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Microbiology Test Review

A. Multiple Choices: (40)

Viruses
Noncellular parasites: Noncellular parasite is virus that is not a cell.

Genome or core: The viral genome can be single stranded DNA, double stranded DNA,
single stranded RNA or double stranded RNA. Virus has two parts; has an inner core of
nucleic acid either DNA or RNA, which is surrounded by capsid made of protein
subunits.
General characteristics: Viruses are not composed of cells, they are acellular. Viruses can
only reproduce inside a living host cell by using the enzymes of that cell. Two main
components to all viruses: Capsid/ outer portion comprised of proteins and may be
surrounded by lipid envelope. Spikes may be present for attachment to a host cell. Has a
nucleic acid core. Smaller than bacteria, smaller than 0.2 microns. Bacteria larger than 1
micron.
Stages of lytic cycle (2): Viral DNA core of genome enters the host cell and takes over
control of the cell. Within the host cell, more viral DNA, capsid and enzymes are
produced and assembled. Viral particles increase in number and cause the host cell to
burst or lyse. Released viruses enter other host cells.
Spike proteins: Viral glycoproteins called spikes often extend from the envelope. These
spikes are critical to a viral infection because they help the virus bind to the surface of the
host cell before entering it. In viral replication, spikes on a virus configure exactly 2
receptor protein molecules on the membrane of the potential host cell.
Latency: Animal viruses can become latent or hidden inside the host because viral DNA
is able to integrate itself into the host cell genome. Integrated viral genome is called a
provirus. Reducing latency viral reproduction does not occur, but viral genome is
replicated with the host cell.
Retrovirus characteristics: The genome of the retrovirus is RNA, but these viruses are
able to transcribe their genome into DNA because they contain the enzyme reverse
transcriptase. The DNA copy of the retroviral genome can integrate itself into the host
DNA. Retrovirus can exist as a provirus (HIV & AIDS).

Prion: composition/disease: Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles. Normal


proteins change their shape; this causes other proteins to change their shape. Causes
degenerate diseases of the nervous system. Prions are passed through ingestion of
infected tissue. Diseases include: scarple in sheep, mad cow disease in cattle, CreutzfeldJacobs disease in humans and karu: Human to Human transmission through cannibalism.
Viroids: Viroids are acellular pathogens and are naked RNA molecules which do not code
for proteins. Infect plant cells and cause disease.

Bacteria
Shapes: There are three basic shapes 1.) Coccus (spherical) 2.) bacillus (rod shaped) 3.)
Spirillum (spiral or coiled).
Types of genetic recombination: Some bacteria reproduce by genetic recombination.
Conjugation- Cytoplasmic bridge forms and some or all of the single circular
chromosomes is exchanged between the two bacteria. Transformation- Live bacteria
take in DNA from dead bacteria. Transduction- The transfer of DNA from one bacterial
cell to another by a virus.
General characteristics: Bacteria are prokaryotic meaning that they lack a distinct nuclear
membrane and cell organelles. Posses a peptidoglycan cell wall. Some form a slime
capsule to protect against the human immune system. Posses small ribosomes; single
circular chromosome in a area called a nucleoid. Cell respiration occurs on the inner folds
of the cell membrane. Photosynthesis occurs on Cytoplasmic membranes. Some have
flagella composed of protein. Many form Endospores in unfavorable conditions. Some
are aerobic and anaerobic; most are heterotrophic and some are autotrophic.
Gram stain- peptidoglycan: Gram positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in
their cell wall. Gram negative bacteria have only a thin layer of peptidoglycan. Gram
negative bacteria have a outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide.
Endospores: Many form Endospores within their cytoplasm in unfavourable conditions;
consist of a tough outer coat, cell membrane, genome and cytoplasm for the survival of
the bacteria.
Cyanobacteria-characteristics: Also called blue green bacteria are oxygen producing,
photosynthetic organisms. Contain chlorophyll and a blue pigment. These pigments are
present in Cytoplasmic membranes. Found in both fresh and salt water. Thrive in

organically populated water called algal blooms of various colours red, yellow, brown
and black. Red sea owes its name to these bacteria. Exist singly in clusters or filaments.
Some live with fungi and form lichen. Cyanobacteria nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Ancient Bacteria: Are Archaea bacteria. Inhabit primitive environments like yellow stone
hot springs, marshes, salt lakes, glaciers and etc. They are the most primitive bacteria
whose chemical makeup of their cell walls, lipids, and RNA is different from Eu bacteria.
Archaea- Eukarya relationship:
Feature
Nucleus
Organelles
Introns
Histones
RNA polymerase
Methionine is at start of
protein synthesis

Domain Archaea
No
No
Sometimes
Yes
Several types
Yes

Domain Eukarya
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Several types
Yes

Protista
Endosymbiotic hypothesis: Heterotrophic bacteria became mitochondria and
Cyanobacteria became chloroplast after being taken up by precursors to modern day
eukaryotic cells. The eukaryotic host cell would have benefited from the ability to utilize
oxygen or synthesize organic food when by chance the prokaryote was taken up and not
destroyed (symbiotic/mutalistic relationship).
Foraminiferians: Have a skeleton called a test. Pseudopods extend through openings in
the test which cover the plasma membrane. The test of dead Foraminiferians form deep
layer of sediment on ocean floor. Presence is an indicator of oil deposits on land or sea.
Can be used to date sedimentary rock.
Encystations: Encystations is when a sacrodine form a cyst which is a structure that
survives unfavourable environmental conditions (similar to endospore in bacteria).
Chlamydomonas: Is the ancestor of land plants that is why it is so important. Two end
diploid cells in zygospore undergo two divisions to form 4 haploid Chlamydomonas
cells. Goes through alteration of generations.
Green algae-plants: They are a plant like protist. Main producer of food and oxygen. Do
not possess a xylem which consists of dead cells that conduct water and nutrients upward

in a plant or up phloem; which consists of living cells that conduct organic compounds
wherever needed in a plant.
Red tide: Dinoflagellates are responsible for red tides. Component of phytoplankton and
can produce neurotoxin which is responsible for red tides.
Protozoan: locomotion types: Ciliates have cilia, Amoeboids have pseudopods,
Zooflagellates have flagella and sporozaons are non-motile.
Euglena: Is a unicellular member of the phylum Euglenophyta as it possesses two
flagella, chloroplast that produces carbohydrates which are stored in a pyrenoid. They
have a pellicle that allows them to change shape and move. Maybe heterotrophic or
autotrophic. Have a eye spot or stigma and a contractile vacuole.
Organism relationships: Dinoflagellates and diatoms both are numerous photo
synthesisers in the ocean.
Zooflagellates: Are part of the phylum zoomastigina and have one or many long whip
like flagella. Some live in fresh water, but most live in other organisms. Tripanosoma
gamblense causes African sleeping sickness; which is transmitted by tsetse fly.
Plasmodium vivax: Plasmodium is a member of the phylum sporozoa; organism that
causes malaria transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito.
Trichocysts: an organ of offense and defense embedded in the outer cytoplasm of certain
protozoans, consisting of a small elongated sac containing a fine, hairlike filament
capable of being ejected. A trichocyst is an organelle found in certain ciliates and
dinoflagellates.
Protozoan characteristics: Are typically motile, eukaryotic, unicellular and heterotrophic.
Common way to divide between them is by their mode of locomotion. In aquatic
environments are parts of the zoo plankton. Produce cyst that protect them in harsh
conditions.
Fungi:
Hyphae: The body of a fungus is the mass of filaments called mycelium. Each of the
filaments is a Hypha. Some fungi have cross walls that divide the Hypha into a chain of
cells, these are called septate. Non-septate fungi have no cross wall and their Hyphae are

multinucleated. Give the mycelium a larger surface area per volume of cytoplasm.
Hyphae grow at their tips.
Saprophytic: Saprophytes are non green organisms that secrete enzyme onto the food and
then absorb the digested nutrients.
Mycelium: Most fungi consist of a thread like filament called hyphae that become a
entangled mass called mycelium. Hyphae grow at their tips and the mycelium absorbs
and then passes nutrients onto the growing tips.
Conidia: These chains of spores are produced asexually in the phyla ascomycota,
bazidiomycota and deuteromycota.
Lichen type: The types: crustose (finely textured patches that are firmly attached to
barren rock), foliose (leaf like and are not firmly attached to rock). and fruticose ( has a
branching structures and present on decomposing trees).
Penicillium: Produces the antibiotic penicillin. Imperfect fungi which cause diseases like
athletes foot and ringworms.

Spores: A spore is a haploid reproductive cell that develops into a new organism without
the need to fuse with another reproductive cell. Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually
by means of spores. They germinate into new mycelia. Eventually the nuclei fuse to form
a zygote that undergoes meiosis followed by spore formation.