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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE COST AND BENEFITS OFUSING THE TAKAKURA METHOD AND VERMI COMPOSTING IN

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE COST AND BENEFITS OFUSING THE TAKAKURA METHOD AND VERMI COMPOSTING IN BARANGAY KALUNASAN AND TALAMBAN

_________________________________

A Business Research Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Accountancy School of Business and Economics University of San Carlos Cebu City, Philippines _______________________________

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the course Accounting Synthesis AC527/ 1:30 PM 03:00 PM/ TTH ____________________________

By

CALAG, ROSA CARIDAD ENGLIS, REYMAR FELECIO, IRENE JOYCE JACABAN, KERVIN NATIVIDAD, JANINA OPPUS, DIANA ROSE PABELLO, MELODY ANNE PASTOR, MARIA SAMANTHA PECATO, JEAN KRISTINE TABADA, CARLOS VELAYO, FLORDELIS CARMEL MARIE

March 2014

Submitted to:

CONCEPCION RASALAN RACAZA, CPA , MSA

APPROVAL SHEET This dissertation entitled “A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE COSTS AND

BENEFITS OF USING THE TAKAKURA METHOD AND VERMI COMPOSTING IN BARANGAY KALUNASAN AND TALAMBAN” submitted byROSA CARIDAD CALAG, REYMAR ENGLIS, IRENE JOYCE FELECIO, KERVIN JACABAN, JANINA NATIVIDAD, DIANA ROSE OPPUS, MELODY ANNE PABELLO, MARIA SAMANTHA PASTOR, JEAN KRISTINE PECATO, CARLOS TABADA AND FLORDELIS CARMEL MARIE VELAYOinPartial fulfillment of the requirements for ACCOUNTING SYNTHESIS (AC527), has been examined and accepted.

Research Committee

ENGR. FERDINAND ANG

Member of the Panel

DR. MARISSA BALDECIR ,CPA

Member of the Panel

ENGR. JOCELYN ROSIEFILA GONZALES, MAST-PHYSICS

Member of the Panel

MRS. CONCEPCION RAZALAN-RACAZA, CPA

Faculty Adviser

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research paper is the product of the researcher’s hard work and dedication to

its realization and success. The realization and the success of this will never be realized without the researcher’s inspiration. Amidst the challenges that the researchers faced, the people acknowledge below were the source of their strength and perseverance.

First of all, the researchers would to acknowledge the role that God has played in the realization of this paper. Without Him, the researchers would have no light to guide them along the road.

Second, the researchers would like to thank their beloved parents and family members. Their love, support, and understanding have allowed them to go beyond their limits and to do what needs to be done for the sake of their future.

Third, the researchers would like to thank the government sector and the public sector. Through their own endeavor, they have strived to improve the lives of the citizens and to prepare the populace for the challenges that the future may bring. The researchers also owe their researcher paper to them for they worked hand-in- hand for the continued improvement of the Philippines. To Mr. CasianoCatapang, Ms. ConsolacionPaña of CESET, and BEOs of Barangays Kalunasanand

Talamban, the researchersgive their special thank you for imparting your knowledge and expertise in this research endeavor.

Fourth, to the researcherspanelists: Mr. Ferdinand C. Ang and Dr. Marissa Baldecir. Through them, the researchers have realized the importance of criticism and that there is always room for continued improvement.

To Engr. Jocelyn Gonzales, the researcherswould like to extend their gratitude for her selfless contribution to their research paper. She has allowed the researchers to see more of their research.

And lastly, the researchers acknowledge our mentor, Mrs. Concepcion RasalanRacaza. Without her, this research paper would have never been possible without her continuous push for excellence through critic.

Societas.Verbi.Divini. March XV, MMXIV

iv

ABSTRACT

The researchers have conducted a comparative study on the application of the Takakura Method and Vermi Method in reducing food waste disposal into landfills. The method used by the researchers in gathering data is through conducting inteviews and surveys to the Barangay Environmental Officers of Barangay Talamban and Barangay Kalunasan. With this, the researchers were able to gather quantitative and qualitative information. The data gathered from the interviews and surveys were used to present a financial analysis on the cost and profit generated from the production of organic compost. The researchers also gathered qualitative information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of applying the two methods. This is to know which method provides greater income to the barangay and which method would be fitting to be used by the households and other barangays in Cebu.

The researchers presented a Venn diagram that summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and a matrix that shows the costs and profit generated by the two methods. The major result of the study in the quantitative aspect is that the Takakura method generates a greater potential income but there is a need for the barangay to increase its promotion on the Takakura compost for it only generates lesser sales than the Vermi compost. In the qualitative aspect, the Takakura Method is preferred by the barangays because it is hygienic and requires lesser space to work on.

One significant implication of this study is to promote a composting method that will reduce the number of wastes being thrown and at the same time is beneficial to be used by barangays and households. Since waste leads to significant carbon emissions and methane gas, this study is advantageous to help preserve mother nature.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

 

i

APPROVAL SHEET

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

iii

ABSTRACT

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

x

LIST OF TABLES

xi

CHAPTER

PAGE

I.

INTRODUCTION

THE PROBLEM

Rationale of the Study

Statement of the Problem

1

3

Significance of the Study

4

Scope and Limitations of the Study

5

Definition of Terms

6

II.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Review of Related Literature

i.

Wastes

9

ii.

Food Wastes

9

iii.

Food Waste Management

10

iv.

Food Waste Management Practices

11

v.

Composting

11

vi.

Takakura Method of Composting

13

vii.

Cebu City Implementation of

 

Takakura Method

14

 

viii.

Success Stories in Implementing

15

ix.

Takakura Method Vermi Composting Method

18

x.

Cebu City Implementation of VermiComposting

20

 

xi.

Success Stories in Implementing Vermi Method

20

Theoretical Framework

24

Conceptual Framework

25

III.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

Research Design

27

Research Environment

28

Research Respondents

30

Research Instruments

31

Research Procedures

32

Gathering of Data

32

Treatment of Data

33

IV.

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND

Advantages and Disadvantages of Takakura

INTERPRETATION OF DATA

35

 

And Vermi Composting Method

35

Costs and Revenue of Takakura and Vermi Composting Method

36

Operation and Maintenance of Takakura and Vermi Composting Method

37

Effects of Takakura and Vermi Composting to the Community

38

The Distribution Channel and Market of By- Product created by Takakura Method

39

The Distribution Channel and Market of By- Product Created by the Vermi Method

39

Preferred Composting Method

40

V.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

41

41

 

Summary of Findings Conclusion

42

Recommendation

42

BIBLIOGRAPHY

43

APPENDICES

Appendix A - Computations Appendix B Transmittal Letter Appendix C Survey Questionnaires Interview Questionnaires Appendix D - Documentation Appendix E – Secretary’s Report Appendix F – Treasurer’s Report Appendix G Curriculum Vitae

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

  • 1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

24

  • 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

25

  • 3 IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPOSTING METHODS

26

  • 4 LOCATION OF BARANGAY TALAMBAN

29

  • 5 LOCATION OF BARANGAY KALUNASAN

29

LIST OF TABLES

  • 1 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TAKAKURA AND

VERMI COMPOSTING METHOD

35

  • 2 ASSESSMENT OF COST AND REVENUE OF TAKAKURA AND VERMI COMPOSTING METHOD

36

  • 3 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OF TAKAKURA AND VERMI COMPOSTING METHOD

37

  • 4 EFFECTS OF TAKAKURA AND VERMI COMPOSTING TO THE COMMUNITY

38

  • 5 THE DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL AND MARKET OF BY-PRODUCTOF TAKAKURA METHOD AND VERMI METHOD

IN

BARANGAY TALAMBAN AND KALUNASAN

39

  • 6 COMPOSTING METHOD PREFERENCE OF BARANGAY

KALUNASAN AND TALAMBAN

40

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Rationale of the Study

Nowadays, garbage is becoming one of the biggest problems of the society. Everyone throws away used papers, old newspapers, bottles, cans, plastic bags, kitchen wastes (fruit and vegetables peelings, residues from fish, meat and rice preparation, leftovers, and excess or unfinished food). With the rising urbanization and rapid change in lifestyle, the amount of household waste or municipal solid waste is also increasing, thus waste management problems arise especially in Cebu City which is renowned as one of the most highly urbanized cities in the Philippines.

Wastes are divided into three categories: biodegradable, non- biodegradable, and special wastes. The Cebu City populace generates 60 percent or about 240 tons of biodegradable wastes every day. Majority of the wastes produced by the household and markets are food wastes. Because of the abundant number of food wastes, one method that was raised to reduce such is through composting. The two prevalent composting methods used in Cebu are: Takakura and Vermi.

Takakura method is a composting method that can be used in urban/rural areas. It is fast, easy, economical, hygienic and eliminates foul odors & methane gas emissions. On the other hand, Vermi composting method is the breaking down of organic material through the use of worms, bacteria, and fungi. Engaging in this method will essentially speed up Mother Nature's process of composting.

Takakura and Vermi Composting Methods reduce organic wastes generation. These methods collectively gear towards the reduction of the remitted waste of the said barangays by converting their organic waste into organic compost. With the assistance of various entrepreneurs and Local Government Units, composting could be profitable since compost products could be sold as organic fertilizers for plants.

Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan are among Cebu City’s bustling barangays. Among the 80 barangays in Cebu City, both are considered as one of the most populous barangays. Based on the 2010 data of the Philippine Statistics Authority, out of the 866,171 residents of Cebu, Barangay Talamban accommodates 28,278 and Barangay Kalunasan 22,737 of them. These barangays were chosen by the researchers since they have already adopted the Vermi and Takakura Methods as means of composting given their massive population based on research.

The researchers are concerned on the liveability of Cebu and the effects of the increasing food wastes generation. This topic is selected in order to help the different barangays particularly Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan so that they would be able to assess further which composting method is more cost beneficial. Through this, they will be able to qualify and quantify the use of such methods and at the same time help the environment.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to compare the cost and benefits of implementing the Takakura and Vermi Methods of Composting in Barangay Kalunasan and Barangay Talamban in order to recommend the best method to be implemented to other barangays. Furthermore, this study aimed:

  • 1. To know the advantages and disadvantages of Takakura and Vermi Composting method.

  • 2. To assess the profitability of using the Takakura and Vermi Composting Method through cost-revenue anaylsis.

  • 3. To know which method is more convenient as to its operations and maintenance

  • 4. To identify the distribution channel of the by-products created by the Takakura Method and Vermi Composting.

  • 5. To identify which composting method is preferred by Barangay Talamban and Kalunusan

Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to:

Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan

It will help them be more knowledgeable about the advantages of using the Takakura and Vermi methods. It will provide them an analysis on the financial aspect of the costs and profits incurred in undertaking the two compost methods

through the use of Venn diagram and a matrix of comparison. It will also make them

aware if the benefits generated from these methods will outweigh the costs of undergoing its processes. Lastly, it will help them assess which composting method is more cost beneficial for the Barangay.

The Government

This would be beneficial to the different government offices especially to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Department of Public Services, and other environmental LGU’s. Since waste leads to significant carbon emissions, and landfill disposal often leads to the production of methane gas, minimizing food wastes would help preserve Mother Nature. In every ton of garbage disposed, the government pays P 700.00 to the private landfill in Consolacion, Cebu, this study would help lessen the cost of the City government in disposing the garbage produced by the citizens.

The Society

This will enlighten the minds of the people in the importance of reducing and managing waste properly. This will also help them know the pros and cons of undergoing composting, and at the same time make the environment a better and safer place to live in.

The Future Researchers

The findings of this study will provide them insights as to how they will undertake their own respective field of study, specifically on environmental issues and concerns.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focused on gathering data from Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan. Other information called for were taken from websites, journals, e- books, periodicals, dissertations and other related studies. In the process of conducting the study, several constraints existed which to some extent affected the results of this endeavor. These hindering factors were the unreliability of some information gathered from the internet and some websites, budgetary issues of the study given the limited sources of funds, time constraints given only two weeks to conduct the study, , some government units are not cooperative in entertaining the researchers, measurement of the volume of garbage collected is not being recorded by the barangay and lastly, documents pertaining to garbage collection and composting are also not readily available.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Biodegradable Wastes - wastes which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be. These can be commonly found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics Composting - natural way of recycling organic matter. It is the process whereby biodegradable organic matter is broken down by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen. Composts - product of composting. It could be used as a natural fertilizer. Cost- the monetary amount equivalent to the expenses needed to carry out the process of composting Cost-Revenue Analysis- the direct comparison between the monetary amount generated from sales and expenses needed to carry out the process of composting. Distribution Channel- the means by which the products are sold through intermediaries Food waste food thrown away because it can no longer be eaten or consumed.

Food waste disposal the act of disposing food waste.

Market- medium that allows buyers and sellers of the by-products of Takakura and Vermi Methods of composting to gain income

Profitability- revenue less costs in applying the two composting methods

Revenue- is the monetary amount generated from the sales of the by-product of the two composting method.

LGU- Local Government Unit

CCENRO- Cebu City Environment and Natural Resources Office CESET- Cebu Environmental Sanitation Enforcement Team CUSW- Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water Non-Biodegradable Wastes - wastes that cannot be broken down by other living organisms. They are the type of wastes that does not decay over time like plastic, tires, cans and styrofoam. Organic Fertilizer - substance made from decayed solid biodegradable waste useful in farming. Takakura composting method innovative composting method introduced by KITA (Kitakyushu International Techno Cooperative Association) which uses micro-organisms that are cultivated from local materials to break down organic waste. This method involves making a seed compost from fermented solutions and a fermenting bed. Organic waste is mixed with the seed compost and left to degrade in a ventilated container or basket. Wastes - unwanted materials; the unusable remains, by-products or household garbage like chemical wastes, garden waste and kitchen waste of the residents of Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan. Vermicomposting - the breaking down of organic material through the use of worms, bacteria, and fungi. The worm used for composting is the African nightcrawler.

Vermicompost or Worm Cast- the end product of Vermi composting. It is a nutrient rich organic substance that can be added to soil to increase its organic matter content and available nutrients. Waste Management - collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics

Chapter 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

In this chapter the researchers present former studies in the area of Solid Waste

Management. It shows data on the conversion of solid biodegradable wastes particularly food wastes into organic composts. Furthermore, it presents an insight on the food waste composting methods of barangay Kalunasan and Talamban.

Review of Related Literature Wastes

Wastes are divided into three categories: biodegradable, non- biodegradable, and special wastes. The city government of Cebu generates 60 percent or about 240 tons of biodegradable waste (Pareja, 2012). This is generally composed of food waste. Its main contributors are the households and markets.

Food Waste

There are many definitions of food waste. Food waste is throwing away food which could have been eaten by oneself or by others. It also refers to food thrown away because it has been too long in the dining table making it unsafe for consumption. Furthermore, it can also be part of food like vegetable leaves or

rotten fruits which can no longer be eaten. (Selina Juul) Simply saying, food waste is food that should have been used for consumption but is thrown away for several reasons like improper storage.

There are several sources of food waste. Research particularly in the United States has proven that food waste starts in the beginning of food production such as during the planting season when crops are infested by pests and damaged by bad weather before harvest. (http://en.wikipedia.org) Another source of food waste is found in business establishments like malls and department stores since canned foods stored for a long time will reach their expiry dates and eventually become food waste. Food waste comes from restaurants and fast food chains as well as from households because foods eaten but not fully consumed become leftovers.

Food Waste Management Food Waste Management is the process of properly disposing food waste and making food waste useful. It is important because it allows us to save money, help the environment, and lastly it enables community engagement. (Leanpath) A factor that must be considered in food waste management is having reliable information. To conduct a food waste management program in a community, one must be able to determine the quantity of resources being used like the amount of food waste and the cost and availability of materials in converting food waste into something useful (Decision Maker's Guide to Solid Waste Managementvol. ii).

Food Waste Management Practices

Out of the total solid waste produce, 60% (Pareja, 2012) of it is composed of organic waste and the main forms of organic waste are household food waste, agricultural waste, human and animal waste.Food waste composes of pre- consumer food waste and post-consumer food waste. There is a need for food waste management because of environmental concerns. Generating and disposing a large amount of food waste to landfills often leads to a production of methane

gas, a greenhouse gas which is over 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. By recycling or composting, you divert the waste from the landfill or elsewhere in the solid waste stream and ensure ongoing value when the item is converted into something useful, such as a soil amendment with composting. (Premakumura

(2010/2012)

Composting

Chapter three, article one, section 17 letter g of Republic Act 9003 also known as Ecological Waste Management mandates that the composting component shall include a program and implementation schedule which shows the methods by which the LGU shall, in combination with the source reduction and recycling components, reduce a sufficient amount of solid waste disposed of within its jurisdiction to comply with the diversion requirements of Sec. 20 hereof. The LGU component shall include the types of materials which will be composted under the programs; the methods for determining the categories of solid wastes to be diverted from disposal at a disposal facility through

composting; and new facilities, and expansion of existing facilities needed to implement the composting component. The LGU composting component shall describe methods for developing the markets for composted materials, including, but not limited to, an evaluation of the feasibility of procurement preferences for the purchase of composted products. Each LGU may determine and grant a price preference to encourage the purchase of composted products. (Lawphil.net 2001) A typical household throws away an estimated 474 pounds of food waste each year. There has been ways suggested by the government on how to reduce this amount of food waste that is being produced by the household each year. One way is by composting. Composting is the nature way of recycling organic matter. It is the process whereby biodegradable organic matter is broken down by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen. Composting food scraps is one of the most important aspects of composting. Food waste items includes vegetable and fruit waste, meal leftovers, coffee grounds, tea bags, stale bread, grains, and general refrigerator spoilage are an everyday occurrence in most households.

(http://www.homecompostingmadeeasy.com/foodscraps.html, 2008) As most of the waste generated in the households is organic waste such as food scraps (Engineering Without Borders, 2011), it is considered that composting was the best method to apply to manage the waste problem. First of all, composting is a natural recycling system that breaks organic matter down into valuable nutrition to the soils (NSW Government, 2011). The benefit of

composting is that it can reform soil structure, texture and aeration and improve the soils capacity to hold water. Furthermore, utilizing composting as a fertilizer develops good root formation in soils (Compost Guide n.d.) The common composting methods are: Pot Composting, Plastic Bag Composting, Tower Tyre Composting, Compost Pits, Windrow (Batas) Composting, Wire Hoop Composting, Heap Composting and Bottomless Bin Composting. Composting has many benefits (advantages) such as: it saves money on fertilizer for plants, acts as an excellent soil conditioner and adds on to soil volume, and saves water by retaining moisture in the soil. Some of its disadvantages are: it is slow in becoming compost, attracts insects and may have foul odour and occupies space.

Takakura Method of Composting It is a composting technique that utilizes Native Micro Organisms for biodegradable decomposition. It was discovered by Koji Takakura in Kitakyushu, Japan. Native Micro Organisms can be found in soil near any kind of plant, dried leaves and dead trees. It could also be found in the products sold by malls. Some of the products that contain these organisms are: Lacto Pafi, Yakult, Yogart, Kimchi, Tuba. (utanbisaya.com ,2012) In the Takakura composting method, organic waste is broken down by micro-organisms that are cultivated from local materials. This method is an easy and inexpensive way to do composting. The method involves making a seed compost from fermented solutions and a fermenting bed. Organic waste is mixed

with the seed compost and left to degrade in a ventilated container or basket. Surabaya in Indonesia was the first City outside Japan to use it. In the Philippines, Bago City in Negros was the first City to practice it followed by Cebu. (Ramli N. Home Composting. 2010) The advantage of the Takakura Method of Composting is that it is fast, easy, and economical. It is also hygienic and it does not give bad odor. And lastly it reduces organic waste generation which in turn reduces global warming. (SIBU MUNICIPAL COUNCIL ,2010)

Cebu City Implementation of Takakura Method Every day Cebu City generates 400 to 500 tons of garbage, 60 percent (240 to 300 tons) of which are biodegradable with each person in the city generating at least 500 grams daily ( Pareja, 2012), and 250-300 grams of this is

biodegradable. The Takakura composting method was adopted by the Cebu City Government in the year 2010, in a bid to address the city’s garbage problem, which is among the factors blamed for the floods that struck the cities of Mandaue

and Cebu. This method is one of the components of the city’s solid waste

management plan. It uses live microorganisms for the degradation of household waste such as leftover foods, fruits and vegetables. Compared with vermi- composting, which uses earthworms, it requires smaller space: 100 square meters per one ton of garbage. With the program, people can earn income from composting, as it turns biodegradable garbage into organic fertilizer, which can be sold 50 pesos per kilo. (Basilan and Parco, 2011).

According to another SunStar article dated February 26, 2011, the Cebu City government has decided to adopt the Takakura method of composting.

Additionally, the article has quoted Rey Parces, the executive director of the Cebu City Solid Waste Management Board, “We hope to reduce the city’s solid waste by 10 percent this year using the Takakura composting method.” The

implementation of such method will be one of the components of the city’s solid waste management plan. It had been targeted that the program will reduce waste

generation by 20 percent in three years. In implementing the program, the City government has partnered with Japan Fund for Global Environment and the Kitakyushu International Techno- cooperative Association for the technical and financial aspect of the program. Parces has also stated that the construction of a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) is needed in implementing the Takakura composting method. Casiano Catapang, of Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water, stated that the program is feasible as long as segregation is done at the household level.

Success Stories in Implementing Takakura Method

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) is promoting the replication of the solid waste management model, especially composting practices of Surabaya, Indonesia, which achieved a substantial reduction in waste generation, in cities in the Philippines.IGES supported a project in Bago City, Negros Occidental, in 2008. The project was initiated based on a request from

Bago City who participated in a workshop in Surabaya in 2007 and acquired information about the city’s solid waste management practices. Bago City is known as the “Home of historical and natural treasure”, owing to its contribution in the colourful history of the province and country, and its beautiful scenery and abundance in flora and fauna making it a good ecotourism destination. Bago is one of the two cities in the Fourth District of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas with population of 147,721 and projected to be at 161,756 for the year 2009. The City was once one of the dirtiest in the region, with a high incident of poverty, malnutrition and health problem due to its failure in solid waste management. To address these problems, the Kasimanwa Namon sa Bago Himuon Naton ang Kalimpyoon or KABAHIN KA Program, a comprehensive approach in solid waste management based on community participation and at source waste segregation, was launched in February 2005. 50% of the waste in the city was reduced, from 40 tons a day to 20 tons (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. 2009)

The hygienic condition of people has improved, which is proved by the decrease in incidents of dengue. However, methods employed under KABAHIN KA program such as pit, heap and vermi have proved to be tedious, unsanitary and impractical in areas with limited backyard space for the pit and heap method, costly, and technical for the vermi composting. Hence, to improve these methods, Bago City adopted Takakura Home Method. (Solid Waste

Management as a Social Enterprise: A Community based 3R Approaches in Bago City. May 2009)

The composting project in Bago started in April 2008. First, a hands-on composting training session on the Takakura Method was organised for workers at the Eco-Centre, where vermi composting had been practiced using earthworms. After comparing the processing period and output, it was confirmed that the Takakura Method was more efficient, and now, most of the organic waste. Next, Bago City distributed 100 household compost baskets to selected model barangays (communities), and after confirming the results, distributed more to other barangays. Initially, sturdy plastic containers with many openings that were manually made were distributed, but they were replaced by specially ordered, locally made ceramic pots which were cheaper and looked better in appearance. (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. 2009) Following the implementation of the project in Bago, similar practices have spread to other cities including Bacolod, Talisay (Negros Occidental), Cebu, Talisay (Cebu), Cavite and Puerto Princesa. Among them, notably, an NGO called Pagtambayaong in Cebu has distributed hundreds of household compost baskets to low-income groups and migrants which help them keep the living environment clean and produce vegetables using the produced compost.

(Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. 2009)

Vermi Composting Method

Vermicasting, also called vermicomposting, is the processing of organic wastes through earthworms or red worms specifically “Eisenia foetida” also known as red wrigglers, manure worms, red hybrid or tiger worms (Soni Cochran. 2010). The worms casting are rich in nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium and the compost is therefore of high quality. It has also been showed that vermicomposting helps aeration as well as speeds up the

composting process and increases particle reduction (Misra and Roy 2010).

It is a natural, odourless, aerobic process, much different from traditional composting. These worms ingest waste then excrete casts dark, odourless, nutrient- and organically rich, soil mud granules that make an excellent soil conditioner. These worms’ casts are a ready-to-use fertilizer that can be used at a higher rate of application than compost, since nutrients are released at rates that growing plants prefer.( Hala Chaoui. 2010) Vermiculture is preferably carried out in small or medium scale and it may be placed in shallow beds or bins outdoors or inside the house (Resource Conservation Manitoba 2010). Worms need favourable conditions just like microorganisms and the composting material therefore needs to be managed carefully. In vermicomposting, it takes into casts 2232 days, depending on density of waste and earthworm maturity. Worms should not be crowded so ideal density

of is 150 earthworms per liter of waste.Earthworms should be allowed to migrate from finished vermicast to fresh waste The only significant amount of money required in vermi composting would be the worms. Prices for the worms can vary a lot. Initially, worms can seem quite expensive around 500.00-600.00 PHP but once a Vermicompost box has been set up and established, it is possible to take worms from the box and use them to set up another box because they can breed so quickly. (Gaschk, Tamai, Vu, Wisniewski, 2011)

This composting method is a very good example of sustainability in action. As plants grow they take up nutrients from the soil, and as they decompose those nutrients are returned to the soil to be used by other plants. However, if the plants are taken from the soil (to be used in cooking for example) the nutrients will not be returned, unless compost is used. Vermicompost takes organic waste and converts it into compost, with the help of microorganisms and worms to speed up the process. The quality of the soil is improved and better plants are able to be produced. Vermicompost is good in terms of sustainability as it creates a cycle for nutrients to be used and then returned. A very small amount of extra resources are needed and no extra energy is used. Vermicompost would have a positive influence on the community. It would encourage the people to separate their wastes and may get them to think more about controlling their waste. If they are already practicing some method of composting, they may find this new method much more efficient. (Gaschk, Tamai, Vu, Wisniewski, 2011)

In implementing the Vermicomposting method, Capital Costs, On-Site or Off-site Processing, Location and Space, Climate, Human Pathogens, Feedstock Loading Rates, and Earthworm Population Growth and Availability are to be considered. (Edwards, Arancon, and Sherman, 2011)

Cebu City Implementation of Vermi Composting

In 2007, the the Cebu City Government has tapped the San Miguel Corporation (SMC). SMC facilitated the implementation of the training on vermicomposting technology for Cebu City government and barangay personnel. SMC saw vermicomposting as a promotional activity for the company. Participants of the training then became trainers who were later asked to echo their learning in their respective barangays. Thus, the vermin composting program in Cebu City took off. (Journal of Environmental Science and Management. 2012)

Success Stories in implementing Vermi Composting Community One Resources Development (CORD) is a non-profit organization focused on community development. One of the projects they did was the Self-Help Project and one of the programs is the implementation of Vermi Composting method in Bimonton, Aurora (Pascua 2011) in partnership with Heifer International Philippines, a US-based humanitarian organization (heiferphils.org). In the early stages of the program, participants didn’t know what vermicomposting was all about. Almost all of the community residents were

busy farming and nobody appreciated the benefits of “rearing worms” for

fertilizer production. They depended on chemical fertilizers and were not aware of

the possible negatives of chemicals in farming. The Sustainable Environment for

Better Living of Families thru Holistic and Encompassing Livelihood Programs

(SELF-HELP Project) consisted of 40 original families from the village of

Bimonton, which is in Mallig, Isabela, Philippines. This self-help group (SHG)

attended trainings on capability enhancement, skills development, livelihood

establishment and values transformation.

The program was introduced to several people and gained successful

results. An example is Mr.Rogelio Abes Jr. “ Rolly”. Through selling vermicast,

an organic fertilizer and with the use of african nightcrawler earthworms, he

gained 53204.90 pesos gross income a month. This income is a big change from

the P89.42 a day he and his wife used to make as seasonal farm laborers.(Pascua

Jr ..

2011) After attending the training, Rolly immediately applied what he

learned about vermicomposting. The vermicast he produced the first six months

was only enough for his backyard garden, but in 2010 he was able to produce at

least 100 bags per month. CORD and Isabela State University helped him with

marketing strategies and promotion in order to broaden the reach of his growing

enterprise. In the same year, the Department Agriculture and other government

agencies recognized and supported his vermicomposting project. The Bureau of

Soils tested his vermicast and graded it as very good quality. With the help of

Rolly’s group, networks were developed in the academe, cooperatives, and

government and private institutions to expand the vermicomposting project.

(Pascua. 2010)

Theoretical Framework

With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the

amount of waste has been rapidly increasing and its composition changing. This

garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes.

According to the Solid Waste Segregation Ordinance C.O. 2031, Hierarchy of

Solid Waste Management in managing solid wastes, generators must consider

the following options in this order of priority: source reduction, reuse, recycle,

composting and disposal.

Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to

products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such non-

biodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. Nowadays,

shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain

biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling of

the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that

each city has to tackle. Organic wastes usually take one to two weeks to

degenerate.

Solid waste management is considered to be one of the most serious

environmental issues in Cebu City. The city government of Cebu generates 60

percent or about 240-300 tons of biodegradable waste; the main contributors of

which are the households and markets. The increase of these biodegradable

wastes is found difficult to manage both by the barangays and municipal

government. Through composting, biodegradable wastes can be reduced.

Based on a website, Home Composting Made Easy, composting is the

natural way of recycling organic matter. Bhavan Prakash wrote that composting

helps to recycle kitchen and garden waste and reduce the volume of waste going

to landfills and incinerators, convert organic matter into a valuable resource for

the plants or community garden, acts as soil conditioner, fertilizer, natural

pesticide, and adds to humus in the soil. Healthier soils make for healthier plants

much when used to cover soil and deter the growth of weeds and even make some

money, if there is a market for compost in an area.

common types of composting methods and these are the Takakura Method, Vermi

composting method, Plain Vanilla Composting, 3-Bin Composting, Trench

Composting and Windrow Composting. Programs to enhance community-based

SWM are Massive Information-Education Campaign, Establishments of MRFs in

the barangays with financial and technical support, Promotion of Takakura and

Vermi Composting, Formation of Brgy. Solid Waste Management Committees,

Public-Private Partnership, Adoption of new environmentally compliant

technologies, Formulation of additional management schemes, such as the

management & disposal of household hazardous wastes, Integrating SWM laws &

policies with other environmental laws through the formulation of the

Environment Code (RA 9003).(http://kitaq-

compost.net/sites/default/files/KitaQDocuments/CebuDec12Seminar/5%20Presen

tation.pdf)

Waste Non- Biodegradable Special biodegradable Kitchen Compostable Wastes
Waste
Non-
Biodegradable
Special
biodegradable
Kitchen
Compostable
Wastes
Waste Management Source Reuse Recycle Composting Disposal Reduction Common types of composting methods Takakura Method Applied
Waste
Management
Source
Reuse
Recycle
Composting
Disposal
Reduction
Common types of
composting methods
Takakura Method
Applied composting
methods to enhance
community-based Solid
Vermi composting
Waste Management in
Cebu City
Plain Vanilla
Composting
FIGURE I.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
3-Bin Composting
Trench
Composting
Windrow
Composting
24
25

REPUBLIC ACT 9003

ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

REPUBLIC ACT 9003 ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT City Government Method materials Takakura and Request of Vermicomposting
City Government
City
Government

Method materials

Takakura and

Request of

Vermicomposting

materials for Supply of composting
materials for
Supply of
composting

Local

 

Government

 

Household

 
 

Market

 

Composts

REPUBLIC ACT 9003 ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT City Government Method materials Takakura and Request of Vermicomposting
Barangay Unit
Barangay
Unit
REPUBLIC ACT 9003 ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT City Government Method materials Takakura and Request of Vermicomposting
Labour Force
Labour
Force
Composting Materials
Composting
Materials
Collection of Garbage Material Recovery Facility Biodegradable Waste
Collection of
Garbage
Material
Recovery
Facility
Biodegradable
Waste
REPUBLIC ACT 9003 ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT City Government Method materials Takakura and Request of Vermicomposting

Implementation of the Takakura and Vermi Composting

Figure 3. Implementation of Composting

Methods

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains the research design that the researchers used. This chapter

also explains the research instrument and the research respondents of the study.

Research Design

The researchers chose to carry out a descriptive research design in quantifying

the costs and benefits of converting food wastes into organic fertilizers. The

purpose of the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the

present existing condition of a particular area. (Creswell, 1994). This method

allows a flexible approach, thus, when new issues arise during the duration of

the study, further investigation may be conducted. Qualitative research is a

systematic and subjective approach to describe life experiences and give them

meaning. In contrast, quantitative research is a formal systematic approach

which incorporates numerical data to obtain information about the world.

Qualitative research was used to formulate survey questions that guided the

researchers in their analytical process. Quantitative research was used to

incorporate current market prices of the materials used in the conversion process

while doing the study. Quantitative research was also used in determining the

profitability of using the Vermi and Takakura method of composting.

Research Environment

This section of the study presents the location upon which the research was done.

The main location of the study was in Barangay Kalunasan and Barangay

Talamban, Cebu City. Barangay Kalunasan is the southern business district of

Cebu City and Barangay Talamban, one of Cebu City’s bustling Barangays. The

locations were chosen because those were the barangays who are practicing the

Vermi and Takakura method of composting. The said Barangays had already been

implementing the Vermi and Takakura method for the past four years.

The researchers also went to the barangays and different Local Government Units

of Cebu City to gather more information about the implementation and adoption

of Vermi and Takakura method of composting namely the Cebu City

Environment and Natural Resources Office (CCENRO), Cebu Uniting for

Sustainable Water (CUSW), Office of Councilor Nida Cabrera at Cebu City Hall,

Barangay Luz, Kamputhaw, Inayawan, and Apas.

Figure 4: Map of Barangay Talamban Source: https://maps.google.com.ph Figure 5: Map of Barangay Kalunasan 29

Figure 4: Map of Barangay Talamban

Source: https://maps.google.com.ph

Figure 5: Map of Barangay Kalunasan
Figure 5: Map of Barangay Kalunasan

Research Respondents

In order to obtain information on the organizational and practical aspects of the

food waste management in Barangay Kalunasan and Talamban, the Barangay

Environmental Officers of Barangay Talamban and Kalunusan were interviewed

and asked to answer the survey. They were chosen for they are in-charge in

conducting the Vermi and Takakura composting method. They also asked them

about their application of Vermi and Takakura method as a way to compost their

food wastes. The researchers also asked them about the assessed costs and benefits

of applying the said method. They also asked about their insights on the

advantages and disadvantages of the composting methods used.

The sample size was based on the number of Barangay Environmental Officers for

the two barangays. Basically, there are five BEOs’ in each barangay. The BEOs’

were chosen as the respondents since they have more knowledge on the composting

made by their barangay.

From the 10 estimated respondents, only 90% were made as respondents of the

study. From the 10 BEOs’ in barangay Talamban and Kalunasan, only 8 BEOs (4

from Kalunasan and 4 from Talamban) were made as respondents of the study. The

remaining BEOs’ were not present during the interview/survey. The 9 th respondent

came from the office of the CUSW. The estimated sample size of 10 BEOs’ was

determined using Slovin’s sample size formula. The researchers also interviewed

the different personalities having knowledge on the Takakura and Vermi

Composting Method in Cebu City particularly the offices of: Cebu City

Environment and Natural Resources Office (CCENRO), Cebu Uniting for

Sustainable Water (CUSW), and Councilor Nida Cabrera at Cebu City Hall.

Slovin’s formula is written as:

n= N/ (1+Ne 2 )

Where:

n= sample size

N= 10 (Total number of BEOs’)

e (Error tolerance) = 6 %

Solution:

n= 10 / (1+10 (.06) 2 )

n= 9.65 or 10

Research Instruments

The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the barangay

officials of Barangay Kalunasan and Talamban having knowledge on the

Takakura and Vermi Composting Method. They also interviewed the Barangay

Environmental Officers of the Materials Recovery Division of both barangays.

The interview focused on the frequency of garbage collection, rules on the

control and disposal of waste, their conversion of biodegradable waste

particularly food waste into organic fertilizers, compost methods used, cost and

benefits in employing these methods, process in applying the said methods,

preference among the compost methods used, advantages and disadvantages of

those methods and the reduction of wastes upon implementing the compost

methods.

The researchers also conducted surveys to the Barangay Environmental

Officers of Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan as to the comparison on the

operations, maintenance, costs, profits, influence to the community and the

effects of the Takakura and Vermi Composting Method to the community. The

survey could be answered by checking the appropriate method that best fits to

the corresponding questions.

Different Environmental Departments like the CENRO, CESET, Office of

Councilor Nida Cabrera and CUSW were also interviewed by the researchers.

Research Procedures

Data was collected through interviews. Interviews were conducted formally and

informally using open-ended guide questions followed by relevant probing

queries. Before conducting the interviews, the researchers prepared and

formulated an interview guide which was based on the theoretical and conceptual

background. The researchers used books, journals, websites, articles and other

secondary sources useful in the course of the study.

Additional documents on food waste management in the Barangay were also

collected and reviewed and were used as secondary data.

Gathering of Data

Primary Sources

Data was collected through surveys and interviews. This information was

the basis for the data that was taken into account. Barangay environmental

officers were interviewed as to their practice on implementing the Vermi and

Takakura method of composting and the costs and benefits for such

implementation. Barangay Environmental officers and different government

employees were interviewed based on an interview guide prepared by the

researchers. Interviews were done on a one-on-one basis. They were also asked

as to their preference when using these composting methods.

The Barangay Environment Officers were introduced to self-administered

questionnaires. Guidance was given to the respondents while answering the

questionnaires.

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources involve generalization, analysis, synthesis,

interpretation, or evaluation of the original information. Secondary sources that

were used in the course of the study are: books, newspapers, journals and

websites.

Treatment of Data Gathered

The results from the primary sources were organized according to its

importance in the study. The researchers computed the number of respondents

who prefer the Takakura and Vermi method in terms of its costs and revenue,

operations, maintenance, and its effects to the community. Other answers that

could not be quantified such as interview answers were analyzed and noted.

Furthermore, using the formula stated below, the researchers computed the

profitability and costs of applying the Takakura and Vermi Methods of

Composting.

INITIAL COST

Initial Cost (Takakura Method)

dependent)

=Heap

Cost

x

Number

of

Recommended

Heaps

(Capacity

Initial Cost (Vermicomposting Method)

=Cost of African Nightcrawlers (Kg) x Number of Pits

POTENTIAL PROFIT

Potential Sales

=Compost Output (Kg) x Selling Price per Kilogram

Potential Profit

=Potential Sales Initial Cost

OPPORTUNITY COST/SAVINGS

Traditional Method Cost

=Amount of Garbage (Kg) x Dumping Fee

Opportunity Cost/Savings

=Traditional Method Cost Potential Profit (Alternative Method)

Given this formula, researchers was able to determine the income generated if

food wastes will be converted into organic fertilizers using the Vermin and

Takakura Method.

CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

In this chapter ,the researchers analyzed the data collected which is carried

out in two phases, a quantitative analysis of data based on the results of the

questionnaire and qualitative interpretation based from interviews conducted.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Takakura and Vermi Composting Method

Table 1 shows the advantages and disadvantages of Takakura and Vermi method

based on the interviews and survey.

Table 1

Advantages and Disadvantages of Takakura and Vermi Composting Method

 

Takakura

Vermi

   

-less laborious

-has simple cleaning procedures

-easier to perform

-more profitable

-has short time to make a

compost

-odorless

-requires less tools and

equipments

Advantages

-lower initial and ongoing

costs

-has more buyers

-easy to adopt and practice

-easy to teach for training

-shorter time to decompose

(3 to 5 months)

 

-uses many raw materials

 

-laborious

-difficult cleaning

-requires many equipment

procedures

-has higher initial costs

-creates unpleasant odors

-difficult to adopt and practice

-can cause hygienic

Disadvantages

-difficult to teach for training

problems if not done

-longer time to decompose (6-10

properly

 

months)

Although the disadvantages for Takakura is numerous, the respondents are still in

favor of using the Takakura Method in composting food waste because of its

quality, profitability, odorless which would avoid inconvenience to the

community.

Table 2 shows the cost and revenue in using the Takakura and Vermi Method of

Composting.

Table 2

Assessment of Cost and Revenue of Takakura and Vermi Composting Method

   

TAKAKURA

VERMI

COST

Initial cost

PHP 3,290.00

PHP 3,500.00

REVENUE

Potential Income

PHP 316,085.00

PHP 171,700.00

Potential Savings

PHP 456,905.23

PHP 30,879.35

Vermi composting requires only lower initial cost as compared to Takakura

composting mainly because of the materials required in implementing the said

method. The potential income and savings of the takakura method is higher

compared to vermi because its selling price is five times higher than the Vermi

method.

Table 3 shows which method is more convenient as to its operations and

maintenance based on the survey conducted.

Table 3

Operations and Maintenance of Takakura and Vermi Composting Method

n=9

   

TAKAKURA

VERMI

TOTAL

Easier to perform

 

5

  • 4 9

 

OPERATIONS

Requires less

 
  • 0 9

9

 

equipment,materials, or tools

Shorter time to compost

 
  • 2 9

7

 

Better quality of output

 
  • 8 9

1

 

TOTAL

TOTAL AVERAGE

3.5

5.5

9

 

Simple to sustain

 
  • 8 9

1

 

MAINTENANCE

       

Hygienic

5

  • 4 9

TOTAL

TOTAL AVERAGE

3

  • 6 9

Vermi Composting is more convenient as to its operations since it requires

less materials, equipment or tools. It is also easier to perform and can be

composted in a short period of time which is about 3 to 5 months compared to the

Takakura method which would take 6 to 10 months. With respect to its

maintenance, the results gathered shows that Takakura Composting has simpler

cleaning procedures or is easier to clean and maintain for it won’t cause any

leakage which would cause bad odors.

Table 4

Effects of Takakura and Vermi Composting to the Community

 

n=9

ATTRIBUTES

TAKAKURA

VERMI

YES

NO

YES

NO

Minimized Waste

 
  • 8 1

9

0

Community Participation

 
  • 3 6

3

6

TOTAL AVERAGE

5.5

3.5

6

3

Table 4 shows that both methods have contributed with the minimization

of waste in the community. The vermi method has greater community partcipation

as compared to the takakura method since it is less laborious. With this, the

community would be able to actively participate without taking too much of their

time.

Table 5 shows how Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan sells their by-products

and to whom these products are sold.

 

Table 5

The Distribution Channel and Market of By-product of Takakura Method

and Vermi Method in Barangay Talamban and Kalunasan

 

Takakura

Vermi

Barangay

Distribution

Market

Distribution

Market

Channel

Channel

Talamban

None. Only

Sells directly

None. Only

Sells directly

sells at its

to walk-in

sells at its

to walk-in

Material

buyers

Material

buyers

Recovery

Recovery

Facility

Facility

Kalunasan

None.

Given to

None. Only

Sells directly

citizens for

sells at its

to walk-in

free

Material

buyers

Recovery

Facility

Since both barangays do not have proper distribution channel, its demand is not

that high. But if there is a proper distribution channel, it would create higher

profits.

Table 6 shows that the Takakura composting is preferred over Vermi composting.

Furthermore, majority of the respondents suggest the application of Takakura

composting.

   

Table 6

Composting Method Preference of both barangays

 

TAKAKURA

VERMI

TOTAL

Preferred

  • 8 1

 

9

Method

Recommendable

  • 7 2

 

9

to other

barangays

Since both barangays prefer and recommend the Takakura Method, it is best to

apply this composting method to the other barangays as a way to minimize

wastes. It is more preferred because it would create higher profit, hygienic and

economical.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings

Based on the surveys conducted, the researchers came up with the following

results: the Vermi Method is more convenient in terms of operations. While the

Takakura method is easier to maintain because it requires less effort in terms of its

cleaning procedures.

When it comes to the costs and benefits, the Takakura Method would

entail higher initial and ongoing costs. Even though it has higher costs,it is more

profitable than the Vermi method of composting. The two methods aid in waste

minimization ..

Lastly, as to the impact or influence in the community, there is

minimal community participation in both methods.

Moreover, Takakura Method is preferable because it is more

advantageous compared to the Vermi Composting Method. Although the current

market price of the ingredients to be used in the composting, are higher compared

to the Vermi Composting Method the revenue of selling its by products is enough

to cover the costs in its application

Conclusion

Vermi Method of Composting is

less

costly and

is

sold

cheaper but the

Takakura Method of composting is more beneficial as to its overall

implementation since it generates better quality composts, provides higher

returns, and is more preferred by the barangays. Takakura Method of composting

is the best method to be implemented in the barangay level.

Recommendation

The barangay should properly document the process of undergoing the

Takakura and Vermi Composting Method and the volume of garbage both

biodegradable and non-biodegradable in order to quantify the amount needed in

composting and the budget to be allocated as per volume. There should also be an

intensive promotion of using composting methods. The barangay officials should

continue to encourage the residents to cooperate in composting through proper

orientation and seminars and implement it through household levels. An

appropriate distribution channel on their by-products should be developed by the

barangays. Constant communication and timely distribution of budgets among the

different organizations should be observed.

Future researchers should give focus and spend more time in conducting

studies regarding environmental issues in the society. They should better analyze

and fill in the gaps in data gathering in a wider population specifically on the

respective households.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Books

H. Panda (2011). Manufacture of Biofertilizer and Organic Farming. Asia

Pacific Business Press Inc.

Whitman, Ann (2001). Organic Gardening for Dummies. For Dummies,

Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.

E-Books

A Short Guide to Food Waste Management Practices. Lean Path.

D.G.J. Premakumura (2010/2012). Best Practices and Innovations in

Community-Based Solid Waste Management in Cebu. Retrieved from:

How to Manage Household Waste. Unesco. Retrieved from:

Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Management in the

Mediterranean Region, Medicites. Retrieved from:

Home Composting: Step-by Step guide to Takakura Composting.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Retrieved from:

Dickella Prekamura Final (Best Practices)

http://pub.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/4336/attach/Dickella_Pr

emakumara_final[Best_Practices].pdf

Journals

Gan Huei Ying*and Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim (June-August 2013). Local

Knowledge In Waste Management: A Study Of Takakura Home Method.

Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering &

Technology (Vol. 2 No. 3)

News Article

Borromeo, R. U. (March 24, 2011). Cabrera tags "dirtiest" Cebu City

barangays. The Freeman.

Basilan, R. Parco, B. (February 16, 2011). City spreads compost method.

Sunstar Cebu.

Internet sources

How to Compost Food Scraps. Retrieved from:

Turning Waste to Organic Fertilizer/ Soil: TAkakura Method of

Composting. Retrieved from:

Part 1: How to compost at home using container pots. Retrieved from:

Going Underground: Compost Pit or Trench Composting. Retrieved from:

Disadvantages of Plastic Bags. Augustine, R.

Municipal Solid Waste. Wikipedia Retrieved from:

Types of Solid Waste. Retrieved from:

Takakura Home Method Composting (THM). Sibu Municipal Council.

(November 30, 2012) Retrieved from:

http://gardenemerald.blogspot.com/2010/12/takakura-home-composting-

part-1.html

APPENDIX A

Comparison (Takakura Method v.s Vermicomposting)

Average Daily Market Waste of a Barangay

Takakura Method

Vermicomposting

Number of Market Waste Sacks collected

7

 

7

Kilograms/Sack

50

50

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

350.00

Php

350.00

Initial Cost Requirement

 

Material Cost

Php

470.00

Php

500.00

Recommended Pits/Heaps (7 Days)

7

7

Initial Cost

Php

3,290.00

Php

3,500.00

Output Generation

 

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

350.00

 

500

Yield Ratio

0.10

0.08

Potential Compost, Daily (Kgs )

35.00

 

40

Average Selling Price (per Kg)

Php

25.00

Php

12.00

Potential Daily Sales

Php

875.00

Php

480.00

Potential Income

 

Potential Daily Sales

Php

875.00

Php

480.00

Calendar Days

365

365

Gross Receipts

Php

319,375.00

Php

175,200.00

Less: Initial Cost

Php

(3,290.00)

Php

(3,500.00)

Potential Income

Php

316,085.00

Php

171,700.00

Potential Savings

 

Daily Biodegradable Waste (Tons )

0.551155498

 

0.551155498

Dumping Fee/Ton

Php

700.00

Php

700.00

Daily Dumping Fee

Php

385.81

Php

385.81

Number of Days

365

365

Annual Dumping Fee

Php

140,820.23

Php

140,820.65

Potential Income from Alternative Method

Php

316,085.00

Php

171,700.00

Annual Dumping Fee Cost

Php

(140,820.23)

Php

(140,820.65)

Opportunity Cost/Savings

Php

456,905.23

Php

30,879.35

TO MAKE A HEAP:

TAKAKURA METHOD

(Consolidated)

Ingredients

Unit Cost

Requirement

 

Net Cost

Rice Husk

Php

40.00

   
  • 1 Php

40.00

Rice Bran

Php

50.00

   
  • 1 Php

50.00

Lacto Pafi Drink

Php

15.00

   
  • 1 Php

15.00

Mushroom

Php

42.50

   
  • 1 Php

42.50

Yakult

Php

10.00

 

10

 

Php

100.00

Tuba

Php

50.00

   
  • 1 Php

50.00

Humus

Php

50.00

   
  • 1 Php

50.00

Water

Php

45.00

 

0.5

 

Php

22.50

Activated Yeast

Php

10.00

 

10

 

Php

100.00

COMPOST COST

 

Php

470.00

Average Daily Market Waste of a Barangay

 

Number of Market Waste Sacks collected

 

7

Kilograms/Sack

50

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

 

350.00

Initial Compost Cost Requirement

Heap Cost

Php

470.00

Recommended Heaps (7 Days)

 

7

Initial Cost

Php

3,290.00

Output Generation

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

 

350.00

Yield Ratio

0.10

Potential Compost, Daily (Kgs )

 

35.00

Average Selling Price (per Kg)

Php

25.00

Potential Daily Sales

Php

875.00

Potential Income

Daily Compost Generated

Php

875.00

Calendar Days

365

Gross Receipts

Php

319,375.00

 

Less:

Initial Compost Cost

Php

(3,290.00)

Potential Income

Php

316,085.00

 

Potential Savings

Daily biodegradable waste (Kgs)

350.00

Kilograms/Ton

907.185

Daily Biodegradable Waste (Tons )

0.385808848

Dumping Fee/Ton

Php

700.00

Daily Dumping Fee

Php

270.07

Number of Days

365

Annual Dumping Fee

Php

98,574.16

Potential Income from Takakura Method

Php

316,085.00

Annual Dumping Fee Cost

Php

(98,574.16)

Opportunity Cost/Savings

Php

414,659.16

Assumptions:

1.) The Yield ratio is 1 kilo of biodegradable waste will yield 1/3 of compost. 2.) The ingredients mentioned and the accompany costs are provided by CUSW. 3.) The amount of garbage thrown by Cebu City is 500 tons per day. 56.67 percent of which is biodegradable. 4.) It is assumed that for 7 kilos of waste, 6 kilos of Takakura mother seed compost is recommended. 5.) One heap will be able to process 200 kilograms of waste daily. 6.) The suggested ratio is 1 kilo of compost is to 1 kilo of waste. This is when the process is already ongoing. 7.) Recommended Mother Seed Compost is to make 7 heaps enough for 7 days.

VERMICOMPOSTING METHOD

(Consolidated)

BASIC MATERIAL LIST

   

Ingredients

Cost

 

Php

500.00

African Nightcrawlers (1 kg) TOTAL

Php

20,000.00

Initial Cost African Nightcrawlers

Php

500.00

Number of Composting Pits

7

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

 

3,500.00

Barangay Talamban's Daily Market Waste Number of Market Waste Sacks collected

7

Kilograms/Sack

50

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

 

350.00

Output Generation

Net Biodegradable Waste, Daily(Kgs)

 

350.00

Yield percentage

0.08

Potential Compost, Daily (Kgs )

 

28.00

Average Selling Price (per Kg)

Php

12.00

Potential Daily Sales

Php

336.00

Potential Income

Daily Sales Generated

Php

336.00

Calendar Days

365

Gross Receipts Less:

Php

122,640.00

Initial Compost Cost

Php

(3,500.00)

Potential Income

Php

119,140.00

Potential Savings

Daily biodegradable waste (Kgs)

 

200.00

Kilograms/Ton

907.185

Daily Biodegradable Waste (Tons )

 

0.220462199

Dumping Fee/Ton

Php

700.00

Daily Dumping Fee

Php

154.32

Number of Days

365

Annual Dumping Fee

Php

56,328.09

Potential Income from Vermicomposting Method

Php

119,140.00

Annual Dumping Fee Cost

Php

(56,328.09)

Opportunity Cost/Savings

Php

62,811.91

In computing the potential profit of the composting methods of the two

barangays, it was presumed that the composts generated by the two composting

methods are sold during the year.

Based on the computed projected profit of the two composting methods,

the potential income generated by the takakura method is greater than the

potential income generated by the vermi method of composting. Even though the

takakura method has a greater initial cost, the barangay placed a higher mark up

on the cost to be able to recover the cost spent in undertaking the composting

method.

The researchers also computed the cost forgone if the two barangays

would conduct the two composting methods. Based on the interview conducted

with the BEOs’ of Barangay Talamban and Barangay Kalunasan the researchers

learned that the government would spend PHP 700 per ton of garbage thrown to

the private landfill in Concolacion. This computation of the projected profit could

help the government in assessing the benefits of applying composting to the

barangays of Cebu.

APPENDIX B

TRANSMITTAL LETTER

February 18, 2014

Mr. Randy Navarro

Assistant Department Head

Cebu City Environment and Natural Resources Office

Cebu City Government

  • 2 nd Floor Department of Public Services (DPS) Building

Ramos St., Cebu City

Dear Mr. Navarro:

I am Carlos Q. Tabada, a Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting (BS-

MA) from the University of San Carlos.

One of our thesis subjects, AC-527, entitled “Management Synthesis”, requires us

to conduct a study on a selected topic. In this case, our topic is about the cost and

benefits of the Takakura Method and Vermicomposting method of composting.

We would like to ask for your technical assistance in conducting our said study.

Thank you very much.

Respectfully yours,

Carlos Q. Tabada

APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW AND SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

QUESTIONNAIRE of LGU EMPLOYEES

VERMICOMPOSTING METHOD

1.) When did the implementation of the Vermicomposting Method begin?

What barangay was the pilot barangay for the implementation?

2.) Who introduced vermi composting in Cebu?

3.) What is the process for the implementation Vermicomposting Method at

the barangay level and/or the household level?

4.) Are there barangays who implement the stated composting method in the

household level? If yes, what are the names of those barangays and how

many households took part in the implementation?

5.) What department is in charge for overseeing the implementation?

6.) Who is responsible for the distribution of the materials for the

implementation of the Vermicomposting Method?

7.) What are the costs for such materials?

8.) How much is the budget given by the City government to the selected

barangays in implementing the Vermi composting method?

9.) How much is the usual selling price of the by-products ?

10.)

Does the government have a specific distribution channel when

selling the by-products of this compositng method?

11.)

Has there been any reduction in the amount of waste disposed by

the implementing barangays? In what amount?

12.)

According to those who have implemented the Vermi and

Takakura method of composting, which composting method do they prefer

and why?

QUESTIONNAIRE- TAKAKURA METHOD

1.) When did the implementation of the Takakura Method begin? What

barangay was the pilot barangay for the implementation?

2.) Who introduced the Takakura method in Cebu?

3.) What is the process for the implementation Takakura Method at the

barangay level and/or the household level?

4.) Are there barangays who implement the stated composting method in

the household level? If yes, what are the names of those barangays and

how many households took part in the implementation?

5.) What department is in charge for overseeing the implementation?

6.) Who is responsible for the distribution of the materials for the

implementation of the Takakura Method?

7.) What are the costs for such materials?

8.) How much is the usual selling price of the by-products?

9.) Does the government have a specific distribution channel when selling

the by-products of this compositng method?

10.)

How much is the budget given by the City government to the

selected barangays in implementing the Takakura composting method?

11.)

Has there been any reduction in the amount of waste disposed by

the implementing barangays? In what amount?

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE BARANGAY

  • 1. How many households do you have in your barangay? (Demographic profile)

  • 2. How does your barangay collect garbage?

  • 3. Percentage of biodegradable wastes collected

  • 4. Among the biodegradable wastes collected, what percentage compose food wastes?

  • 5. What are the types of composting methods which you implement in your barangay?

  • 6. Who introduced the Takakura and Vermi method to your barangay?

  • 7. How many years have you been applying the Takakura and Vermi method?

  • 8. What are the advantages of using the Takakura and Vermi method of composting?

  • 9. What are the disadvantages of using the Takakura and Vermi method of composting?

    • 10. When compared with each other what method is preferred by the Barangay?

    • 11. What is the volume of garbage that was collected before undergoing Takakura and Vermi Composting?

    • 12. Reduction of biodegradable wastes upon implementing the Takakura and Vermi method

13.

How many of these households implement the Takakura and Vermi

method of composting?

  • 14. How do you make composts using the Takakura and Vermi method?

  • 15. What are the costs of undergoing the Takakura and Vermi Method?

  • 16. What are the by-products of the Takakura and Vermi Method?

  • 17. How will these by-products be used?

  • 18. To whom do you sell these by-products?

  • 19. How much is the selling price of these by-products?

  • 20. Is there a distribution channel when selling these composts?

  • 21. Where do you get the materials to be used in the Takakura and Vermi method of composting?

  • 22. How many kilos of composts of Takakura and Vermi does one kilo of garbage make?

  • 23. Is there an ordinance about the implementation of the Takakura and Vermi method of composting?

  • 24. Will you recommend the Takakura and Vermi method of composting to other barangays?

University of San Carlos School of Business and Economics This questionnaire serves as an instrument to

University of San Carlos School of Business and Economics

This questionnaire serves as an instrument to the research paper “A Comparative Study

on the the Costs and Benefits of Using the Takakura Method and Vermi Composting in

Barangay Kalunasan and Talamban”. The information gathered from this questionnaire is solely for research purposes.

  • 1. Operation

 

Takakura Method

Vermi composting Method

Which is easier to perform?

   

Which requires many tools and/or equipments/materials?

   

Which takes a longer time to compose?

   

Which would generate the better quality of output?

   

Which method do you prefer?

   
  • 2. Maintenance

 

Takakura Method

Vermicompost Method

Which has simpler cleaning procedures?

   
  • 3. Cost/Profit

 

Takakura Method

Vermicompost Method

Which has higher initial costs?

   

Which has higher ongoing costs?

   

Which composting method would allow you to earn higher profits?

   

Which composting method would allow you to find more buyers of its by- product?

   

4.

Influence to the community

 

Takakura Method

Which is easier to implement?

 

Which is easier to adopt and practice?

 

Which composting method would cause hygienic problems if not done properly?

 

Which training is more difficult?

 

Which composting method would create more unpleasant odours?

 

Would you recommend the implementation of this method to other barangays?

 

Vermi composting Method of Composting

  • 5. Effects to the Community

 

Takakura Method

Vermi composting Method of Composting

 

YES

NO

YES

NO

Is the waste minimized?

       

Did everyone in the community participate in this practice?

       

Is this method still being practiced up to this date by the households?

       

Name of respondent: _________________________________

Position in the Government: ___________________________

Barangay/office: ____________________________________

Signature: ________________________

57

APPENDIX D

DOCUMENTATION

APPENDIX D DOCUMENTATION Vermi Composting Bed in CESET 58

Vermi Composting Bed in CESET

APPENDIX D DOCUMENTATION Vermi Composting Bed in CESET 58
Interview with Ms. Consolacion Pa ñ a of CESET With the staff of CESET 59

Interview with Ms. Consolacion Paña of CESET

Interview with Ms. Consolacion Pa ñ a of CESET With the staff of CESET 59

With the staff of CESET

With the staff of CESET With one of the BOE; taken at Brgy. Apas 60

With the staff of CESET

With the staff of CESET With one of the BOE; taken at Brgy. Apas 60

With one of the BOE; taken at Brgy. Apas

Brief background of the Takakura Method that was shown to us during our Talamban Visit 61

Brief background of the Takakura Method that was shown to us during our Talamban Visit

Vermi Composting Bed in Talamban 62

Vermi Composting Bed in Talamban

Vermi Composting Bed in Talamban 63

Vermi Composting Bed in Talamban

Vermi Compost

Takakura Compost

Vermi Compost Takakura Compost 64
Takakura Method in Talamban Picture taken with Mr. Rene Rosales 65

Takakura Method in Talamban

Takakura Method in Talamban Picture taken with Mr. Rene Rosales 65

Picture taken with Mr. Rene Rosales

Picture taken with Mr. Randy Navarro of CENRO 66
Picture taken with Mr. Randy Navarro of CENRO 66

Picture taken with Mr. Randy Navarro of CENRO

Interview with Mr. Casiano Catapang 67
Interview with Mr. Casiano Catapang 67

Interview with Mr. Casiano Catapang

Picture taken during our interview with Mr. Casiano Catapang of Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water Foundation

Picture taken during our interview with Mr. Casiano Catapang of Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water Foundation Inc.

Picture taken during our interview with Mr. Casiano Catapang of Cebu Uniting for Sustainable Water Foundation

APPENDIX E

SECRETARY’S REPORT

During the second week of June, the researchers’ instructor made them

research on references that talk about food wastes. The references may come

from books, journals, websites and other sources of reading materials. Among the

gathered topics, they selected three topics to further research on.

The first topic that the researchers had was on the applicability of

Takakura Method of Composting in Barangay San Antonio. Due to time

constraints and inexistent documents in the barangay, they changed the study to

the cost and benefits of using Takakura Method of composting in Barangay

Kamputhaw. When the researchers’ did their scoping in the barangay, they came

to know that Barangay Kamputhaw did not have any documents regarding the

implementation of the said method and the said barangay already stopped

implementing the said method. Barangay Kamputhaw referred Barangay Lahug to

the researchers. When the group went to Barangay Lahug, the researchers found

out that the Barangay also stopped using the method because of the elections.

Although they said they are planning to implement again the said method, there is

still no assurance that they will do so.

The researchers came to a conclusion that they cannot proceed with any of

the topics that have been made so the researchers decided to conduct a thorough

scoping in other barangays. Upon doing so, they discovered about vermi

composting. It is another composting method besides the Takakura Method that is

prevalently used by the other barangays, like, Talamban and Kalunasan. Because

of this discovery, the researchers decided to make a comparative study of

Takakaura Method and Vermi Composting in Barangay Kalunasan and Talamban.

In order for the researchers to meet the deadline, they gathered the

information needed separately. The researchers had separate places to go to. In

every place/barangay that they visit, the researchers interviewed the Barangay

Environmental Officers and the Barangay Captain. The researchers also visited

some local government units, like CESET, CUSW and CCENRO. The

researchers interviewed the head of these local government units and gathered

more information about the two composting method. The Barangay

Environmental Officers also answered survey questionnaires about the study. The

heads of the local government units and BEOs are our respective respondents for

our study.

As the researchers gathered the data needed for the study, they come up

with some conclusions and recommendations in relation to the study conducted.

One conclusion made was that, the two barangays, which were the objects of the

study is different in terms of what composting method is more cost-effective and

beneficial. Barangay Talamban prefers the Vermi Composting since it entails less

labor and it has lesser equipment and materials to use as compared to Takakura

Method. Although both methods produce the same output, Barangay Talamban

still prefers Vermi since it does not need a very long time to process and to

produce its end product. Another conclusion made was, based from the local

government units interviewed, they prefer the Takakura Method since it gains

more profit than Vermi composts because of the high market value of the

Takakura Method. The researchers recommend using the Takakura Method since

it is odorless and does not consume a big space. This method is advisable to be

used by households and other barangays who do not use a specific method of

composting. Another recommendation made was, that the barangays, should have

proper documentation as to the spending of the Takakura and Vermi method. In

this way, they can monitor the costs and profits gained by using either of the two

methods.

APPENDIX F

TREASURER’S REPORT

This is the summary of expenses of each researchers in the process of making the

study

 

AMOUNT

Pre-Oral Defense Contribution for

20

printing

Pre-Oral Defense Contribution for

33.50

panelist

After Pre-Oral Defense Contribution for

25

printing

Final Oral Defense Contribution for

250

Room Reservation

Final Oral Defense Contribution for

50

Panelist

Final Oral Defense Contribution for

printing and hardbound

50

TOTAL

P 403.50

P 403.50 is the amount in which each researchers contributed which

multiply by 8 and the total contribution made by the researchers’ amounts to P

4,438.50

APPENDIX G

CURRICULUM VITAE

CALAG, ROSA CARIDAD BELOY

307-D Junquera Ext., Cogon Ramos, Cebu City

Cellular #: 0917-306-1565

E-mail Address: che2_calag@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 19 years old

Birthdate: April 10, 1994

Birthplace: Sta. Margarita, Western Samar

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

CALAG, ROSA CARIDAD BELOY 307-D Junquera Ext., Cogon Ramos, Cebu City Cellular #: 0917-306-1565 E-mail Address:

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

Calbayog City National High School

(2006-2010)

Barangay Hamorawon, Calbayog City, Western Samar

Elementary:

Calbayog Pilot Central School Calbayog City Sped

Center

(2000-2006)

Rueda St. Calbayog City, Western Samar

SKILLS

Knowledgeable in basic accounting and basic computer applications

Proficient in written and oral communication in English

Adopts quickly to changes and challenges on the job

Highly cooperative and easy to work with.

74

ENGLIS, REYMAR MABINI

Canada Drive Tawagan 1 Sirao, Cebu City

Cellular #: 0923-4599-707

E-mail Address: reymarenglis@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 19 years old

Birthdate: November 6, 1994

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Male

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

ENGLIS, REYMAR MABINI Canada Drive Tawagan 1 Sirao, Cebu City Cellular #: 0923-4599-707 E-mail Address: reymarenglis@yahoo.com

College:

University of San Carlos (USC)

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

Guba National High School (GNHS) formerly Arias

Academy

(2006-2010)

Guba Cebu City

Elementary:

Sirao Integrated School (SIS)

(2000-2006)

Canada Drive Tawagan1 Sirao Cebu City

SKILLS

Good in English (both written and oral)

Has adept knowledge in General Accounting

Proficient in MS Word, MS PowerPoint and MS Excel

Highly adaptive in any workplace

Trainable

Computer literate

Basic knowledge in Accounting

Good oral and communication skills

Good leadership skills

75

FELECIO, IRENE JOYCE TUTOR

307-D Junquera Ext., Cogon Ramos, Cebu City

Cellular #: 0905-690-3242

E-mail Address: ijfelz@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 19 years old

Birthdate: April 5, 1994

Birthplace: Abaca, Mabini, Bohol

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

FELECIO, IRENE JOYCE TUTOR 307-D Junquera Ext., Cogon Ramos, Cebu City Cellular #: 0905-690-3242 E-mail Address:

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

Holy Spirit School

(2006-2010)

Remolador St., Tagbilaran City, Bohol

Elementary:

Abaca Elementary School

(2000-2006)

Abaca, Mabini, Bohol

SKILLS

Good in English (both written and oral)

Has adept knowledge in General Accounting

Proficient in MS Word, MS PowerPoint and MS Excel

Highly adaptive in any workplace

JACABAN, KERVIN

Upper Camparang Kalunasan Cebu City

09323524033

jacabankervin_16@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 20

Birthdate: March 16, 1993

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Male

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

JACABAN, KERVIN Upper Camparang Kalunasan Cebu City 09323524033 jacabankervin_16@yahoo.com PERSONAL DATA Age: 20 Birthdate: March 16,

College:

University of San Carlos (USC)

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

Ramon Duterte Mem. Nat’l High School

(2006-2010)

V. Rama Ave, Cebu City

Elementary:

Kalunasan Elem. School

(1999-2006)

Oprra, Unit 4, Kalunasan, Cebu City, Cebu

SKILLS

People- and customer-centric with ability to discover creative solutions

and troubleshoot problems.

Effective team player, yet equally effective working solo.

Life-long learner with ability to reach goals.

Computer literate and savvy.

Excellent in communication skills preferably in English.

Willing to travel and work on shifts.

77

NATIVIDAD, JANINA FLORDELIZ

325 B Gen. Maxilom Ext, Barangay Carreta, Cebu City

Cellular #: 0932-877-2835

E-mail Address: janfnatividad@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 2-0 years old

Birthdate: January 7, 1994

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

NATIVIDAD, JANINA FLORDELIZ 325 B Gen. Maxilom Ext, Barangay Carreta, Cebu City Cellular #: 0932-877-2835 E-mail

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

Abellana National School

(2006-2010)

Osmena Boulevard, Cebu City

Elementary:

Carreta Elementary School

(2000-2006)

General Maxilom Extension, Cebu City

SKILLS

Proficient in written and oral communication in English

Knowledgeable in basic accounting and basic computer applications

Adopts quickly to changes in the workplace

Minimal supervision

78

OPPUS, DIANA ROSE GUEVARRA

Tacan, Ibo Lapu-lapu City

+639- 22 387 - 5059

oppusdiana@gmail.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 20 years old

Birthdate: July 27, 1993

Birthplace: Boac Marinduque

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

OPPUS, DIANA ROSE GUEVARRA Tacan, Ibo Lapu-lapu City +639- 22 – 387 - 5059 oppusdiana@gmail.com PERSONAL

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

  • 4 th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

Science and Technology Education Center

(2006-2010)

Basak Lapu-lapu City

  • 1 st year to 3 rd year High School

EMD Carmelite School Foundation, Inc.

Buaya Lapu-lapu City

  • 4 th year High School

Elementary:

Ibo Elementary School

(2000-2006)

Ibo Lapu-lapu City

SKILLS

Good at communicating and interacting with others

Manage pressure and time effectively

Proficient in English, oral and written

Open to new learnings and developments

Motivated to work hard

79

PABELLO, MELODY ANNE DUERO

#707 Toog St. Brgy. Doña F. Mejia, Ormoc City,Leyte

0922-833-5191

melodypabello@gmail.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 19

Birthdate: March 28,1994

Birthplace: Ormoc City, Leyte

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

PABELLO, MELODY ANNE DUERO #707 Toog St. Brgy. Do ñ a F. Mejia, Ormoc City,Leyte 0922-833-5191

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

St. Paul’s School of Ormoc Foundation, Inc.

(2006-2010)

Ormoc City, Leyte

Elementary:

St. Paul’s School of Ormoc Foundation, Inc.

(2000-2006)

Ormoc City, Leyte

SKILLS

Self-reliant and determined to achieve goals

Can work under pressure

Strong competitive drive and work ethic to succeed

Team oriented

80

PASTOR, MARIA SAMANTHA

Cambuntan, Carcar City, Cebu

Cellular #: 0923-912-2989

E-mail Address: mariasampastor@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 20

Birthdate: August 5, 1993

Birthplace: Carcar City, Cebu

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

PASTOR, MARIA SAMANTHA Cambuntan, Carcar City, Cebu Cellular #: 0923-912-2989 E-mail Address: mariasampastor@yahoo.com PERSONAL DATA Age:

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

St. Catherine’s College

(2006-2010)

Carcar City, Cebu

Elementary:

Mother Mary’s Children School

(2000-2006)

Dapdap, Carcar City, Cebu

SKILLS

Equipped with knowledge in accounting and auditing principles and

practices

Has the adequate knowledge in MS Office programs

Has good oral and written communications skills

Adopts quickly to changes in the job

Has good leadership skills

PECATO, JEAN KRISTINE ANTONIO

1-3A Zone Paliya Jayme St., Paknaan, Mandaue City

Cellular #: 0923-746-5453

E-mail Address: jeanpecato@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 20 years old

Birthdate: June 22, 1993

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

PECATO, JEAN KRISTINE ANTONIO 1-3A Zone Paliya Jayme St., Paknaan, Mandaue City Cellular #: 0923-746-5453 E-mail

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School:

St. Joseph’s Academy

(2006-2010)

S.B. Cabahug St., Centro, Mandaue City

Elementary:

St. Joseph’s Academy

(2000-2006)

S.B. Cabahug St., Centro, Mandaue City

SKILLS

Good in English (both written and oral)

Has adept knowledge in General Accounting

Proficient in MS Word, MS PowerPoint and MS Excel

Highly adaptive in any workplace

Can work with minimum supervision

82

TABADA, CARLOS Q.

  • 888 Peacock St., Camella Homes Phase 2, Lapu-lapu City

09173233988

carlostabada@gmail.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age

: 20

Birthdate

: September 26, 1993

Birthplace

: Cebu City

Sex

: Male

Civil Status

: Single

Religion

: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

TABADA, CARLOS Q. 888 Peacock St., Camella Homes Phase 2, Lapu-lapu City 09173233988 carlostabada@gmail.com PERSONAL DATA

College

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

 

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

High School

Sacred Heart School-Ateneo de Cebu

(2006-2010)

H. Abellana St., Canduman, Mandaue City

Silver Medalist, I.T Awardee

Elementary

Sacred Heart School-Ateneo de Cebu

(2000-2006)

H. Abellana St., Canduman, Mandaue City

Silver Medalist

SKILLS

Proficient in oral and written communication

Determined, Disciplined, Organized

Computer-literate

Highly literate in Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint

Independent

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VELAYO, FLORDELIS CARMEL MARIE BALVEZ

Address: VELAYO’S COMPOUND, BACAYAN CEBU CITY

Contact Number: 09432721310

E-mail: hannon_flor93@yahoo.com

VELAYO, FLORDELIS CARMEL MARIE BALVEZ Address: VELAYO’S COMPOUND, BACAYAN CEBU CITY Contact Number: 09432721310 E-mail: hannon_flor93@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA

Age: 20 years old

Birthdate: July 20, 1993

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Female

Civil Status: Single

Religion: Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College:

University of San Carlos

(2010-present)

P. del Rosario St., Cebu City

4

th year, Bachelor of Science in Management Accounting

Achievement:

Dean’s Lister

High School:

St. Theresa’s College - Cebu

(2006-2010)

Gen. Maxilom Avenue, Cebu City

Honors Received:

5 th In academic excellence with 1 st Honors

Elementary:

St. Theresa’s College - Cebu

(2000-2006)

Gen. Maxilom Avenue, Cebu City

SKILLS

Computer literate

ability to listen, write, and speak effectively

analytical

flexible/can manage multiple priorities

ability to work with others in a professional manner

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