for unique studies,
where molecular distributions and processes can be studied in their natural
context without the impact of bulky fluorophores or harsh sample preparations at
100-300 nm resolution and 1 sec intervals. Examples of ongoing studies are (i)
controlled formation of hydrophobic domains in recombinant-engineered protein
hydrogels in collaboration with the Heilshorn group at Stanford University, (ii)
stem cell growth and differentiation in biomimicking materials for replacement
tissues and 3D neuronal networks, and (iii) adhesion and interaction of living
cells with lipid bilayers.
The principles of CARS microscopy are schematically illustrated in the image:
the excitation beams are tightly focused on the sample and form a beating
field at a frequency matching that of the target molecule (here illustrated with
a triglyceride) inducing a resonantly enhanced vibration. A time series of CARS
microscopy images (1 minute interval) of the formation of an elastin-like, recombinant-engineered protein hydrogel is shown, illustrating the establishment of
hydrophobic, elastin-rich domains at 37 deg C incubation (Collaborator: Sarah
Heilshorn).

Sequence-specific crosslinking of electrospun, elastin-like protein


preserves bioactivity and native-like mechanics; P.L. Benitez, J.A. Sweet,
H. Fink, K. Chennazhy, S.K. Nair, A. Enejder and S.C. Heilshorn; Adv.
Healthcare Mat. 2, 114-118 (2013)

The principles of CARS


microscopy and images of a
protein-engineered hydrogel

Electronic and atomic scale modeling of


materials

Paul Erhart
Assistant Professor
MSc Technische Universitt Darmstadt,
Germany
PhD Technische Universitt Darmstadt,
Germany
+46 (0) 31 7723669
erhart@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
First-Principles Calculations of the Urbach Tail in the Optical Absorption
Spectra of Silica Glass; B. Sadigh, P. Erhart, D. berg, A. Trave, E.
Schwegler, and J. Bude; Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 027401-027404 (2011)

Materials properties vary dramatically with both chemical composition and microstructure. This situation provides rich opportunities for tailoring materials for specific applications or even developing entirely new functionalities. The abundance
of chemical and microstructural parameters is associated with the challenge to
discriminate their respective contributions. Materials modeling plays an important
part in this regard as it can provide unique insight and understanding.
Modeling complex materials requires calculation and simulation techniques
that bridge several orders of length and time scales as well as a combination
of quantum and classical mechanics, statistical physics and thermodynamics.
In our research we employ density functional theory based methods, classical
potentials and lattice Hamiltonians in combination with molecular dynamics and
Monte Carlo simulations. We are particularly interested in model construction as
a means for bridging length and time scales.
Using these tools we explore the properties of functional oxides, energy materials as well as metallic alloys with an emphasis on the role of defects and
interfaces. For example we investigate point defects in transparent conducting
oxides, ferroelectrics, and radiation detector materials with regard to electronic
and/or optical properties. Furthermore we are involved in research projects
concerning interface mediated properties and precipitate formation in functional
as well as construction materials.

Short-range order and precipitation in Fe-rich Fe-Cr alloys; P. Erhart, A.


Caro, M. Caro, and B. Sadigh; Phys. Rev. B 77, 134206-134214 (2008).
Defect-dipole formation in copper-doped PbTiO3 ferroelectrics; R.-A.
Eichel, P. Erhart, P. Trskelin, K. Albe, H. Kungl, and M. J. Hoffmann; Phys.
Rev. Lett. 100, 095504-095507 (2008).

From electronic structure of


energy materials to precipitatation in metallic alloys

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Inorganic Materials - focus on complex


oxides

Sten Eriksson
Professor
MPhil University of Gothenburg
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7722857
stene@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Structural disorder in doped zirconia, part I: oxygen vacancy order in
Zr0.8(Sc/Y)0.2O1.9 investigated by neutron total scattering and molecular
dynamics; S.T. Norberg, I. Ahmed, S.G. Eriksson, S. Hull, D. Marrocchelli,
P.A. Madden, L. Peng and J.T.S. Irvine; Chemistry of Materials 23, 13561364 (2011)

11

The group has a long-standing tradition of research on complex oxides with


main focus on perovskite and perovskite related compounds. Synthesis and development of preparative methods, and advanced structural characterisation are
key activities. We are experienced in preparing high temperature superconducting cuprates, ferroic and magnetic materials as well as magnetolectric systems.
Today a large part of our effort is devoted to exploring the emerging field of
proton- and oxygen ion conducting materials, eventually for use as electrolytes
in solid oxide fuel cells. Our aim is to acquire a better understanding of how
oxygen and proton content and local order can be linked to the ion conducting
properties. This will help us to predict new systems, and act as feedback to the
synthesis program.
In-house laboratories include preparative facilities (e.g. solid state sintering,
mechanical alloying, solution, sol-gel, microwave and hydrothermal methods),
TGA, DSC and x-ray diffractometers for studies of chemical reactions, phase
transitions and subtle structural transitions. In addition we are involved in the
upgrade of two neutron powder diffractometers at the large-scale facility ISIS,
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, and the design and implementation of a
suite of sample environment cells. Unique in-situ studies are performed in the
neutron beam to probe e.g. chemical reactions or fuel cell materials and batteries
under real working conditions.

Oxygen vacancy ordering within anion-deficient Ceria; S. Hull, S.T.


Norberg, I. Ahmed, S.G. Eriksson, D. Marrocchelli and P.A. Madden;
Journal of Solid State Chemistry 182, 2815-2821 (2009)
Location of deuteron sites in the proton conducting perovskite
BaZr0.5In0.5O3-y; I. Ahmed, C. Knee, S.G. Eriksson, M. Karlsson, P.F.
Henry, A. Matic, D. Engberg and L. Brjesson; Journal of Alloys and
Compounds 450, 103-110 (2009)

An ideal cubic perovskite,


space group Pm-3m

Microstructures of Inorganic Materials

Lena K. L. Falk
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723321
lklfalk@chalmers.se

Selected Publications

My research is concerned with relationships between microstructure and properties of, principally, hard structural materials. The research involves the application of different scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques for
imaging and microanalysis. The work covers three areas of materials science: (i)
development and stability of nano-microstructure, (ii) toughening and strengthening mechanisms, and (iii) deformation mechanisms. The development of
nano-microstructure under different processing and testing conditions is characterized by high resolution imaging and microanalysis, and the results are related
to different parameters in the fabrication process and to the behaviour of the
material under mechanical and thermal load. A significant part of the research
has been concerned with the development of fine-scale microstructure during
sintering and crystallisation processes in ceramic and glass-ceramic materials.
The mechanical and chemical behaviour of ceramic matrix composites, including
nanocomposite materials, has been investigated, and the role of the internal
interfaces in these materials has been addressed. My current research interest
also includes the structure and properties of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride
materials and cemented carbides for cutting tool applications.

Imaging and Microanalysis of Liquid Phase Sintered Silicon-Based


Ceramic Microstructures; L.K.L. Falk; J. Mater. Sci., 39, 6655-6673
(2004)
Development of Microstructure during Creep of Polycrystalline Mullite
and a Mullite 5 vol% SiC Nanocomposite; S. Gustafsson, L.K.L. Falk, J.E.
Pitchford, W.J. Clegg, E. Lidn and E. Carlstrm; J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 29,
539-550 (2009)
Effect of Composition on Crystallisation of Y/Yb-Si-Al-O-N B-Phase
Glasses; Y. Menke, L.K.L. Falk and S. Hampshire; J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90,
[5], 1566-1573 (2007)

The residual intergranular glassy


phase in a silicon nitride ceramic

12

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Industrial Materials Recycling and


Nuclear Chemistry

I hold the view that my goal as a chemist in Industrial Materials recycling is


to create new chemical processes for the recycling of that which is currently
impossible (or difficult) to recycle. An important part of my work is to devise
methods of recycling difficult materials without causing a loss of quality of the
material being recycled.
The substances which I am interested in the recycling of include metals; precious metals (silver, gold and platinum group metals), base metals such as nickel,
rare metals such as the lanthanides and radioactive metals such as americium.

Mark Foreman
Associate Professor
BSc ARCS London Imperial College
PhD Loughborough University
+46 (0) 31 7722928
foreman@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Hydrogenation catalysts from used nickel metal hydride batteries,
M.R.S.J. Foreman, C. Ekberg and A.O. Jensen, Green Chemistry 10,
825-826 (2008)
Demonstration of a SANEX Process in Centrifugal Contactors using
the CyMe4-BTBP Molecule on a Genuine Fuel Solution, D. Magnusson,
B. Christiansen, M.R.S. Foreman, A. Geist, J.-P. Glatz, R. Malmbeck, G.
Modolo, D. Serrano-Purroy and C. Sorel; Solvent Extraction and Ion
Exchange 27, 97-106 (2009)

I also have an interest in the recycling of organic compounds (such as polymers)


and non-metals such as chlorine, bromine and other main group elements. In addition to the recycling work I have an interest in the decontamination of waste to
allow its cheap disposal while safeguarding human health and the environment.
I am also involved in the Nuclear Chemistry section where I have an interest in a
range of topics including the chemistry of serious reactor accidents, the organic
chemistry of low and intermediate level wastes (Mainly isosaccharinic acids) and
in advanced separations.
I define nuclear chemistry as the chemistry associated with the nuclear fuel
cycle, nuclear reactor operation, environmental radioactivity, radioactive waste,
radiopharmaceuticals and other radioactive / nuclear technologies. My nuclear interests tend to be at the interface of this area with organic and inorganic
chemistry.

Synthesis, structure, and redox states of homoleptic d-block metal


complexes with bis-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl-pyridine and 1,2,4-triazin-3-ylbipyridine extractants, M.G.B. Drew, M.R.S. Foreman, A. Geist, M.J.
Hudson, F. Marken, V. Norman and M. Weigl; Polyhedron, 25, 888-900
(2006)
A uranium complex of a
BTBP, this complex relates
to the recycling of metals

Structure property relationship in


biopolymer based materials

Paul Gatenholm
Professor
BSc, Stockholm University
PhD, Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723407
paul.gatenholm@chalmers.se

Selected Publications

Biomimetic design requires an understanding of structure-property relationships at all length scales. The major interest is biomechanical behavior and cell
response investigated by NMR.
Structure and unique properties of biological materials such as bone, wood,
cartilage, jelly-fish, and shells are the objects of my studies. In my research I use
the principles of biomimetic design for the preparation of new materials using
renewable building blocks. That includes biological fabrication through the use
of enzymes, cells, and the coordination of biological systems. I am particularly
interested in designing and preparing new biomaterials which can replace or
regenerate tissue and organs and have been working closely with cardiovascular
surgeons to develop technology for the production of small calibre blood vessels.
We use bacteria to spin nanocellulose fibrils which are assembled into robust
biocompatible materials. The bacterial cellulose blood vessel project is currently
undergoing translation for clinical application. Collaboration with orthopaedic
surgeons to develop scaffolds to grow cartilage, meniscus and bone is an additional aspect of the research. Recent projects involve transformation of wood
based polymers such as hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin into new generation
of sustainable materials.

Cobalt (II) Chloride Promoted Formation of Honeycomb Patterned


Cellulose Acetate Films; O. Naboka, A. Sanz-Velasco, P. Lundgren, P.
Enoksson and P. Gatenholm; Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,
367(1), 485-93 (2012)
Flexible Oxygen Barrier Films from Spruce Xylan, M. Escalante, A.
Goncalves, A. Bodin, A. Stepan, C. Sandstrm, G. Toriz and P. Gatenholm;
Carbohydrate Polymers, 87, 4, 2381-2387 (2012)
In situ imaging of collagen synthesis by osteoprogenitor cells in
microporous bacterial cellulose scaffolds; C. Brackmann, M. Zaborowska,
J. Sundberg, A. Enejder and P. Gatenholm, Tissue Engineering, Part C,
18, 3, 227-234 (2012)

Nanocellulose biomaterial
biosynthesized by bottom up
fabrication process

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

High Voltage Engineering

Stanislaw Gubanski
Professor
MSc Technical University of Wroclaw
PhD Technical University of Wroclaw
+46 (0) 31 7721616
stanislaw.gubanski@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Effects of long term corona and humidity exposure of silicone rubber
based housing materials; M. Bi, S.M. Gubanski, H. Hillborg, J.M. Seifert
and B. Ma; Electra, 267, 4-15 (2013)

13

We continuously seek innovative solutions within applications of different processes and materials in electro-technical industry, where material characterizations, simulations, technology and measurements are in focus. Three main areas
dominate our activities today, which include (i) applications of polymeric materials
for insulation of high voltage apparatuses, especially for DC and high frequency
stressed systems, (ii) simulations of electro-physical phenomena in dielectric
and magnetic materials, as well as (iii) development of diagnostic measuring
technologies for assessment of insulation state for prediction of its life time.
Scientific and engineering problems are approached by combined experimental and theoretical methods and the research tasks are solved in a strong and
multidisciplinary environment, including cooperation with other academic groups,
with professional organizations like CIGRE and IEEE and with industrial partners
in Sweden and internationally. Especially successful have been our contributions related to the applications of polymeric materials in outdoor environments
and on the development of insulation diagnostics based on dielectric response
measurements in frequency domain. In continuation, an area of special interest
is in developing polymeric materials that can stand higher operating stresses for
optimizing design of cable insulation. New solutions where the desired properties
can be achieved include polymeric materials containing nano-fillers and voltage
stabilizers.

Dielectric Properties of Transformer Oils for HVDC Applications; L. Yang,


S.M. Gubanski, Y.V. Serdyuk and J. Schiessling; IEEE Trans. on Diel. and
El. Ins, 19, 1926-1933 (2012)
Influence of Biofilm Contamination on Electrical Performance of Silicone
Rubber Based Composite Materials; J. Wang, S.M. Gubanski, J. Blennow,
S. Atarijabarzadeh, E. Strmberg and S. Karlsson; IEEE Trans. on Diel.
and El. Ins, 19, 1690-1699 (2012)

Electric trees grown around a wire


electrode in crosslinked polyethylene

High-entropy Alloys

Sheng Guo
Assistant Professor
MEng Central South University
PhD Oxford University
+46 (0) 31 7721254
sheng.guo@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Anomalous solidification microstructure in Co-free AlxCrCuFeNi2 highentropy alloys; S. Guo, C. Ng, C.T. Liu; Journal of Alloys and Compounds,
557, 77-81 (2013)
Entropy-driven phase stability and slow diffusion kinetics in an
Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy; C. Ng, S. Guo, J.H. Luan, S. Shi and
C.T. Liu; Intermetallics, 31, 165-172 (2012)

High-entropy alloys (HEAs), or multi-component alloys with equiatomic or closeto equiatomic compositions, emerge as a new type of advanced metallic materials, and have received increasing attentions from the materials community. HEAs
possess some excellent mechanical and physical properties, and they have great
potential to be used as high temperature materials, or coating materials requiring
high hardness and high wear resistance.
My research interests are on the phase stability and mechanical behavior of
HEAs. First, I aim at establishing physical metallurgy principles to control the
solid solutions, intermetallic compounds or the amorphous phase formation
in HEAs, simply from adjusting the alloy compositions. In terms of the solid
solutions, a refined prediction on the fcc (face centered cubic) type or bcc
(body centered cubic) type solid solutions is necessitated, as they significantly
determine the mechanical properties of HEAs. It is also my intention to reveal
the metastability of solid solutions in HEAs, combining both thermomechanical
treatments and thermodynamic calculations.
Second, the simultaneous achievement of high strength and high ductility,
particular at tension, is still a challenge for HEAs. One target of my research is
to develop highly strong and ductile HEAs with suitable phase constitutions and
microstructures, via the compositional optimization based on the above mentioned physical metallurgy principles.

Effect of valence electron concentration on stability of fcc or bcc phase


in high entropy alloys; S. Guo, C. Ng, J. Lu, et al.; Journal of Applied
Physics, 109,103505 (2011)

Some HEAs possess better


high-temperature performance than
commercial superalloys

14

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Lean NOx reduction

Hanna Hrelind

My research activities focuses on environmental catalysis, and more specifically on lean NOx reduction, focusing on diesel- and lean-burn applications and
alternatively fuelled vehicles. In catalysis research, fundamental knowledge about
the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface is a prerequisite for
development of new and efficient catalyst materials and concepts. In particular
design and preparation of catalysts as well as characterization and evaluation of
these materials, including in-situ studies of reaction mechanisms and formation
of surface bound intermediate species, have been performed.

Associate Professor
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
Lic. Eng. Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722959
hanna.harelind@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Influence of carbon-carbon bond order and silver loading on the gas
phase oxidation products and surface species in absence and presence
of NOx over silver-alumina catalysts; H. Hrelind, F. Gunnarsson, S.M.
Sharif Vaghefi, M. Skoglundh and P.-A. Carlsson; ACS Catal. 2,
1615-1623 (2012)

Recently, I have also started activities directed towards NOx reduction for ships,
which is an emerging field owing to upcoming international legislations. My
vision is to work with environmental catalysis for energy efficient transportation,
like bio-powered vehicles and ships. Both applications offer interesting and new
scientific challenges. Urea-SCR is currently used by a few Swedish ship owners;
however, the research has been restricted to stationary applications and vehicles,
which has very different boundary conditions. Concerning bio-powered vehicles, the types of emissions and the conditions for e.g. NOx reduction puts new
demands on the catalytic system.

1480

Acetates

Influence of ageing, silver loading and type of reducing agent on the


lean NOx reduction over Ag-Al2O3 catalysts; F. Gunnarsson, J.-Y. Zheng,
H. Kannisto, C. Cid, A. Lindholm, M. Mihl, M. Skoglundh and H. Hrelind;
Topics Catal. 56, 416-420 (2013)

-1

Wavenumber (cm )

1460

Effect of silver loading on the lean NOx reduction with methanol over
Ag-Al2O3; M. Mnnikk, M. Skoglundh and H. Hrelind; Topics Catal. 56,
145-150 (2013).

1440

1420

Formates

1400

1380

In-situ IR spectroscopy to
follow reaction mechanisms
over catalyst surfaces

Use of computational methods to nd


sustainable ways to produce and utilize
energy

Anders Hellman
Associate Professor
MSc Linkping University
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7725611
ahell@chalmers.se

1360

60

90

120

150

180

Time (min)

My long-term goal is to find new or improved ways of how to produce and utilize
energy without severely affecting the environment. Research fields that I am
working in include surface science, heterogeneous catalysis and materials for
energy applications.
Recent research projects have focused on various oxidation processes. This
includes complete and partial oxidation of gas-phase methane, which has
implications for environmental protection and fuel production. Similar motivations
apply for the photoelectrochemistry of methanol- and water-oxidation, were
removal of organic material in waste-water and sustainable hydrogen production
are long-term goals.
I use several different computational methods, such as, density functional theory
calculations, molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo techniques, and micro-kinetic
models. These multiscale methods allow a transfer our understanding of the
different processes involved at the atomic level to the realm of our macroscopic
world. For instance, the activation of gas-phase reactants on surfaces can be
directly linked to the actual output of a catalyst.

Selected Publications
Mechanism for reversed photoemission core-level shifts of oxidized Ag;
H. Grnbeck, S. Klacar, N.M. Martin, A. Hellman, E. Lundgren, and J.N.
Andersen; Phys. Rev. B 85, 115445-115450 (2012)
The Active Phase of Palladium during Methane Oxidation; A. Hellman, A.
Resta, N.M. Martin, J. Gustafson, A. Trinchero, P.-A. Carlsson, O. Balmes,
R. Felici, R. van Rijn, J. Frenken, J.N. Andersen, E. Lundgren, and H.
Grnbeck; J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 678-682 (2012)
A First-Principles Study of Photo-Induced Water-Splitting on Fe2O3; A.
Hellman and R.G.S. Pala; J. Phys. Chem. C, 115 (26), 12901-12907
(2011)

Methan oxidation studied both by


experiment and theory

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Microstructure design of soft materials

Anne-Marie Hermansson
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Lund University
+46 (0) 31 7722978
amh@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Effects of confinement on phase separation kinetics and final
morphology of whey protein isolate-gellan gum mixtures; S. Wassn, N.
Lorn, K. van Bemmel, E. Schuster, E.Rondeau and A.M. Hermansson;
Soft Matter 9, 2738-2749 (2013)

15

My research is focused on microstructure design of soft materials to tailor


properties such as mass transport and rheological behaviour. This is on of the
cornerstones of the SOFT Microscopy Centre as well as the VINN EXcellence
Centre SuMo biomaterials. The main model systems are single and composite
physical gels of proteins and polysaccharides where the structure can be tailored
by the kinetic balance of the mechanisms involved. This requires structure
control over a wide range of length scales as well as time scales. Combinations
of microscopy techniques are being used from high-resolution transmission
electron microscopy to state of the art confocal laser scanning microscopy. New
techniques are being developed for 3D reconstruction as well as microscopy of
transient phenomena under dynamic conditions. Examples of model systems are
beta-lactoglobulin, pectin, gelatine, carrageenan, gels as well as composite gels
of proteins and polysaccharides. On- going PhD and post.doc projects deals with
effect of confinements on structure rearrangements, effects of heterogeneity
and structure obstruction on diffusion and flow due to, in-situ measurements of
structure formation and break-down and 3-D reconstructions. Main collaborators
are Eva Olsson, Niklas Lorn, Anna Strm, Stefan Gustafsson and Mats Stading
at Chalmers and SIK-The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology.

Probe diffusion in kappa-carrageenan gels determined by fluorescence


recovery after bleaching; J. Hagman, N. Lorn, A.M. Hermansson; Food
Hydrocolloids 29,106-1115 (2012)
Surface directed structure formation of bet-lactoglobulin inside
droplets; C. hgren, N. Lorn, A. Altskr and A.M. Hermansson;
Biomacromolecules 12, 2235-2242 (2011)

Structure design of interface and


interior of protein capsule

Surfactants and biomolecules at


interfaces

Krister Holmberg
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722969
krister.holmberg@chalmers.se

Selected Publications

Our group has a long tradition of studying amphiliphilic compounds. In recent


years the focus has been on cleavable surfactants, gemini surfactants and surfactants based on amino acids as polar headgroup. We carry out synthesis of the
surfactants and we study their self-assembly both in solution and at interfaces.
We also explore amphiphilic silica nanoparticles as stabilizers for emulsions.
Much of the work is performed in collaboration with other research groups and
with companies.
We synthesize mesoporous materials and use these as hosts for homogeneous
catalysts, both metal-organic complexes and enzymes. The metal organic
complexes, for instance rhodium complexes, have been used for performing
carbon-carbon coupling reactions. The enzymatic work has a focus on lipases.
We have studied the influence of pore size, size of the mesoporous particles and
pH on the function of lipases immobilized into the pores.
In a project directed towards controlled delivery of biocides into chronical
wounds we investigate the action of peptidases on layer-by-layer structures
made from oppositely charged polypeptides. Enzymatic degradation of the layer
leads to release of the active substance into the wound.

Cationic ester-containing gemini surfactants: Determination of


aggregation numbers by time-resolved fluorescence quenching; A.R.
Tehrani-Bagha, J. Krnbratt, J.-E. Lfroth and K. Holmberg; J. Colloid
Interface Sci. 376, 126-132 (2012)
Immobilization of lipase from Mucor miehei and Rhizopus oryzae into
mesoporous silica-The effect of varied particle size and morphology;
H. Gustafsson, E.M. Johansson, A. Barrabino, M. Odn, K. Holmberg;
Colloids Surfaces B 100, 22-30 (2012)
Polypeptide multilayer self-assembly and enzymatic degradation on
tailored gold surfaces studied by QCM-D; M. Craig, R. Bordes and K.
Holmberg; Soft Matter 8, 4788-4794 (2012)

Immobilization of lipase
into the pores of ordered
mesoporous silica

16

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Small-scale sensors and cell-membrane


manipulation for life science applications

Fredrik Hk
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7726130
fredrik.hook@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Time-Resolved Surface-Enhanced Ellipsometric Contrast Imaging for
Label-Free Analysis of Biomolecular Recognition Reactions on Glycolipid
Domains; A. Gunnarsson, M. Bally, P. Jonsson, N. Medard and F. Hk;
Analytical Chemistry. 84(15), 6538-45 (2012)

The long term vision of our research is to contribute to translational life-science


research and educational activities engaging several departments at Chalmers, University of Gothenburg as well as regional companies, institutes and
technology transfer initiatives. At the heart of our activities is our tradition to
contribute to biointerface and biomaterial research by developing and applying
surface-sensitive tools, such as quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation
(QCM-D), ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), nanoplasmonics as
well as bioimaging using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and time
of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). By combining these
concepts with advanced microfluidics and novel surface chemistries it is our
ambition to address important needs and scientific questions identified together
with biologists, chemists and medical doctors as well as life-science companies. A common denominator in this work is the use of cell-membrane mimics
and knowledge about lipid self-assembly, which is used to gain new insights
about intermolecular interaction kinetics of importance in medical diagnostics,
drug screening, drug delivery as well as vaccination, tissue engineering and
nano-safety. In this way, we hope to contribute novel methods, materials and theoretical approaches based on a unique position at the border between applied
physics, material science, nano-science, electrical/chemical engineering, (bio)
chemistry, biology and medicine.

Continuous Lipid Bilayers Derived from Cell Membranes for Spatial


Molecular Manipulation; L. Simonsson, A. Gunnarsson, P. Wallin, P.
Jonsson and F. Hk; Journal of the American Chemical Society 133,
14027-14032 (2011)
Norovirus GII.4 Virus-like Particles Recognize Galactosylceramides in
Domains of Planar Supported Lipid Bilayers; M. Bally, G.E. Rydell, R.
Zahn, W. Nasir, C. Eggeling, M.E. Breimer, L. Svensson, F. Hk and G.
Larson; Angewandte Chemie Int Edit 51(48), 12020-12024 (2012)

Detection of the action of a single


ezyme in cerebrospinal fluid

Theory of materials binding and function

Per Hyldgaard
Professor
MSc University of Copenhagen
PhD Ohio State University
+46 (0) 31 7728422
hyldgaar@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Do two-dimensional Noble Gas Atoms Produce Molecular Honeycombs
at a Metal Surface; J. Wyrick, D.-H. Kim, D. Sun, Z .Cheng, W. Lu, Y. Zhu,
K. Berland, Y.S. Kim, E. Rotenberg, M. Luo, P. Hyldgaard, T.L. Einstein and
L. Bartels; Nano Letters 11, 2944-2948 (2011)

Computational theory of condensed matter faces a sparse-matter challenge.


There is a clear need to develop and deepen our quantum-physical insight on
the binding in regions with low electron and atom densities, sparse regions
where the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) forces contribute significantly to cohesion and function. Sparse-matter problems are generic, with examples ranging
from nanostructured materials, over important surface-science phenomena, and
to the very broad set of soft-matter and biomolecular systems.
My research focuses on developments of the formally exact density functional
theory (DFT) to more accurately describe sparse materials, primarily through our
contributions to the internationally recognized van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method [http://fy.chalmers.se/~schroder/vdWDF]. Additional
research components involve development of a nonempirical thermodynamical
account of nucleation and growth, as well as of a computational basis for investigating interacting tunneling transport.
My research group is also successfully applying the vdW-DF method and other
nonempirical methods to a broad range of surfaces, (molecular) overlayer, and
to simple (bio-)molecular systems [http://fy.chalmers.se/~hyldgaar/SNIC/]. My
research focus is pursued in a broad international program and offers exciting
chances for a detailed for comparison with experiments. In turn the theory-experiment calibration work defines important input for the method development.

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport:


variational grand potential, universal density functional description, and
nature of forces; P. Hyldgaard; J. Phys.:Condens. Matter 24, 424219
(2012)
van der Waals density functional: Self-consistent potential and the nature
of the van der Waals bond; T. Thonhauser, V. R. Cooper, S. Li, A. Puzder, P.
Hyldgaard, and D. C. Langreth; Physical Review B 76, 125112-125123
(2007)

Role of van der Waals forces


in materials: from surfaces to
carbon-based systems

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Next Generation Batteries (NGB)

Patrik Johansson
Professor
BSc Uppsala University
PhD Uppsala University
+46 (0) 31 7723178
patrik.johansson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Novel pseudo-delocalized anions for lithium battery electrolytes; E.
Jnsson, M. Armand and P. Johansson; Physical Chemistry Chemical
Physics 14, 6021-6025 (2012)
Infrared spectroscopy of instantaneous decomposition products of
LiPF6-based lithium battery electrolytes; S. Wilken, P. Johansson and P.
Jacobsson; Solid State Ionics 225, 608-610 (2012)

17

Technology is always limited by the materials available - a very important insight


if we want to achieve sustainable energy technologies for society development in
the 21st Century and beyond.
Particular focus is on materials for next generation batteries - beyond re-chargeable Li-ion batteries and their limitations in terms of performance, sustainability
and safety. Two examples are Li-air and Li-sulphur batteries, which have a promise
of up to x10 capacity and thus a potential to revolutionize energy storage, not
the least needed for xEVs and electromobility. The most pertinent question is the
capacity fading and we use model systems to decipher the exact origins.
Other examples of our NGBs are e.g Na-ion batteries, High temperature Li-batteries, and Structural batteries. In addition, we also address fundamental issues of
the prevailing Li-ion battery technology, we develop new more stable anions/salts,
often fluorine-free, and/or make use of ionic liquids to enable safer electrolytes.
These efforts are run alongside more industry oriented projects towards e.g.
extending the life-time of PEM fuel cell membranes, creating safer Li-ion batteries
via tailored additives, development of failure consequence analysis methods,
life-cycle assessment of employing new materials etc.
We primarily connect molecular level analysis with macro-level observations for
rational materials and concept improvement, all in national and international networks and together with Swedish and European industry.

Li-O2 Battery Degradation by Lithium Peroxide (Li2O2): A Model Study; R.


Younesi, M. Hahlin, F. Bjrefors, P. Johansson and K. Edstrm; Chemistry
of Materials 25, 77-84 (2013)

Next Generation Batteries

Physics of functional oxide lms and


heterostructures

Alexey Kalabukhov
Associate Professor
MSc Moscow State University
PhD Moscow State University
+46 (0) 31 7725477
alexei.kalaboukhov@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Effect of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate on the electrical
properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface; A. Kalabukhov, R.Gunnarsson,
J.Brjesson, E.Olsson, T. Claeson and D. Winkler, Phys. Rev. B 75,
121404-121408(R) (2007)

The complex oxides embody a broad range of materials with the same characteristic perovskite crystal structure, ABO3, where A and B are usually alkaline
and transition metals, respectively. They exhibit a rich variety of crystallographic,
electronic and magnetic phases and are hosts of new important phenomena,
including high-temperature superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance,
multi-ferroic behavior, and many others. They often called functional oxides,
because their properties can be tuned by chemical doping, pressure, electric or
magnetic field without changing the crystal structure.
Our research is centered around polar oxide interfaces which are becoming a
building block of oxide electronics. We fabricate various oxide thin films and
interfaces of insulating, metallic, superconducting, ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. Films are grown by pulsed laser deposition with in-situ electron
diffraction that allows for layer-by-layer atomic growth.
We are mainly interested in correlation between the microstructure of the
interfaces on the atomic level and their functional electrical properties. We use
various methods to characterize them for field effect, magneto-resistance, photo
and cathode luminescence, photo-induced charge carriers injection, and superconductivity. Nanofabrication methods have also been developed using atomic
force microscopy lithography and electron-beam lithography.

Cationic Disorder and Phase Segregation in LaAlO3/SrTiO3


Heterointerfaces Evidenced by Medium-Energy Ion Spectroscopy; A.
Kalabukhov, Yu. Boikov, I. Serenkov, V. Sakharov, V. Popok, R.Gunnarsson,
J.Brjesson, E.Olsson, N. Ljustina, T. Claeson and D. Winkler; Phys. Rev.
Lett. 103, 146101-146105 (2009)
Nano-patterning of the electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
using low-energy ion beam irradiation; P.P. Aurino, A. Kalabukhov, N.
Tuzla, E. Olsson, D. Winkler, and T. Claeson; Appl. Phys. Lett., 102,
201610-201614 (2013)
Polar interface between LaAlO3 and
SrTiO3 perovskite oxides

18

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Structure and dynamics in functional


oxides

Maths Karlsson
Assistant Professor
MSc Uppsala University
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7728038
maths.karlsson@chalmers.se

My research group focuses on investigations of key fundamental properties


of functional - mostly energy relevant - oxides. In addition to our expertise
and traditional focus on proton conducting oxides, which show potential for
next-generation intermediate temperature fuel cells, we are studying phosphors
for use in solid state lighting, and most recently different types of oxides with
magnetic properties. A unifying theme is to investigate the mechanistic aspects of structural defects and dynamical excitations (phonons, local vibrational
modes, diffusional motions) on the atomic length scale, and to correlate those
elementary materials properties to the functional, macroscopic, properties of the
materials. The primary tools to this end involve the use of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques (diffraction, absorption, reflectivity, inelastic
and quasielastic methods) and light spectroscopy (Raman and infrared), often
combined with complementary experimental techniques and theoretical modeling
in collaboration with our research colleagues. We are therefore frequent users of
instruments available at neutron and synchrotron sources around the world and
to some extent also involved in the development of such methods.

Selected Publications
Perspectives of Neutron Scattering on Proton Conducting Oxides; M.
Karlsson; Dalton Transactions 42, 317-329 (2013)
Polarized Neutron Laue Diffraction on a Crystal Containing Dynamically
Polarized Proton Spins; F.M. Piegsa, M. Karlsson, B. van den Brandt, C.J.
Carlile, E.M. Forgan, P. Hautle, J.A. Konter, G.J. McIntyre and O. Zimmer;
Journal of Applied Crystallography 13, 30-34 (2013)
Using Neutron Spin-Echo to Investigate Proton Dynamics in ProtonConducting Perovskites; M. Karlsson, D. Engberg, M.E. Bjrketun, A.
Matic, G. Wahnstrm, P. G. Sundell, P. Berastegui, I. Ahmed, P. Falus,
B. Farago, L. Brjesson and S. G. Eriksson; Chemistry of Materials 22,
740-742 (2010)

Schematic picture of proton


dynamics in a proton conducting
perovskite type oxide

Materials Characterization/Nanomaterials

Uta Klement
Professor
Diploma in physics, University of Gttingen
Dr. rer. nat., University of Gttingen
+46 (0) 31 7721264
uta.klement@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Thermal stability of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co - 1.1 at.% P; P.
Pa-Choi, M. da Silva, U. Klement, T. Al-Kassab and R. Kirchheim; Acta
Mater. 53, 4473-4481 (2005).

To understand a materials structure, how that structure determines its properties, and how that material will subsequently work in technological applications,
we apply analytical electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) in combination with complementary techniques such as XRD, AES, XPS, DSC/TGA, etc.
Particular focus is put on the development and characterization of different types
of nanocrystalline and sub-microcrystalline materials (metallic, ceramic, and
hybrids in a variety of sample forms) for functional applications. Corrosion- and
wear resistance coatings as well as energy absorbing materials typically produced by electroplating, thermal spray techniques, and mechanical alloying are
investigated and optimized with respect to phase formation and texture, thermal
stability, adhesion, etc. However, also structural materials like superalloys and
advanced steels are investigated to improve their production and/or application.
Within the scope of the Metal Cutting Research and Development Centre
(MCR), materials characterization is applied to investigate processes occurring
during machining, e.g. microstructure influences on machinability of case hardening steel and white layer formation in hard turning. Aim is to achieve robust and
predictable manufacturing processes, lower energy and materials consumption,
and reduced environmental impact.

Characterization and dielectric properties of beta-SiC nanofibres; Y. Yao,


A. Jnis and U. Klement; Journal of Materials Science 43, 1094-1101
(2008).
Characterization of the Surface Integrity induced by Hard Turning of
Bainitic and Martensitic AISI 52100 Steel; S.B. Hosseini, K. Ryttberg, J.
Kaminski and U. Klement; Procedia CIRP 1, 494-499 (2012).

EBSD orientation map of an


annealed sub-microcrystalline
Nickel electrodeposit

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Design of new polymer materials for


controlled release

Anette Larsson
Professor
Ms Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722763
anette.larsson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
The effect of chemical heterogeneity of HPMC on polymer release
from matrix tablets; A. Viridn, B. Wittgren, T. Andersson and A. Larsson;
European J Pharm Sci 36, 392-400 (2009)
Design and characterization of a novel amphiphilic chitosan nanocapsulebased thermo-gelling biogel with sustained in vivo release of the
hydrophilic anti-epilepsy drug ethosuximide; M.-H. Hsiao, M. Larsson, A.
Larsson, H. Evenbratt, Y.-Y. Chen, Y.-Y. Chen and D.-M. Liu; Journal of
Controlled Rel. 161(3), 942-948 (2012)

19

We are daily using a variety of polymers like biodegradable polymers, polysaccharides and in particular cellulose and cellulose derivatives in pharmaceuticals, medicinal devices and consumer products. My research focuses on polymers and how
one can use them in films, gels or nanoparticles to tune the release rate of different
substances or drugs. My vision is that by starting from the molecular structures one
can control the microstructure and thus the mass transport through the material. We
have for example shown that the drug release rate from hydrophilic matrix tablets
not only depends on the molar mass and the degree of substitution, but also on the
substitution pattern along the cellulose chain. A more heterogeneous substitution
pattern along the chain gave raise to stronger interactions between the chains and
thus more shear resistant gels, slower erosion and drug release rates. By applying
this knowledge, this will result in better reproducibility of drug release rates from
hydrophilic matrix tablets and safer medicines. This understanding is also essential
for a more efficient design of oral controlled release formulations which will take new
products faster to the market and the patients.
Other examples of the relationship between the molecular structure, microstructure
and mass transport are that we can: (i) change the molecular weight and tune the
phase separation and film formation process of cellulose derivate films for controlled
release; (ii) surface modify nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, and thus control the
distribution of NCC , the mechanical and mass transport properties of the biodegradable films or (iii) use water-in-oil emulsions to control porosity and pore interconnectivity in biodegradable foams.

A mechanistic modelling approach to polymer dissolution using magnetic


resonance microimaging; E. Kaunisto, S. Abrahmsen-Alami, P. Borgquist,
A. Larsson, B. Nilsson and A. Axelsson; J Controlled Rel, 147, 232-241
(2010)

SEM image of the surface of a


biodegradable PHB foam

Computational continuum-atomistic
modeling

A major focus for our contribution to the platform theory and modeling has
been related to the analysis of the mechanical properties of graphene membranes using a hierarchical modeling strategy to bridge the scales required to
describe and understand the material. The fundamental research issue is how to
properly relate Quantum Mechanical (QM) and optimized Molecular Mechanical
(MM) models on the nanoscale to the device or micrometer scale, via a suitable
multiscale continuum mechanical method.

Ragnar Larsson
Professor
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
Tekn. Lic. Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7725267
ragnar.larsson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Atomistic continuum modeling of graphene membranes; R. Larsson and
K. Samadikhah; Comput. Mater. Sci., 50, 1744-1753, (2011)
Continuummolecular modelling of Graphene; K. Samadikhah, R. Larsson,
F. Bazooyar and K. Bolton; Comput. Mater. Sci., 53 (1), 37-43 (2011)

Reaction AFM force versus center


membrane displacement

20

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Manufacturing and characterisation of


nanomaterials and processes for thermal
management in microelectronics and
microsystems

Johan Liu
Professor
MSc Royal Institue of Technology
PhD Royal Institute of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723067
johan.liu@chalmers.se

The focus is on development of new thermal management materials and


solutions with emphasis on 3D CNT integration, CNT and graphene based heat
dissipation, bumping technology, nano thermal interface materials, nano-soldering, high temperature stable conductive adhesives, scaffolds and patterning for biomedical applications. Johan Liu is currently involved in research in
thermo-electrical materials development and characterisation funded by the
Swedish National Science Foundation program (VR) for on-chip cooling, by SSF
within the material for energy program for energy harvesting and EU programs
Smartpower, Nanotherm, Nano-RF, NanoTIM and Nanocom, In addition to
this, he is funded by the National Swedish strategic research area in Production:
Area of Advance Production and a number of large companies including Sony
Mobile Communications, Saab Defence Systems, Micronic-Mydata on pasive
cooling using thermal interface material, CNT based 3D integration, cooling and
interconnect technology. His group has a size of 2 professors, 1 adjunct professor, 1 associate professor, 1 postdoc and 7 Ph D students. His research highlights: Pioneer in research on nano-thermal interface materials, CNT based 3 D
stacking and cooler, graphene as heat spreader, patterning of nano-scaffolds
on Si and glass substrate for biomedical applications, nanomaterials enhanced
solder paste and conductive adhesives.

Selected Publications
Ultrafast Transfer of Metal Enhanced Carbon Nanotubes at Low
Temperature for Large Scale Electronics Assembly; Y. Fu, Y. Qin, T. Wang, S.
Chen and J. Liu; Advanced Materials 22 (44), 5039-5042 (2010)
Organic Thin Film Transistors with Anodized Gate Dielectric Patterned by
Self-Aligned Embossing on Flexible Substrates; Y. Qin, D.H. Turkenburg, I.
Barbu, W.T.T. Smaal, K. Myny, W.-Y. Lin, G.H. Gelinck, P. Heremans, J. Liu and
E.R. Meinders; Advanced Functional Materials 22 (6), 1209-1214 (2012)
Templated Growth of Covalently Bonded Three-Dimensional Carbon
Nanotube Networks Originated from Graphene; Y. Fu, B. Carlberg, N.
Lindahl, N. Lindvall, J. Bielecki, A. Matic, Y. Song, Z. Hu, Z. Lai, L. Ye, J. Sun,
Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang and J. Liu; Advanced Materials 24 (12),
1576- 1581(2012)

Ionic liquid derived materials

Anna Martinelli
Assistant Professor
MSc Vxj University
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723002
anna.martinelli@chalmers.se

Mass transfer of CNTs on Si


Substrate using Indium after
TCVD growth

Our research aims at understanding structural and dynamical properties in ionic


liquid derived materials. These include ionogels (i.e. ionic liquids nano-confined
into networks of silica), water/ionic liquid binary systems, and emulsion liquid
membranes. Altogether these materials find applications in chemical processes
with relevance to the issue of environmental impact and sustainable energy
supply. Concrete examples of applications are in the proton exchange membrane
fuel cell, or the extraction of heavy metals from wastewater. The experimental
techniques that we use comprehend vibrational spectroscopy (Raman and
infrared), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and pulse field gradient magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PFG NMR), by which the space- and time-scales
of relevance can be accessed. I have also developed a cell for in situ confocal
-Raman measurements on proton exchange membranes during H2/O2 Fuel
Cell operation. Our work is partly driven in collaboration with the Department
of Applied Physics at Chalmers and the National Polytechnic Institute (INP) at
Grenoble (France).

Selected Publications
Insights into the interplay between molecular structure and diffusional
motion in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids: A combined PFG
NMR and X-ray scattering study; A. Martinelli, M. Marchal, . stlund
and J. Cambedouzou; Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 15 (15),
5510-5517 (2013)
An investigation of the sol-gel process in ionic liquid-silica gels by
time resolved Raman and 1H NMR spectroscopy; A. Martinelli and L.
Nordstierna; Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 14 (38),
13216-13223 (2012)

N
N

Concentration effects on irreversible colloid cluster aggregation and


gelation of silica dispersions; A. Schantz-Zackrisson, A. Martinelli, A.
Matic and J. Bergenholtz;Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 301
(1), 137-144 (2006)

F
F

An ionogel with 0.1 mole


fraction of ionic liquid

F
F

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Soft Matter Physics

21

Soft materials such as liquids, polymers, colloids, and gels are central in many
technological applications. They also pose a range of fundamental challenges
questions arising from the combination of disordered structure, out of equilibrium states, multitudes of length/time scales and weak interactions. My research
covers studies of fundamental aspects of soft matter and new soft materials for
energy applications. The work includes investigations of non-equilibrium transitions, such as the glass transition and colloidal aggregation, charge and mass
transport, hydrogen bonded systems, and vibrational excitations.

Aleksandar Matic
Professor
MSc Uppsala University
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7725176
matic@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
The effect of Lithium salt on the stability of dispersions of fumed silica
in the ionic liquid BMImBF4; J. Nordstrm, L. Aguilera and A. Matic
Langmuir 28, 4080-4085 (2012)
Phase behavior and ionic conductivity in LiTFSI doped ionic liquids of the
pyrrolidinium cation and TFSI anion; A. Martinelli, A. Matic, P. Jacobsson,
L. Brjesson, A. Fernicloa and B. Scrosati; Journal of Physical Chemistry
B 113, 11247-11251 (2009)

A particular focus is put on ionic liquids that have several intriguing properties
including negligible vapor pressure, high electrochemical stability, and high
conductivity. We study both neat ionic liquids and ionic liquids in polymer membranes, colloidal dispersions, and ionic liquid/Li-salt mixtures for Li-batteries,
with respect to the influence of anion/cation structure on ion transport, phase
behavior, glass transition temperature, and their use as solvents in colloidal silica
gels.
By combining spectroscopic methods we access the relevant time and length
scales. In-house laboratories include Raman scattering, infra-red spectroscopy
and photon correlation spectroscopy. At large scale facilities experiments are
performed with quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

Phase behaviour, transport properties, and interactions in Li-salt doped


ionic liquids; J. Pitawala, J.-K. Kim, P. Jacobsson, V. Koch, F. Croce, and A.
Matic; Faraday Discussions, 154, 71-80 (2012)

A Li-conducting colloidal gel based


on surface modified fumed silica

Innovative energy conversion devices

Bengt-Erik Mellander
Professor
MA University of Gothenburg
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7723340
f5xrk@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Are Electric Vehicles Safer Than Combustion Engine Vehicles?; F.
Larsson, P. Andersson, B.-E. Mellander; Systems Perspectives on
Electromobility, ed: B. Sandn, Chalmers University of Technology,
Gteborg, ISBN 978-91-980973-1-3, 31-44 (2013)
Co-sintering of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells made by Aqueous Tape Casting; J.
Stiernstedt, Elis Carlstrm and Bengt-Erik Mellander; Proceedings of the
10th European SOFC Forum 2012, Lausanne (2012)

Development of electrochemical devices such as solar cells, fuel cells and


rechargeable lithium batteries is the prime interest. This involves a broad range
of measurements of electrical and thermal properties to develop and analyze
materials with the desired properties.
Photoelectrochemical solar cells based on natural or synthetic dyes and on
quantum dots are developed in order to obtain stable and cost-efficient devices.
Quantum dots are used in this application because their absorption spectrum is
dependent on the size of the dots and could thus be tuned to a specific application or to enlarge the range of absorbed energy. Focus is on improving electrical
properties and durability.
Lithium-ion batteries are now generally considered for automotive use, nevertheless there are aspects of their use that need a deepened knowledge concerning
material science. These issues are primarily related to safety and lifetime of the
battery. A state-of-health determination is e.g. intrinsically dependent on the cell
chemistry and operating conditions. Presently different aspects of lithium-ion
battery safety are investigated.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are known for their good electrochemical properties, but the high operating temperature and the use of brittle ceramic materials
are causes for concern. Efforts on developing material technology which allows
for intermediate temperature SOFCs as well as on other fuel cell systems are in
progress.

Efficiency Enhancement in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Gel Polymer


Electrolytes Based on Tetrahexylammonium Iodide and MgI2 Binary
Iodide System; T.M.W.J. Bandara, M.A.K.L. Dissanayake, W.J.M.J.S.R.
Jayasundara, I Albinsson and B.-E. Mellander; Phys Chem Chem Phys
14, 8620-8627 (2012)

Reponse to light pulses for a


quantum dot photoelectrochemical
solar cell

22

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Design and synthesis of new selfassembled molecular materials

Kasper Moth-Poulsen
Assistant Professor
Cand. Scient. University of Copenhagen
Ph.D. University of Copenhagen
+46 (0) 31 7723403
kasper.moth-poulsen@chalmers.se

Selected Publications

Selective Nano-Scale Functionalization: The impressive degree of miniaturization of lithographic techniques during the last 40 years has revolutionized
the way we fabricate micro and nano structures used in our everyday life. This
research project focuses on the development of chemistries that allow for
selective, lithography free functionalization of nanostructures with sub nanometer resolution. The work takes its offspring from organic synthesis, and includes
nanoparticle and nano-rod synthesis, surface functionalization and characterization. Improved resolution and single molecule selectivity is highly desirable since
it leads to new opportunities in a broad range of applications ranging from single
molecule electronics to single molecule sensors and nano-medicine.
Molecular Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion: Exploring ways to
harness solar energy is a major focus of research in recent years. A promising method for long-term solar energy storage is through chemical bonds of
photosensitive materials. In these molecular solar thermal (MOST) systems, a
parent compound is photo-converted to a stable higher energy isomer. In turn,
the parent compound can be regenerated upon thermal excitation or exposure
to a catalyst of the isomer upon which the stored energy is released in the form
of heat.

Efficiency Limit of Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage Devices; K.


Brjesson, A. Lennartson and K. Moth-Poulsen; ACS Sustainable Chem.
Eng. 1, 585-590 (2013)
Molecular Solar Thermal (MOST) Energy Storage and Release System;

K. Moth-Poulsen, D. Coso,
K. Brjesson, N. Vinokurov, S. Meier, A.
Majumdar, K.P.C. Vollhardt, R.A. Segalman; Energy Environ. Sci. 5,
8534-8537, (2012)
Aligned Growth of Gold Nanorods in PMMA Channels: Parallel
Preparation of Nanogap Junctions; T. Jain, S. Lara-Avila, Y.-V. Kervennic,
K. Moth-Poulsen, K. Nrgaard, S. Kubatkin and T. Bjrnholm; ACS Nano
6, 3861-3867 (2012)

Illustration of a molecular solar


thermal (MOST) device

Polymer Technology

Our research focuses on plastic materials for renewable energy applications.


Plastic Solar Cells: We develop flexible solar cells that can provide a cheap and
durable supply of renewable energy. We use a novel type of material that is
based on organic, carbon-based semiconductors instead of silicon. These plastics make it possible to prepare inks that can be used with regular office printers.
Building a plastic solar cell is no more difficult than printing a colour magazine!

Christian Mller
Assistant Professor
M.Sci. University of Cambridge
Dr.sc. Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zrich
+46 (0) 31 7723406
christian.muller@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Nucleation-Limited Fullerene Crystallisation in a Polymer-Fullerene BulkHeterojunction Blend; C. Lindqvist, A. Sanz-Velasco, E. Wang, O. Bcke,
S. Gustafsson, E. Olsson, M. R. Andersson and C. Mller; J. Mater. Chem.
A 1, 7174-7180 (2013)
Thermoelectric composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and carbon
nanotubes with a large power factor; C. Bounioux, P. Daz-Chao, M.
Campoy-Quiles, M.S. Martn-Gonzlez, A.R. Goi, R. Yerushalmi-Rozen
and C. Mller; Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 918-925 (2013)

Plastic Thermoelectrics: Thermoelectric power generators are solid-state devices


that directly convert heat flow to electricity. Thin and flexible designs that can
cover large areas are suited for waste heat recovery in industrial settings from
chimneys to data centres. On the other hand, a miniature power source would
be of great benefit for the myriad of autonomous electronic components such as
wireless sensors and identification tags that are envisaged to make up tomorrows Internet of Things.
Insulation Materials for High-Voltage Cables: Renewable energy is most abundant in sparsely populated areas. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) cables are
the most efficient technology to connect power grids across Europe in order to
deliver renewable energy to the end user. It will be possible to harvest solar energy in Southern Europe or even the Sahara desert during daytime. In contrast, at
night hydroelectric dams in Northern Europe can take over electricity generation
to ensure a continuous and smooth supply of energy.

Patterned optical anisotropy in woven conjugated polymer systems; C.


Mller, M. Garriga and M. Campoy-Quiles; Appl. Phys. Lett. 101,
171907-171912 (2012)

Photovoltaic Spherulites; Adv. Funct.


Mater. 23, 2368-2377 (2013)

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Disordered Crystalline Materials

23

Energy related applications, e.g. oxide fuel cells, lithium batteries, and hydrogen
storage, commonly contain crystalline materials with significant local atomic
ordering that differs from the average structure. One prime example is oxide
conducting materials that often have a substantial cation disorder whilst the
associated oxygen vacancies are intrinsically ordered as well as clustered around
specific cations. Such detailed knowledge about the local structural ordering is
essential for a complete structural understanding and for making new materials
with improved properties.

Stefan Norberg
Associate Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722876
stn@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Structural Disorder in Doped Zirconias, Part I: The Zr0.8Sc0.2-xYxO1.9
(0.0 x 0.2) System; S.T. Norberg, S. Hull, I. Ahmed, S.G. Eriksson, D.
Marrocchelli, P.A. Madden, P. Li and J.T.S. Irvine; Chemistry of Materials
23, 1356-1364 (2011)

My main research focus is on understanding the fundamental aspects of


structural disorder and how it affects the physical properties of a material. A
main experimental technique is neutron total (Bragg + diffuse) scattering which
provides a total pair distribution function (PDF) that can be analysed with the
reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method and results in information concerning order/
disorder at the local atomic scale as opposed to methods that analyse the average structure. Our RMC results are often coupled with theoretical simulations
in order to get a more complete understanding about the relationship between
structure and physical properties.
The development of in-situ cells for neutron powder diffraction, e.g. in-situ cells
for controlled oxygen pressure & impedance spectroscopy is part of an ongoing
cooperation between Chalmers and the ISIS neutron facility, UK.

Oxide-Ion Disorder Within the High Temperature delta Phase of Bi2O3;


C.E. Mohn, S. Stolen, S.T. Norberg and S. Hull; Physical Review Letters
102; 155502-155506 (2009)
Bond valence sum: a new soft chemical constraint for RMC Profile; S.T.
Norberg, M.G. Tucker and S. Hull; Journal of Applied Crystallography 42;
179-184 (2009)

Partial pair distribution functions


for yttria doped zirconia

Soft Matter Characterization

Lars Nordstierna
Assistant Professor
MSc Lund University
PhD Royal Institute of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722973
lars.nordstierna@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
CP/MAS 13C-NMR study of pulp hornification using nanocrystalline
cellulose as a model system; A. Idstrm, H. Brelid, M. Nydn and L.
Nordstierna; Carbohydrate Polymers 92, 881-884 (2013)
Charged microcapsules for controlled release of hydrophobic actives.
Part III: Effect of polyelectrolyte brush- and multilayers on sustained
release; M. Andersson Trojer, H. Andersson, Y. Li, J. Borg, K. Holmberg,
M. Nydn and L. Nordstierna; Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 15,
6456-6466 (2013)

Tuned release of biocides from coatings: Facade paint loses its protective
ability quite rapidly due to fast biocide leakage. A promising improvement of
anti-growth protection can be achieved by the use of encapsulated biocides that
slows down the diffusion. The biocide is placed into microparticles, from where
it is slowly distributed into the surrounding coating matrix. My current research
involves projects which focus on microparticle formulation and examination of
molecular transport in coating systems. The research concerns the mechanisms
that govern release from microparticles and the possibility to apply mathematical
models that may describe and predict anti-growth efficiency of coating applications.
Physicochemical properties of cellulose-based materials: The demand for
sustainable products increases. Wood, as a renewable material available in large
quantities, is of particular interest in this regard. A key component is cellulose,
the biopolymer with a variety of application potentials but, at the same time,
equipped with complexity. My current research involves projects which focus
on correlating molecular and nano-scale features with macroscopic properties
upon various process treatments. One example is paper pulp modification during
drying and wetting processes. Dissolution and regeneration of cellulose is also
of interest. The main experimental technique is NMR spectroscopy, from various
methodological perspectives, and its possibilities to provide physicochemical
insight.

An investigation of the sol-gel process in ionic liquid/silica gels by


time resolved Raman and 1H NMR spectroscopy; A. Martinelli and L.
Nordstierna; Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 14, 13216-13223
(2012)

Electron micrograph of a paint


matrix with encapsulated biocide

24

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Engineering metal surfaces

Mats Norell
Lecturer
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7721260
mats.norell@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
High temperature corrosion of cast alloys in exhaust environments
I-ductile cast irons; F. Tholence and M. Norell; Oxidation of Metals, 69
(1-2), 13-36 (2008)
Characterization of surface oxides on water-atomized steel powder by
XPS/AES depth profiling and nano-scale lateral surface analysis; D.
Chasoglou, E. Hryha, M. Norell and L. Nyborg; Applied Surface Science,
268, 496-506 (2013)

The degradation of engineering metals in harsh environments often limits the


capability of technical systems. Increased temperatures affect the microstructure
and induce accelerated corrosion that reduces the lifetime.
My research focuses on materials in power conversion systems where higher
temperatures significantly improve the energy efficiency and environmental
impact of the system. Thorough studies of the material performance give a
basis not only for alloy selection but also to identify relevant research questions.
Studies of materials degradation on scales ranging from meter to nanometer
are related to the material structure and the application. This is combined with
lab exposures, often mimicking complex environments, and detailed characterization of the attack. In particular we use surface analytical tools like AES (Auger
Electron Spectroscopy) and XPS on both technical surfaces from the field, and
on lab material. The general aim is a more efficient use of engineering metals in
their application.
The applications include waste and bio fuelled boilers where fuels, lowering the
emissions of CO2, can cause severe corrosion of stainless steels. We did rather
fundamental studies of the corrosion of cast steels and irons used in engines
manifolds and now work on corrosion in exhaust systems where urea is injected
to reduce the emissions. A recent topic is running phenomena on gear surfaces
related to transmission lifetime and efficiency.

Role of Nitrogen Uptake During the Oxidation of 304L and 904L


Austenitic Stainless Steels; Y. Cao and M. Norell; Oxidation of Metals,
DOI:10.1007/s11085-013-9391-1 (2013)

AES profile of oxide on nitrided


austenitic stainless steel

Surface and Interface Engineering of PM


materials and Advanced Alloys

Lars Nyborg
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7721257
lars.nyborg@chalmers.se

Powder metallurgy (PM) is one of the most energy efficient and materials
utilization efficient ways of transforming a raw material into the final material in
advanced products and components. The control of surface reactions during the
processing of the PM material is of great importance and I have therefore taken
special interest in advanced surface analysis such X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy to study surface composition
of metal powder and develop understanding of surface reactions during metal
powder sintering. This includes studies of high strength sintered steels and recently also soft magnetic composites and shape memory metals. We try then to
understand how to sinter to achieve good properties (see figure). We have also
included thermodynamic and kinetics modeling, experimental simulations, FEM,
etc in our approach. Other areas of interest and effort include work material
behavior in metal cutting, welding metallurgy, tribology, oxidation and corrosion.
In all the areas, co-operation with industry is vital. Special efforts also include the
Sino-Swedish Advanced Materials Exchange Centre and Metal Cutting Research
and Development Centre (MCR).

Selected Publications
Characterization of surface oxides on water-atomized steel powder by
XPS/AES depth profiling and nano-scale lateral surface analysis; D.
Chasoglou, E. Hryha, M. Norell and L. Nyborg; Applied Surface Science
268, 496-506 (2013)
Thin film characterisation of chromium disilicide; P.L. Tam, Y. Cao, L.
Nyborg and U. Jelvestam; Surface Science, 609, 152-156 (2013)
Stoichiometric Vanadium Oxides Studied by XPS; E. Hryha, E. Rutqvist
and L. Nyborg; Surface and Interface analysis, 44(8), 1022-1025 (2012)

Fracture surface of well sintered


material: Hryha, Chasoglou, Nyborg

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Metal-Organic Frameworks

Lars hrstrm
Professor
MSc (Civ.Ing.) Royal Institute of Technology
PhD Royal Institute of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722871
ohrstrom@chalmers.se

25

Molecular framework constructions, specifically designed materials where the


molecular units are held together by hydrogen bonds or coordination bonds,
have future applications as porous materials for catalysis and separation,
nonlinear optics and magnetic materials and are also relevant for sustainable
energy systems needing hydrogen gas storage materials. An important tool for
the construction and understanding of these is the concept of 3D-nets (which is
also a useful in the analysis many other crystal structures). Our research has the
following general goals:

Understanding the interactions that control the self-assembly of these


molecular based 3D-nets by a detailed analysis of prepared structures and
by statistical analysis of the CSD.

Develop rational synthetic methods for the preparation of specific 3D-nets.

Use and development of network topology analysis.

Selected Publications
Solid-state properties of pincer palladium halides as porous crystalline
material - structure, composition and stability; M. T. Johnson, Z. Dolic,
Mario Cetina, K. Rissanen, L. hrstrm and O. F. Wendt; 42, 8484 8491, Dalton Trans. (2013)
Coordination Polymers, Metal-Organic Frameworks and the Need for
Terminology Guidelines; S.R. Batten, N.R. Champness, X.-M. Chen, J.
Garcia-Martinez, S. Kitagawa, L. hrstrm, M. OKeeffe, M. P. Suh and J.
Reedijk; CrystEngComm, 14, 3001 - 3004 (2012)
Multi-component self-assembly of molecule based materials by MOFs
and weak intermolecular synthons; M. Ghazzali, V. Langer, K. Larsson and
L. hrstrm; CrystEngComm, 13, 5813 - 5817 (2011)

A metal-organic framework. Lines


indicate molecular structure, tubes
the underlying topology

Emission cleaning from vehicles using


heterogeneous catalysis

Louise Olsson
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7724390
louise.olsson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications

It is crucial to decrease the emissions of toxic gases from vehicles and heterogeneous catalysis plays a vital role for this. The catalytic system after a
diesel engine is today very complex. Most new catalysts are multi-component,
with several active materials dispersed on a porous support. Real catalysts on
a support are very heterogeneous and the outcome off the added materials is
often far from the sum of the added functions. The interplay between different
materials will influence the electronic promotion of the active materials, the number of sites in the border between the materials, spill-over processes, etc. These
processes are crucial for the activity and selectivity of the catalytic material. In
my research group we focus on heterogeneous catalysis for cleaning emissions
from vehicles. We synthesize catalytic materials and characterize them thoroughly. We also use micro calorimetry to determine the heat of adsorption of gases
on different surfaces and DRIFT spectroscopy to identify the adsorbed species
on the catalyst. We combine all the experimental results in order to develop a
detailed mechanism for what reaction steps occur on the catalytic surfaces and
how the interplay between the materials affect the mechanisms as well as activity and selectivity. Based on this understanding we develop kinetic models that
can describe the reactions that occur on the catalytic materials. The models can
be used both for increasing the knowledge and for predictions.

Experimental evidence of the mechanism behind NH3 overconsumption


during SCR over Fe-zeolites; R. Nedyalkova, K. Kamasamudram, N.W.
Currier, J. Li, A. Yezerets and L. Olsson; Journal of Catalysis 299,
101-108 (2013)
The effect gas composition during thermal aging on the dispersion and
NO oxidation activity over Pt/Al2O3 catalysts; X. Auvray, T. Pingel, E.
Olsson and L. Olsson; Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 129 517-527
(2013)
Mechanistic investigation of hydrothermal aging of Cu-Beta for ammonia
SCR; N. Wilken, K. Wijayanti, K. Kamasamudram, N.W. Currier, R.
Vedaiyan, A. Yezerets and L. Olsson; Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
111-112 58-66 (2012)
The effect of adding barium
before or after platinum in NOx
storage catalysts

26

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Functional structures of nanostructured


materials

Eva Olsson
Professor
MSc Chalmers University
PhD Chalmers University
+46 (0) 31 7723247
eva.olsson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Novel Method for Controlled Wetting of Materials in the Environmental
Scanning Electron Microscope; A. Jansson, A. Nafari, A. Sanz-Velasco, K.
Svensson, S. Gustafsson, A.-M. Hermansson and E. Olsson; Microscopy
and Microanalysis 19, 30-37 (2013)

The properties of materials are determined by the arrangements of atoms and


electrons in phases, combined systems and artificially made structures. The reason is that atoms are sufficiently close for each atom to simultaneously interact
with several nearest neighbours at any given time in solid state and liquid matter.
Consequently, defects and interfaces also have a strong influence on the properties. My research concerns the correlation between atomic structure and atomic
structure and how they are related to the synthesis parameters. The knowledge
provides both a fundamental understanding for the material phenomena and also
the ability to design new intelligent materials with tailored properties.
The atomic structure is studied mainly using electron microscopy and the electronic structure mainly using electron energy loss spectroscopy. The development of new methods for dynamic in situ experiments by, for example, scanning
probe microscopy and manipulation in the electron microscopes allows the direct
correlation between the local atomic structure and properties on the nanoscale
accessing new information.
The high resolution high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) image (raw data) shows a LaAlO3/SrTiO3
interface. Each bright dot corresponds to an atomic column. The brightest dots
corresponds to La atom columns and the next brightest to Sr columns. The
distance between two bright spots is 4 .

Atomic structure of functional interfaces in Sr2RuO4/Sr3Ru3O7 eutectic


crystals; R. Ciancio, H. Pettersson, J. Brjesson, S. Lopatin, R. Fittipaldi, A.
Vecchione, S. Kittaka, Y. Maeno, S. Pace and E. Olsson; Appl. Phys. Lett.,
95, 142507-142510 (2009)
Effect of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate on the electrical
properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface; A. Kalabukhov, R. Gunnarsson,
J. Brjesson, E. Olsson, T. Claeson, and D. Winkler; Phys. Rev. B Rapid
communication, 75, 121404-121408 (2007)
Atom resolution HAADF STEM
image of an oxide interface and
EELS spectra

Osseointegration: from macro to nano

Anders Palmquist
Researcher
MSc Lule Technical University; Institut
National Polytechnique de Lorraine; Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7862971
anders.palmquist@biomaterials.gu.se

Selected Publications
Where bone meets implant: the characterization of nanoosseointegration; K. Grandfield, S. Gustafsson and A. Palmquist;
Nanoscale 5(10), 4302-8 (2013)
Chemical and structural analysis of the bone-implant interface by TOFSIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM: Experimental study in animal; A. Palmquist, L.
Emanuelsson and P. Sjvall; Appl Surf Sci 258(17), 6485-94 (2012)

My research interest consists of evaluation and implementation of novel techniques for characterization of the bone-implant interface at different resolutions
levels and aspects. Important factors are structural and chemical analysis with
nanometer resolution and biomechanical evaluations at the macro level. By combining analysis at different length scales in multi dimensions a more thorough
understanding of the bone-bonding process could be retrieved generating more
detailed knowledge for optimization of the surface structure, improving the early
bone formation and long-term success.
Implants are used to restore lost body functions, which might be due to trauma
or decease. Since the 1960s titanium implants have been used for anchoring
teeth and have shown excellent clinical results. The ability for a titanium implant
to be anchored in bone tissue was termed osseointegration, and defined as a direct contact by bone to the implant surface without an intervening fibrous tissue.
Since then other applications have been introduced such as the bone anchored
hearing aids and major limb amputation prosthesis, which dramatically improve
the quality of life for the patients.
With the emerging nanotechnologies new definitions are needed where one of
them is nano-osseointegration, where the bone anchoring process in nano-scale
resolution needs to be defined in both projection view (2D) and tomography
(3D) (Figure).

Bone-titanium oxide interface in human revealed by TEM and electron


tomography; A. Palmquist, K. Grandfield, L. Emanuelsson, T. Mattsson, R.
Brnemark and P. Thomsen; J R Soc Interface 9(67), 396-400 (2012)

The bone-implant interface in STEM (A)


and STEM tomography (B)

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Functional Materials Chemistry

Anders Palmqvist
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Royal Institute of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722961
anders.palmqvist@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Large thermoelectric figure of merit at high temperature in Czochralskigrown clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30; A. Saramat, G. Svensson, A.E.C. Palmqvist,
C. Stiewe, E. Mueller, D. Platzek, S.G.K. Williams, D.M. Rowe, D. Bryan and
G.D. Stucky; Journal of Applied Physics 99, 023708-023713 (2006)

27

Our research is within the area of materials chemistry where we develop new
functional materials and methods for their synthesis. We have expertise in
studies of processes involved in the formation of nanostructured materials,
structural and physicochemical characterisation of materials and evaluation of
their properties.
Nanostructured materials: Much of our efforts are focused on nanostructured
materials ranging from small particles to micro- and mesoporous solids and hostguest clathrates. These materials offer high interfacial areas and a diverse range
of properties, and are of interest for many applications. Depending on structure
and composition of the material we choose our synthesis methods from a broad
range including amphiphile-directed wet chemical sol-gel methods, solvothermal,
solid state mixing and crystal pulling using the Czochralski-method.
Materials for energy applications: Sustainable supply of energy and more efficient conversion and storage of energy are grand challenges for our civilisation.
We target these challenges by developing and evaluating new functional materials for relevant applications. We prepare and evaluate new thermoelectric materials for direct conversion of waste heat to electricity. We develop noble metal free
fuel cell catalysts for generation of electricity through efficient electrochemical
oxidation of hydrogen to water. We study the synthesis of photocatalytic materials for solar light harvesting to facilitate chemical reactions.

Low-temperature synthesis and HRTEM analysis of ordered mesoporous


anatase with tunable crystallite size and pore shape; E. Nilsson, Y.
Sakamoto, and A.E.C. Palmqvist; Chemistry of Materials 23, 2781-2785
(2011)
Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbons as noble
metal-free fuel cell catalysts; J.K. Dombrovskis, H.Y. Jeong, K. Fossum,
O. Terasaki and A.E.C. Palmqvist; Chemistry of Materials 25, 856-861
(2013)

Rb-CTH-1, a nanoporous semiconductor. Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 46,


718-722 (2007)

Materials Engineering

Materials technology has its main focus on the relation between microstructure
and mechanical properties of engineering materials. That includes different technological processes like heat treatment, forming and welding and also encompasses the behavior of the materials in manufacturing processes and products in
service. Examples of current research areas:

Studies of new types of materials in railway wheels and rails needed for increased train speeds and axle loads. Higher strengths materials often lead
to, for instance, larger sensitivity for thermal damage, the effect of which is
also studied. Cooperation with several industrial partners within CHARMEC.

Thermo-mechanical fatigue of super-alloys in collaboration with GKN.


Components in jet engines are subjected to both varying mechanical loads
and varying temperatures. The research is aimed at understanding the
material behavior under these extreme conditions. The ultimate goal is to
develop constitutive models and a model for lifeing. The research is done
with collaboration with the department of Applied Mechanics.

Christer Persson
Professor
MSc Linkping University
Ph.D. Linkping University
+46 (0) 31 7721251
christer.persson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Influence of particle in-flight characteristics on the microstructure of
atmospheric plasma sprayed yttria stabilized ZrO2; M. Friis, C. Persson
and J. Wigren; Surface & Coatings Technology 141 (2-3), 115-27
(2001)
Atomistic simulations of tensile and bending properties of single-crystal
bcc iron nanobeams; P.A.T. Olsson, S. Melin, and C. Persson; Physical
Review B 76 (22) 224112-1-15 (2007)
Experimental and numerical investigation of crack closure measurements
with electrical potential drop technique; M. Andersson, C. Persson, and S.
Melin; International Journal of Fatigue 28 (9) 1059-1068 (2006)

The research is concentrated on deformation and fatigue behavior of materials,


complemented with optical and electron microscopy, image analysis, fractography etc. The influence of high and low temperatures, different strain rates,
defects and cracks is studied. The mechanical properties are often implemented
into material models used for computer simulation.

28

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Polymeric materials and composites

Mikael Rigdahl
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7721309
mikael.rigdahl@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Melt spinning of conducting polymeric composites containing
carbonaceous fillers; M. Strt, S. Toll, A. Boldizar, M. Rigdahl and B.
Hagstrm, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 119, 3264-3272 (2011)
Elongational flow mixing for manufacturing of graphite nanoplatelet/
polystyrene composites; H. Oxfall, J. Rondin, M. Bouquey, R. Muller,
M. Rigdahl and R. W. Rychwalski J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 128,2679-2686
(2013)

Polymers constitute today a very important group of materials, although the plastics have only been around for a few decades. A distinctive feature of materials
science is the search for useful relations between the structure (on different
levels) and material properties. In the case of polymeric materials, the processing
technique chosen has a very strong influence on the structure of the material
and thus on its performance. These aspects constitute together the basis for the
activities within the research group. The research is often of an interdisciplinary
character and covers both fundamental and more applied issues.
My specific interests are today focussed on the relations between surface characteristics of polymeric components, e.g. surface topography, colour and reflectance,
and the perceived quality. This requires fundamental knowledge on the scattering
properties of surfaces as well as the use of human test panels. Here the rheological properties and the manufacturing process also have a direct influence on the
surface quality, not least for the generation of surface defects. Use of polymers
based on renewable resources, instead of fossil-based ones, also constitutes an
area of great interest. The use of such materials requires however in many cases
an adaptation of the processing technique used inrelation to the rheology of the
system and this represents an active research field for the group. A third important activity centres around electrical and other physical properties of polymer
nanocomposites based on carbonaceous particles. Specific interests centre
around enhancement of piezoelectric ability and tailoring electrical conductivity by
incorporation of carbon nanotubes, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black in a
polymeric matrix.

Film blowing of thermoplastic starch; M. Thunwall, V. Kuthanova, A.


Boldizar and M. Rigdahl, Carbohydrate Polym., 71, 583-590 (2008)

Graphite nanoplatelets and carbon


black in polyolefin matrix

Lightweight Structures and Material


Characterisation

Jonas Ringsberg
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7721489
jonas.ringsberg@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Assessment of the crashworthiness of a selection of innovative ship
structures; P. Hogstrm and J.W. Ringsberg; Ocean Engineering, 59 (1),
58-72 (2013)
Theoretical development and validation of a fatigue model for ship
routing; W. Mao, J.W. Ringsberg, I. Rychlik and Z. Li; Ships and Offshore
Structures, 7 (4), 399-415 (2012)

Design of lightweight structures for the maritime industry is a challenge from a


structural and a material utilisation point of view. Marine structures must be designed
properly to endure the variability in loading conditions from the environment (wind,
waves, temperature) with very low risk for loss of property, human life or hazardous
accidents for the environment. Energy efficiency during shipping transportation
should also be strived for by making the structures as lightweight as possible.
My research covers studies of fundamental aspects of material characterisation and
performance for marine structures applications. Depending on the type of structure
and its intended use and functionality, metallic and composite material solutions and
their characteristics are considered. Material utilisation and investigation of various
damage mechanisms in a material that can lead to a potential loss of structural
integrity are studied such as exceeding the ultimate strength, fatigue, reduction in
ductility and brittleness.
The material science research is carried out by means of advanced nonlinear finite
element simulations together with experimental testing of material characteristics
using, for example, digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE) measurement techniques, standard specimens as well as large-scale structures. Some
examples of my fields of research for enhanced utilisation and design of safe and
reliable lightweight material solutions for marine applications are: Arctic engineering, collision and grounding (energy absorption and fracture behaviour), composite
materials in large-scale commercial vessels, fatigue and fracture (in general), residual
stresses, probabilistic methods and risk analysis.

Study on the possibility of increasing the maximum allowable stresses


in fibre-reinforced plastics; L.F. Sanchez-Heres, J.W. Ringsberg and E.
Johnson; Journal of Composite Materials, 47 (16) 1931-1941 (2013)

Solid indenter penetration of a


metal sheet - determination of
material performance

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

29

Liquid crystals (LCs) are soft materials and represent a variety of well-defined
types of long range order the physics of which has more resemblance to solid state
features than to common liquids. The field of liquid crystals extends far beyond
displays (LCDs) and combines basic aspects of physics, chemistry, materials science,
engineering and biology.

Liquid Crystals

Per Rudquist
Associate Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723389
per.rudquist@chalmers.se

Selected Publications

My research concerns physics and device physics of ferro- and antiferroelectric LCs
(FLCs and AFLCs) , which are up to 1000 times faster than the nematic LCs used in
todays LCDs. The layered (smectic) structure of FLCs and AFLCs can lead to buckling defects which affect device performance. We are currently developing a new
class of FLC materials in which the tendency for smectic layer buckling is inherently
suppressed.
In AFLC devices, the effects of LC misalignment - light leakage in the dark state can be eliminated by the use of our orthoconic AFLCs. A number of device concepts
based on orthoconic AFLCs for faster displays and 3D applications are now being
explored.

Nematic-Smectic Transition under Confinement in Liquid Crystalline


Colloidal Shells; H.-L. Liang, S. Schymura, P. Rudquist and J. Lagerwall;
Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247801-247805 (2011)

My work also comprises fundamental studies of bent-core LCs, in which ferroelectricity has a different origin than in conventional rod-like core FLCs, and whose
electrooptic effects should be ideal for ultra fast phase shifters.

Smectic LCD Modes; P. Rudquist, In Handbook of Visual Display


Technology, Eds. J.Chen, W. Craynton and M. Finn, Canopus/Springer
(2011)

An example of rather different type of research is our work on colloidal liquid crystal
shells. The topological defects in LC shells have been proposed for use as linker
anchor points for self-assembly of e.g. diamond-like colloidal crystals.

The Orientational Order in So-Called de Vries Materials; S.T. Lagerwall,


P. Rudquist and F. Giesselmann; Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
510, 1282-1291 (2009)

A spherical liquid crystal shell at the


nematic to smectic A transition

Atomic scale theory for sparse matter

Elsebeth Schrder
Professor
MSc University of Copenhagen
PhD University of Copenhagen
+46 (0) 31 7728424
elsebeth.schroder@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and graphene dimers in
density functional theory; S. D. Chakarova-Kck, A. Vojvodic, J. Kleis, P.
Hyldgaard, and E. Schrder; New Journal of Physics 12, 013017 (2010).
DOI: 10.1088/1367 2630/12/1/013017

Our van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF), proposed in 2004, has shown
great promise in a broad range of applications, covering such varied systems as
graphite, polymers, and DNA. Ground-state properties, including binding energies, equilibrium geometries, and vibrational frequencies, have been calculated
with a good agreement with experimental data, as well as electronic properties,
like intercalation effects and work functions.
My work focuses on test, development, and applications and aims to show that
atomistic theory, for example via vdW-DF, can give input to the more general
condensed matter work pursued by the community working on systems of larger
scales, such as by providing first-principles-based parameters.
The work by our Chalmers-Rutgers collaboration on the vdW-DF functional has
been immensely successful in the sense that good results are obtained with at
first reasonable computational effort and by now marginal computational cost.
The vdW-DF functional has been implemented in many DFT codes, including
Siesta, GPAW, Abinit, and Quantum Espresso. The applications are many; in my
group recent systems have been layered oxides (mainly V2O5) and adsorption
of molecules (adenine, PAH molecules, n-alkanes, phenol, methanol, etc) on
graphene and other surfaces.

Van der Waals density functional for general geometries; M. Dion, H.


Rydberg, E. Schrder, D. C. Langreth, and B. I. Lundqvist; Physical Review
Letters 92, 246401 (2004). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.246401
Application of van der Waals density functional to an extended system:
Adsorption of benzene and naphthalene on graphite; S. D. ChakarovaKck, E. Schrder, B. I. Lundqvist, and D. C. Langreth; Physical Review
Letters 96, 146107 (2006). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.146107

Sketch of a layer of adenine


adsorbed on graphene

30

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Emission Control and Energy-related


Catalysis

Magnus Skoglundh
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722974
skoglund@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
In situ spectroscopic investigation of low-temperature oxidation of
methane over alumina-supported platinum during periodic operation;
E. Becker, P.-A. Carlsson, L. Kylhammar, M. Newton and M. Skoglundh;
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115, 944-951 (2011)

My main research fields are emission control catalysis and catalysis for energy
conversion. Most of my work is performed within the Competence Centre for
Catalysis, KCK. Particularly the study of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in the
catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in oxidizing environment, catalytic oxidation
of hydrocarbons at low temperatures, and surface processes during detection
of gases on chemical gas sensors is of great interest. The research combines
modern techniques, particularly in situ techniques, and methods within catalysis
and nanoscience to relate catalytic properties as activity, selectivity and stability
with physiochemical properties of the catalytic material studied.
An especially important issue in the research is the use of well-controlled perturbations of the reactant composition, to improve the performance of the catalyst,
and to identify the surface processes that control the reaction considered. My vision is to contribute to a sustainable transport, energy and environmental system
with new catalyst techniques.
The figure shows the evolution of XANES platinum spectra during a pulse-response experiment for a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst exposed methane while periodically
varying the oxygen concentration. The intensity of the white line decreases when
the oxygen supply is switched off indicating a decreasing O/Pt-ratio which is
shown beneficial for a high activity for methane oxidation.

Vibrational analysis of H2 and D2 adsorption on Pt/SiO2; M. Wallin, H.


Grnbeck, A. Lloyd Spetz, M. Eriksson and M. Skoglundh; Journal of
Physical Chemistry B, 109, 9581-9588 (2005)
The mechanism for NOx storage; E. Fridell, H. Persson, B. Westerberg, L.
Olsson and M. Skoglundh; Catalysis Letters, 66, 71-74 (2000)

XANES platinum spectra during


pulse-response for Pt/Al2O3 catalyst
exposed to methane

Material Physics

Krystyna Stiller
Professor

Krystyna Stiller is a physicist specialised in materials science. She is heading the


Division of Materials Microstructure at the Department of Applied Physics. The
aim of her research is to understand how the material microstructure (down to
single atoms) affects material properties. This is a prerequisite for a modern and
efficient material design. Her research focuses on processes of phase transformations and on the microstructure and composition of thin surface layers, phase
and grain boundaries by high-resolution techniques: electron microscopy and
atom probe tomography (APT). APT enables studies of material chemistry in
3D on a sub-nanometer scale. She has a widespread network of Swedish and
international. She also works closely with Swedish industry.

Fil. kand. University of Gothenburg


PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723320
stiller@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Atom probe tomography of oxide scales; K. Stiller, L. Viskari, G. Sundell,
F. Liu, M. Thuvander, H.-O. Andrn, D.J. Larson, T. Prosa and D. Reinhard,
Oxidation of Metals, 79, 227-238 (2013)
Intergranular crack tip oxidation in a Ni-base superalloy; L. Viskari, M.
Hrnqvist, K.L. Moore, Y. Cao and K. Stiller; Acta Mater. 61, 3630-3639
(2013)
An Atom-Probe Tomography Primer; D.N. Seidman and K. Stiller, MRS
bulletin, 34, 717-724 (2009)

Distribution of atoms in a
Ni-based alloy by APT Cr
(purple), Al (turqoise) and B

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Materials chemistry

Jan-Erik Svensson
Professor
MSc University of Gothenburg
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7722863
jes@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Investigation of Chromium Volatilization from FeCr Interconnects
by a Denuder Technique J. Froitzheim, H. Ravash, E. Larsson,
L.-G. Johansson and J.-E. Svensson J. Electrochem. Soc. 157 (9),
B1295-B1300 (2010)
Paralinear oxidation of chromium in O2+H2O environment at 600-700C;
B. Pujilaksono, T. Jonsson, M. Halvarsson, I. Panas, J.-E. Svensson and
L.-G. Johansson; Oxidation of Metals, 70 (3-4), 163-188 (2008)

31

Material chemistry research is important for a sustainable society, e.g. for the development of new sustainable energy systems. In many cases the development
of new, energy-saving and environmentally friendly, techniques are limited by
the degradation of materials at high temperature. My research concerns mainly
material chemistry for energy applications, application areas include Solid Oxide
Fuel Cells (SOFC) and green electricity production from biomass.
My research focuses on fundamental aspects of the oxidation and corrosion
processes. The long-term scientific objective is to increase the knowledge of the
oxidation and corrosion through mechanistically directed experiment. The ability
of materials to withstand high-temperature corrosion is determined by the properties of the oxide scales, e.g. chromia and alumina, that develop. The morphology of the protective layer and its crystal, defect and grain structure are decisive
in this respect and involve a length scale from several nanometers to micrometer.
Because the processes that constitute corrosion occur on so different length
scales, we combine methods that cover the whole range, from the nanometer
scale to the macroscopic object. A wide range of state-of-the-art methods for investigating and characterizing materials and surfaces, including in-situ corrosion
experiments, electron microscopy and first principles model calculations is used.
In addition, we focus on possible ways to overcome corrosion problems within
different application areas. In connection to SOFC technology, we develop novel
nano coatings for the metallic interconnects. The aim is to increase the oxidation
resistance of the interconnect steel while at the same time reduce the Cr-evaporation.

KCl Induced Corrosion of a 304-type Austenitic Stainless Steel at


600C; The Role of Potassium; J. Pettersson, H. Asteman, J.-E. Svensson
and L.-G. Johansson; Oxidation of Metals, 64 (1-2), 23-41 (2005)

High temperature exposure of


interconnect materials for Solid
oxide fuel cells

Physics of soft and biological materials

Jan Swenson
Professor
MSc University of Gothenburg
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7725680
jan.swenson@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
A unified model of protein dynamics; H. Frauenfelder, G. Chen, J.
Berendzen, P. W. Fenimore, H. Jansson, B. H. McMahon, I. Mihut-Stroe, J.
Swenson and R. D. Young; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 5129-5134
(2009)

Scientific studies of soft and biological materials are strongly interdisciplinary


and lie at the interface between physics, chemistry, biophysics, biochemistry,
medicine and chemical engineering. In addition to pure biological materials it
includes the study of polymers, emulsions, colloids and similar systems which,
until fairly recently, were considered the domain of physical chemistry rather than
physics. However, it is now realised that there are generic unifying principles
which control the behaviour of many of these complex materials, and that these
principles are physical rather than chemical in nature. Furthermore, all biological
materials and also many other soft systems contain water and it is clear that it
is the presence of this water that is, to a large extent, determining the material
properties. Much of my research is focused on this important role of water for life
and other material properties of industrial, pharmaceutical and medical importance. However, we are also performing fundamental research on polymer based
solid electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices.
The studies are mainly based on neutron scattering techniques, dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and computational modelling
methods.

Role of solvent for the dynamics and the glass transition of proteins; H.
Jansson, R. Bergman and J. Swenson; J. Phys. Chem. B 115,
4099-4109 (2011)
Glass transition and relaxation processes of nanocomposite polymer
electrolytes; B.K. Money, K. Hariharan and J. Swenson; J. Phys. Chem. B
116, 7762-7770 (2012)

Dielectric data and


T-dependent relaxation
times of myoglobin in
water-glycerol

32

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Building Materials

Luping Tang
Prof
Lic Eng Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7722305
tang.luping@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Covercrete with hybrid functions - A novel approach to durable
reinforced concrete structures; L. Tang, E.Q. Zhang, Y. Fu, B.
Schouenborg and J.E. Lindqvist; Materials and Corrosion, 63(11),
1119-1126 (2012

Building materials have extremely great importance for sustainable development


and economic growth through sustainable construction owing to their high
usage of resource and structural function with requirements of long service life.
Defects in materials used in buildings and infrastructures can cause catastrophes and result in serious economic, environmental as well as social consequences. Cement-based materials are the most consumed solid materials in the
world. From the point view of resource and environmental conservation, these
materials and their life circles have great significance. My research area covers
cementitious porous materials, such as concrete, and their durability, especially
transport mechanisms of various aggressive substances, such as chlorides from
seawater and de-icing salts, which can penetrate into porous concrete and initiate corrosion of reinforcement steel in concrete structures.
The RCM (Rapid Chloride Migration) test we developed for testing resistance of
concrete to chloride ingress has got worldwide applications and been adopted as
a standard test in many countries including Nordic, Switzerland, Germany, USA
and China. We also developed a rapid technique for corrosion measurement
based on electrochemical principle. We are currently developing novel concrete
composites and techniques for prevention of steel in concrete structures from
corrosion, which is a worldwide problem in reinforced concrete structures.

Application of LA-ICP-MS for meso-scale chloride profiling in concrete;


N. Silva, T. Luping and S. Rauch; Materials and Structures, DOI: 10.1617/
s11527-012-9979-y (2012)
On the mathematics of time-dependent apparent chloride diffusion
coefficient in concrete; T. Luping and J. Gulikers; Cement and Concrete
Research, 37(4), 589-595 (2007)

A novel covercrete for prevention of


steel in concrete from corrosion

The classical hard and soft Materials in Medicine need to be improved and pose
several future challenges, such as enhanced and sustained integration and
vascularisation, guided wound healing and suppression of bacterial infections.
To meet these challenges, surfaces are commonly modified and tested. Current
modifications include then topographical-, chemical-, and pharmacological
techniques.

Biomaterials

Pentti Tengvall
Professor
MSc Linkping University
PhD Linkping University
+46 (0) 31 7862745
pentti.tengvall@biomaterials.gu.se

Selected Publications
Protein Adsorption Studies on Model Surfaces. An Ellipsometric and
Infrared Spectroscopic Approach, Review; P Tengvall, I Lundstrm, and B
Liedberg, Biomaterials, 19, 407-422(1998)

The main interest in our research is put on pharmacological surface modifications, and for the time being bisphosphonates on metal surfaces are tested in
in vivo animal and human models. Other bone growth improvement materials of
interest include strontium salts, calcium phosphates, and bioglasses.
In addition to the above, this group have studied during many years interactions
between blood plasma and common model biomaterials, such as self assembled
molecules (SAMs) on gold, titania, alumina and zirconia. It is e.g. observed that
common thermal, topographic and UV-irradiation treatments can drasticly alter
surface mediated coagulation and immune complement activation. The reduction of surface mediated coagulation and complement is beneficial for blood
compatibility.

Surface immobilized bisphosphonate improves stainless steel screw


fixation in rats; P Tengvall, B Skoglund, A Askendal, and P Aspenberg,
Biomaterials, 25(11), 2133-2138 (2004)
The effect of heat-or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on
complement deposition from human blood plasma; P Linderbck, N
Harmankaya, A Askendal, J Lausmaa, P Tengvall, Biomaterials 31,
4795-4801 (2010)

Surface topography of a stainless


steel screw after immersion in
hydrofluric acid

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Biomaterials

Peter Thomsen
Professor
MD University of Gothenburg
PhD University of Gothenburg
+46 (0) 31 7862966
peter.thomsen@biomaterials.gu.se

Selected Publications
The correlation between gene expression of proinflammatory markers
and bone formation during osseointegration with titanium implants; O.
Omar, M. Lenners, F. Suska, L. Emanuelsson, J. Hall, A. Palmquist and P.
Thomsen; Biomaterials 32(2), 374-386 (2011)

33

Dr Thomsen started his training as an undergraduate in medicine in the Laboratory of experimental cell biology with the father of the concept of osseointegration (the anchorage of titanium to bone), Professor P-I Brnemark and
Professor LE Ericson (cell biologist and electron microscopist), University of
Gothenburg. Following a 4-year fellowship with the Swedish Medical Research
Council, he became Professor of Biomaterials in 1994. In 2000, he became
the first Swedish International fellow of Biomaterials Science and Engineering. He was awarded the George Winter Award for excellence in biomaterials
research by the European Society for Biomaterials in 2003. His research group
has pioneered the development of experimental material-tissue interfacial
models for the quantitative analysis of inflammation and regeneration on the
molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Novel preparation techniques of the hitherto
unaccessible interface zone between materials and tissue in vivo have been
introduced. This has enabled an understanding of the temporal development of
osseointegration in experimental and human applications, correlating chemical,
ultrastructural, biomechanical and gene expression data. Current research: the
role of material properties for cell-cell communication, the role of microvesicles
for inflammation, stem cell differentiation and regeneration of tissue at implants
and, on the applied level, the role of material-tissue interactions for orthopaedic
osseointegration.

The stimulation of an osteogenic response by classical monocyte


activation; O.M. Omar, C. Granli, K. Ekstrm, C. Karlsson, A. Johansson,
J. Lausmaa, C.L. Wexell and P. Thomsen; Biomaterials 32(32), 81908204 (2011)
Titanium oral implants: surface characteristics, interface biology and
clinical outcome; A. Palmquist, M. Esposito, J. Lausmaa and P. Thomsen;
J R Soc Interface 7(5), 515-527 (2010)

The interface between


biomaterial and tissue

Materials Modelling and Simulation

Gran Wahnstrm
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723634
goran.wahnstrom@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Oxygen vacancy segregation and space-charge effects in grain
boundaries of dry and hydrated BaZrO3; B.J. Nyman, E.E. Helgee, and G.
Wahnstrm; Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061903-061906 (2012)
Theory of Ultrathin Films at Metal-Ceramic Interfaces; S.A.E. Johansson
and G. Wahnstrm; Phil. Mag. Lett. 90, 599-609 (2010)

Materials modelling and simulation aims to develop fundamental relationships


between the atomic structure and properties of molecules and bulk materials as
well as their surfaces and interfaces, so that advanced materials with enhanced
and new properties can be designed.
My research interest is in exploring the links between the electronic structure of
materials, the behaviour of their atoms, the statistical thermodynamic description
and materials processes. Computational techniques such as electronic structure
calculations based on the density functional theory, the quantum-mechanical
path integral method, classical molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo and kinetic
simulation techniques are being used.
Interface related phenomena and hydrogen motion are two central research
topics. Several of our projects are also done in collaboration with experimentalists. We have performed computational studies of proton motion in acceptor
doped barium zirconate, a solid oxide that exhibit significant proton conductivity at elevated temperatures. Interface properties have been investigated in
relation to cemented carbides, an important composite engineering material, and
density functional theory results have then been combined with thermodynamic
modelling techniques. First-principles studies of the water production reaction on
platinum have been performed, a prototype reaction in heterogeneous catalysis
and in practical applications such as fuel cells.

Path integral treatment of proton transport processes in BaZrO3; Q.


Zhang, G. Wahnstrm, M. E. Bjrketun, S. Gao and E. Wang; Phys. Rev.
Lett. 101, 215902-215906 (2008)

Induced electron density (blue/


red-increased/decreased) at a
metal-ceramic interface

34

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Semiconductor heterostructures

Shumin Wang
Professor
PhD University of Gothenburg
MSc Fudan University
+46 (0) 31 7725039
shumin@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Dilute Nitrides and 1.3 m GaInNAs Quantum Well Lasers on GaAs; S.M.
Wang, H. Zhao, G. Adolfsson, Y.Q. Wei, Q.X. Zhao, J.S. Gustavsson, M.
Sadeghi and A. Larsson; Microelectronics Journal 40, 386-391 (2009)
(invited paper)
Critical Thickness and Radius for Axial Heterostructure Nanowires Using
Finite Element Method; H.Ye, P.F. Lu, Z.Y. Yu, Y.X. Song, D.L. Wang and
S.M. Wang; Nano Letters 9, 1921-1925 (2009)

Semiconductor heterostructures have feature sizes in nanometer scale and


are possible to be tailor-made through band engineering showing many unique
electronic properties. Epitaxy is required to grow such structures with excellent
control in thickness, alloy composition and doping. My research covers molecular
beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of III-V semiconductors for making opto-electronic
devices.
One research topic is design and fabrication of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices
for IR focal plane array photodetectors (IR digital camera) that can work e.g.
in night vision at relatively high ambient temperatures with reduced production
costs. The broken band-alignment of InAs/GaSb enables a large detection
wavelength tuning from 2 to 30 m from the same material by only adjusting the
relative thicknesses. We have successfully demonstrated single pixel detectors
at 5 m with internal quantum efficiency above 50% on 2; GaSb substrates.
Another research focus is on bismuth containing materials including dilute
bismides and (BiSb)2Te3 nanostructures. Dilute bismides are the least explored
III-V compounds and reveal interesting physical properties theoretically like large
band gap reduction and large spin-orbit split band. (BiSb)2Te3 is an important
material for thermoelectric applications as well as topological insulators. The van
der Waals bonding makes it possible to exfoliate (BiSb)2Te3 thin films to form
graphene-like nano-sheets. We study synthesis of novel InGaSbBi and InPBi thin
films and high quality Bi2Te3 thin films.

1.58 m InGaAs Quantum Well Lasers on GaAs; I. Tngring, H. Q. Ni, B.P.


Wu, D.H. Wu, Y.H. Xiong, S.S. Huang and Z.C. Niu, S.M. Wang, Z.H. Lai,
and A. Larsson; Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221101-221104 (2007)

Atomic force microscope


images of Bi2Te3 thin films
showing atomic steps

Polymer Electronics

Ergang Wang
Assistant Professor
BSc Zhengzhou Univeristy
PhD South China University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723410
ergang@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
An Easily Accessible Isoindigo-Based Polymer for High-Performance
Polymer Solar Cells; E. Wang, Z. Ma, Z. Zhang, K. Vandewal, P.
Henriksson, O. Ingans, F. Zhang and M.R. Andersson; J. Am. Chem. Soc.
133, 14244-14247 (2011)
An Easily Synthesized Blue Polymer for High-Performance Polymer Solar
Cells; E. Wang, L.T. Hou, Z.Q. Wang, S. Hellstrm, F.L. Zhang, O. Ingans
and M.R. Andersson; Adv. Mater., 22, 5240-5244 (2010)

The use of fossil fuels causes a number of environmental problems, and also
their availability is diminishing. Thus, the need for clean, renewable and environment-friendly new energy source is urgent. Photovoltaic technology, which can
convert inexhaustible sun light into usable electricity directly, is therefore one of
the most promising and key technologies to solve the energy crisis in the future.
Solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising cost-effective
alternative to silicon-based solar cells because of their advantages of low-cost,
light-weight, and flexibility.
The focus of my research is to develop new materials to improve the efficiency
of OSCs and pave the way for their commercialization. To improve the efficiency, the materials must be well designed with desired properties such as high
absorption coefficients, broad absorption spectra, appropriate energy levels and
high mobility. Computer simulations are used to aid in the design of materials.
Over the years, I have developed a wide array of polymers, several which exhibited quite high efficiency in solar energy conversion. The best materials prepared
in my laboratory achieved an efficiency approaching 8%, which is comparable
with the current world record for single junction OSCs.
My other research interest is the synthesis of conjugated microporous polymers
for carbon dioxide capture. This area of research is dedicated to the sequestration of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel combustion and to mitigate global
warming.

Conformational Disorder Enhances Solubility and Photovoltaic


Performance of a Thiophene-Quinoxaline Copolymer; E.G. Wang, J.
Bergqvist, K. Vandewal, Z. Ma, L. Hou, A. Lundin, S. Himmelberger, A.
Salleo, C. Mller, O. Ingans, F. Zhang and M.R. Andersson; Advanced
Energy Materials 3 (6), 806-814 (2013)

A free standing conjugated polymer film


with metal shining

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Soft Matter Synthesis

Gunnar Westman
Professor
M.Sc. Sundsvall Mid Sweden University
PhD Chalmers University of Technology

35

Wood and annual plants consists of the two most abundant biopolymers on
earth, cellulose and lignin. Cellulose may, from an organic chemists perspective,
look as a simple polymer of linear unbranched polymer of D-glucopyranoside.
It is, but, due to its structure it forms parallel aligned strands held together
with intra- and intermolecular bonds. The parallel strands form sheets stacked
vertically by van der Waals forces resulting in a hierarchical complex structure
with segments of ordered and non-ordered parts of cellulose. By controlled acid
hydrolysis the ordered parts of cellulose, so called Nanocrystalline Cellulose can
be retrieved. Nano crystalline cellulose self assemble into chiral nematic phases
that and show key features such as high strength, electro-magnetic response. It
also has a large surface area that provide a basis for the manufacture of new
and advanced materials using nanotechnology.

+46 (0) 31 7723072


westman@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Cationic surface functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals; M. Hasani,
E.D. Cranston, G. Westman and D.G. Gray; Soft Matter, 4, 2238-2244
(2008)
Regioselective cationization of cellulosic materials using an efficient
solvent-minimizing spray-technique; H. de la Motte and G. Westman;
Cellulose, 19, 1677-1688 (2012)
Wet Spinning of Cellulose from Ionic Liquid Solutions- Viscometry and
Mechanical Properties; C. Olsson and G. Westman; Journal of Applied
Polymer Science, 127, 4542-4548 (2013)

Nano Cellulose Chemistry

Complex metal oxide heterostructures

Dag Winkler
Professor
MSc Chalmers University of Technology
PhD Chalmers University of Technology
+46 (0) 31 7723474
dag.winkler@chalmers.se

Selected Publications
Effect of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate on the electrical
properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface; A. Kalabukhov, R.Gunnarsson,
J.Brjesson, E.Olsson, T. Claeson and D. Winkler, Phys. Rev. B 75,
121404-121408(R) (2007)

Dag Winkler received his PhD in Physics at Chalmers in 1987, and spent two
years as research associate at Yale University during 1988 and 1990. He
became docent in 1993 at Chalmers and professor in 2000 at University of
Gothenburg. 2003 he was appointed professor in physics at Chalmers University
of Technology. His main research is tunneling in superconductors and superconducting electronics, such as SIS and HEB high frequency mixers, flux-flow oscillators, SQUIDs and applications at low level measurements. His current activities
include intrinsic Josephson effects in single crystal Bi2212, complex metal oxide
films and heterostructures, e.g., 2D electronic properties at interfaces between
LaAl2O3 and SrTiO3, and high-Tc SQUIDs for MEG and MRI applications. He has
long experience in microwave technology, low temperature physics, and cryogenic systems. Part time he worked at ABB Corporate Research on development of
cryogenic high voltage cables and low-level measurements using superconducting electronics. From 1999 to 2003, he was also engaged at the Imego Institute,
building up an activity on magnetic sensor systems and microwave technology.
During 2006 to 2007 he was the head of the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory. Since June 1, 2007 he is head of the Department of Microtechnology and
Nanoscience - MC2, at Chalmers University of Technology.

Cationic Disorder and Phase Segregation in LaAlO3/SrTiO3


Heterointerfaces Evidenced by Medium-Energy Ion Spectroscopy; A.
Kalabukhov, Yu. Boikov, I. Serenkov, V. Sakharov, V. Popok, R.Gunnarsson,
J.Brjesson, E.Olsson, N. Ljustina, T. Claeson and D. Winkler; Phys. Rev.
Lett. 103, 146101-146105 (2009)
Nano-patterning of the electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
using low-energy ion beam irradiation; P.P. Aurino, A. Kalabukhov, N.
Tuzla, E. Olsson, D. Winkler, and T. Claeson; Appl. Phys. Lett., 102,
201610-201614 (2013)

DCA cluster system for depositions of complex metal oxide films


and heterostructures

36

Materials Science at Chalmers and GU Biomaterials

Low-dimensional electron systems

August Yurgens
Professor
MSc Moscow Institute of Physics &
Technology
PhD Kapitza Institute, Russian Academy
of Sciences
+46 (0) 31 7723319
yurgens@chalmers.se

Graphene promises improved functionalities for many applications thanks to its


exceptional electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene is the only up-scalable process that is both inexpensive
and adjustable to the nowadays semiconductor-industry process flow allowing
for an uncomplicated integration of graphene in existing electronic components.
CVD allows for large areas of graphene on any substrate. The focus of our
research is on development of a reliable- and cost-effective platform for CVD
of graphene which is comparable in quality with graphene obtained by e.g. mechanical exfoliation of graphite or epitaxial growth on SiC. Easily scalable CVD
graphene can then be used for fundamental studies and in practical devices, like
field-effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, and mass-sensitive nano-electromechanical resonators. Our high quality CVD graphene shows the Hall-resistance
quantization and therefore can readily be exploited in metrology applications.
Our technology is open to any project which requires large areas of graphene.

Selected Publications
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene rings with metal mirrors; Y. Nam,
J.S. Yoo, Y.W. Park, N. Lindvall, T. Bauch, and A. Yurgens; Carbon 50,
5562-5568 (2012)
Noncatalytic chemical vapor deposition of graphene on high-temperature
substrates for transparent electrodes; J. Sun, M.T. Cole, N. Lindvall, K.B.K.
Teo, and A. Yurgens; Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022102-022105 (2012)
Large-area uniform graphene-like thin films grown by chemical vapor
deposition directly on silicon nitride; J. Sun, N. Lindvall, M.T. Cole, K.B.K.
Teo, and A. Yurgens; Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 252107-252110 (2011)

Artistic view of graphene