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Furnaces Power Quality Problems

A. Alzate, Member, IEEE, A. Escobar, Student Member, IEEE and J. J. Marulanda, Student

Member, IEEE

quality degradation in power industrial lines. Their high

nonlinearity and time varying characteristics produce high

harmonic distortion as well as voltage fluctuations.

This paper describes both the modeling and application of a

D-STATCOM for power quality analysis and its advantage to

mitigate power quality problems introduced by the arc furnace

operation. Both the D-STATCOM and the arc furnace are

modeled in PSCAD-EMTDC. Using voltage, current and power

measurements at the point of common coupling (PCC) of a

30MVA steel mill, both arc furnace non-linear characteristic and

stochastic behavior, during the metal melting process, are

modeled and adjusted.

The D-STATCOM presented uses a nonlinear control

strategyadaptive hysteresis bandto compensate load reactive

power variations. The dq0 theory is used to refer the three-phase

system into a dq0 frame to achieve the analysis.

The results show the advantage of using the D-STATCOM at

PCC to mitigate power quality issues.

Index TermsFurnaces, harmonic distortion, modeling, static

VAr compensators, reactive power control.

I. INTRODUCTION

recent years for utilities since they must bring high-quality

power to customers. Most power utilities face the problem that

power electronics based loads and non-linear loads are main

cause of power quality degradation. Arc furnaces are widely

used in modern steel mills and provide a relatively simple way

for melting metals. They are used in the production of

aluminum, copper, lead and high purity steel among others.

However, arc furnaces are recognized as one of the main

causes of power quality degradation, introducing voltage

flicker in power systems, particularly at the PCC. For instance,

flicker causes light fluctuations, resulting in annoyance to

other users depending on its frequency and magnitude.

Voltage flicker severity depends on both the frequency and the

voltage amplitude variation at the PCC. Commonly, small

This work was supported by the agreement between COLCIENCIASCODENSA-UTP for the project 111046721783.

Alfonso Alzate is Professor of Departamento de Ingeniera Elctrica de la

Universidad Tecnolgica de Pereira (email: alalzate@utp.edu.co).

Jesser J. Marulanda works in the Grupo de Investigacin en Electrnica de

Potencia de la Universidad Tecnolgica de Pereira (email:

jjmarulanda@utp.edu.co).

Andrs Escobar Meja is Professor of Departamento de Ingeniera

Elctrica de la Universidad Tecnolgica de Pereira and Ph.D student of

University of Arkansas, USA. (email: andreses1@utp.edu.co).

978-1-4244-8417-1/11/$26.00 2011

enough to be noticed. In addition to generating voltage flicker,

arc furnaces are sources of current harmonics due to the

nonlinear characteristic of the electric arc and its stochastic

operation as well as inter-harmonics components. As a

consequence of the electric arc operation, malfunctions in

electric equipment on adjacent feeders may result.

To provide technical and economical solutions to electric

arc furnace operation problems, both final customers and

utilities are implementing power electronics based devices to

minimize those problems. Typically, the static synchronous

compensator D-STATCOM and the static VAr compensator

SVC are used to compensate for reactive power fluctuations

[1].

The D-STATCOM is an excellent cost-effective solution to

reduce the impact of non-linear load operation in power

systems [1][2]. This has been installed in steel plants and

other high-polluted electrical environments offering many

benefits. In reference [2] differences between the DSTATCOM and the static VAr compensator (SVC) are

provided for certain power system.

This research work presents the advantages of the DSTATCOM to mitigate the impact of arc furnace operations at

the PCC. Section II describes the behavior of the arc furnace

based on its non-linear nature represented by the V-I

characteristic which is derived from the input currents and the

voltage applied to the arc furnace. Section III describes the DSTATCOM structure and the non-linear control technique

used to compensate for power quality problems providing

stability and robustness at PCC. Finally, in section IV the

results of the simulation are presented using PSCAD. The

appendix section presents some data that were used to achieve

the simulation.

II. ARC FURNACE MODEL

The three-phase PSCAD-EMTDC model of the electrical

distribution system feeding a steel plant is presented in Fig. 1.

The steel plant is fed by a high-voltage line and the arc

furnace is connected to the utility through transformers T1

(110/13.8 kV High-Voltage/Medium-Voltage) and T2

(13.8/0.55 kV Medium-Voltage/Low-Voltage) as is shown.

The utility is modeled as its Thevenin equivalent (ideal

voltage source in series with short-circuit impedance).

Transformer T1 is rated at 30 MVA with 7.65% of shortcircuit voltage and no-load loses count since its rated at high

voltage.

Fig. 1. Arc furnace model in PSCAD. The D-STATCOM is located at PCC to compensate voltage fluctuations.

when the arc furnace is operating and fixed capacitors are used

to inject reactive power. Note that the D-STATCOM has been

including at the capacitor bus. Transformer T2 is rated at 42

MVA with 5.75% of short-circuit voltage. This transformer

has a tap changer at the secondary side in order to change the

furnace input power.

The electric arc furnace model is complex and quit difficult

to obtain due to its operation. Fast variations in the input

current to the arc furnace during melting process are mainly

caused by changes in the arc length, which result from

electrodynamic forces and variation in electrode positions [3].

The non-linear characteristic of the arc furnace is shown in Fig

2 and is presented because after the arc ignition has been

started, the anode-cathode voltage remains constant while the

current is changing in time.

This research work uses the arc furnace model based on

energy conservation principle developed in [4] and uses the

non-linear differential equation (1) which is described in [5]

[6]:

and is determined using (2):

(2)

of proportionality for the model. The arc furnace dynamics is

introduced by the deterministic, Gaussian probability

distribution and chaotic variation of [ 7]:

(3)

variations, , , and are modulation factors, is a

random signal with normal probabilistic distribution and is

a chaotic signal in the frequency range of 3-25Hz. Using the

data from Table I and setting , ,

, the current waveforms at the primary side of the

transformer T1 are presented in Fig. 3.

TABLE I.

(1)

and are proportionality constants used to adjust the

simulated model to the real model obtained from a real steel

facility [7].

(rad/s)

MODEL PARAMETERS

PHASE A

0.040

0.056

0.084

20

PHASE C

0.040

0.070

0.056

20

PHASE C

0.040

0.084

0.070

20

by the arc furnace measured at PCC.

400

ia

ib

ic

300

0.5

100

Current (A)

Varc pu

200

-0.5

-100

-200

-1

-1

-0.5

0.5

-300

Iarc pu

-400

9.6

9.65

9.7

9.75

9.8

Time (s)

9.85

3

25

24

23

Q (MVAR)

22

21

20

Q~

19

18

17

16

15

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

9.5

10

Time (s)

which results from voltage variations at the point of common

coupling. This instrument is used to measure flicker and is

based on the international standard IEC-61000-4-15 [8].

Before doing flicker measurements, the model is tested

using signals specified in IEC standard. This standard provides

the magnitude and the frequency of six rectangular modulating

signals for which the value of the PST should be 1.00 0.05.

Table II lists in the first row the simulated PST values for the

phase voltages at PCC. In the second row the values of the

PST99% obtained from real measurements are listed. The PST99%

is obtained from the cumulative probability curve of a total of

1,008 samples taken during whole week with a sample time of

10 seconds.

reactive power fluctuations of the load connected at the PCC

are reduced.

TABLE II.

Simulated

PST99% Measured

PHASE A

1.75

1.72

PHASE C

1.57

1.78

PHASE C

1.70

1.64

dynamic of the system.

III. D-STATCOM MODELING AND CONTROL

One of the principal advantages of this FACTS device is

that it has the capability to adapt by itself to changes that may

occur in the electric power system, such as voltage flickers

and harmonics, generated by loads like the electric arc

furnace. The D-STATCOM also has the advantage over other

FACTS devices that it minimizes the possible occurrence of

resonances, reduces harmonics, and balances the voltage at the

PCC. In short, the D-STATCOM is suitable to reduce voltage

fluctuations below required limits by power quality standards.

The simplified equivalent circuit for the D-STATCOM is

depicted in Figure 5. The circuit has a voltage source inverter

(VSI) with a dc-link capacitor which value is set in 100mF to

keep the inverter input voltage constant. The fundamental

component of the converter output voltage is represented by

the voltage source. The converter is connected in parallel

with the arc furnace using a coupling inductor which

usually represents the coupling transformer. The parameters of

the coupling transformer are listed in the Appendix section at

the end of this document.

Due to the fact that the inverter bandwidth is large enough,

it acts as an ideal voltage source that can be used to control the

instantaneous current injected in the node where the

compensator is connected.

The Park transform [9] is applied to the three-phase load

currents to determine the equivalent which rotates at

fundamental frequency speed (60Hz) in the same direction

than positive sequence voltages. In the new dq reference frame

the current associate to the fundamental component are

constants while other components associated with harmonic

distortion and the inverse sequence fluctuate in time. These

fluctuating signals can be avoided through a filtering process

[10]. Equations (4) and (5) describe this process:

(4)

(5)

with the d axis is related with the active power whereas the dc

component associate with the q axis is related with the

reactive power. In order to determine the compensation

currents , required to improve the power quality, it

is assumed that the distribution system provides the active and

reactive power components plus the capacitor current in the

inverter dc-bus (losses current). So, the D-STATCOM affords

to the system the alternate current component. The dq load

currents before the installation of the compensator are defined

in equations (6), (7):

(6)

(7)

diagram, the compensation currents are determined using both

to provide over-current protections to the inverter. The

magnitude of the vector can be written in terms of the dq

currents in the new reference frame:

(8)

determined by equation (9),

(9)

represented by and depends on by the saturation block.

Projecting the on the dq axes, is possible to get the current

that must be injecting by the compensator as is presented in

(10) and (11):

(10)

(11)

using the Park inverse matrix is possible to get the threephase reference currents that are applied to the inverter.

B. PWM using hysteresis adaptive band

One of the most effective techniques used by shunt PWMVSI compensators is the hysteresis current control.

very fast dynamic response [11] when a transient phenomenon

affects the load; however, the commutation frequency varies at

the fundamental frequency which can cause erroneous

operation in the inverter and an increase in losses. To

minimize commutated frequency variations in the hysteresis

control technique, the control of the current by an adaptive

band has been proposed in [12]. This control strategy changes

the hysteresis band width HB in order to keep constant the

inverter commutations time t1 and t2. After HB is determined

by the current control strategy, its applied to a hysteresis

comparator circuit which produces pulses that trigger the

inverter semiconductor devices.

Figure 7 shows voltage and current signals that are

modulated by pulse width for the phase link inductance. The

upper inverter semiconductor device is activated when current

reach the lower hysteresis band at point 1. The lower

inverter semiconductor device is activated when current

reach the upper hysteresis band at point 2 and so on.

The band-width HB can be determined using the

commutation frequency (12 kHZ), the inverter dc voltage

(6.8 kV), the instantaneous ac voltage at the

compensator point and the derivative of the compensating

current as is described in equation (12):

(12)

the other phases. are equal in magnitude but

shifted.

C. DC voltage control

The main function of this controller is to keep a constant dc

value in the inverter. In order to do this a PI controller is

implemented to regulate the D-STATCOM losses current. The

proportional gain of the PI controller is calculated based on

energy conservation principle [13] and is:

Fig. 7. Current and voltage waveforms for the hysteresis current control.

(13)

The capacitor is used for smoothing the reactive power that

is consumed by the load. This is sized using the energy

conservation principle as well as the fact that the compensator

either injects or absorb the fluctuating reactive power resulting

from the arc furnace operation [14]. The capacitor is sized

having into account the following situations:

1. An increase in the load current fundamental component:

When the load current increases, the energy storage in the

capacitor must be release fast enough to compensate for the

reactive power is demanding for the load. For this particular

case, the capacitor is sized as follows:

400

ia

ic

200

Current (A)

100

-100

-200

-300

-400

9.6

9.65

9.7

9.75

9.8

9.85

Time (s)

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

Q~

18

17

(14)

16

15

inverter dc side (set up at 6.8 kV) when the compensator

injects energy into the power grid. is the maximum

increment in the load current fundamental component which

occurs when the arc furnace electrodes are in short-circuit.

2. A reduction in the load current fundamental component: In

this case the increase of the load impedance magnitude is

considered, which means that the load now is demanding less

current and reactive power. In order to maintain the reactive

power constant, the capacitor must be sized in such way that it

can store the energy required for the load during its operation.

The capacitor size is given by:

Figure 8 shows the three-phase currents at the primary side

of transformer T1 once the D-STATCOM is connected at the

13.8 kV bus. The compensator minimizes current fluctuations

by injecting reactive power. The reactive power flowing

through transformer T1 is presented in Fig. 9.

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

9.5

10

the reactive power characteristic is smoothed improving the

power quality of the arc furnace. Comparing Fig. 9 and Fig. 4,

it is clear how much reactive power is compensated.

Figure 10 shows the PST index for the 115 kV bus with and

without the D-STATCOM. When compensation is applied, the

compensator has the capability to mitigate reactive power

variations caused by arc furnace operation.

The voltage profile at PCC where the DS-STATCOM is

connected is presented in Fig. 11.

(15)

capacitor (10 kV) and is the arc furnace fundamental

current deviation during arc furnace operation.

The capacitor is selected as the maximum value between

and .

Time (s)

ib

300

Q (MVAR)

voltage fundamental component, 16.67ms, and is the

voltage amplitude at the compensator connection point 7.96

kV. When the control error, defined as the difference between

the measured voltage and the reference voltage at the inverter

dc-bus, is large and positive, the current losses

increase reducing the control error. When the control error is

negative, the compensator injects current into the power grid

to maintain the reference voltage constant by discharging the

capacitor

Compensation

No Compesation

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

9.5

10

Time (s)

Fig. 10. The flicker severity index (PST) at the 115 kV bus indicates how

much the power quality has been improved due to D-STATCOM operation.

6

1.04

Parameters of the transformer use to connect the DSTATCOM to the power grid.

1.03

Compensation

1.02

Base operation frequency = 60Hz

Winding #1 Type: Delta

Winding #2 Type: Delta

Positive sequence leakage reactance = 3.0744 mH

Winding 1 Line to line voltage (RMS) = 13.8 kV

Winding 2 Line to line voltage (RMS) = 3.5 kV

1.01

1

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.96

10

Time (s)

VII. REFERENCES

[1]

transformer T1 location is quantified by the total harmonic

distortion index (THD) which is presented in Table III.

[2]

TABLE III

THD (%) COMPARISON ONCE COMPENSATION IS APPLIED

No compensated

Compensated

PHASE A

14.96

7.63

PHASE B

13.61

7.55

PHASE C

12.83

7.88

[3]

[4]

[5]

V. CONCLUSIONS

The arc furnace proposed model is suitable to assess the

impact of ac arc furnaces on power quality which is especially

helpful in the planning stage of new plants on new distribution

systems. The model aids in evaluating the performance of

compensation systems such as D-STATCOM and evaluating

their advantages to solve power quality problems.

The results obtained by simulations validate the advantage

of the D-STATCOM to mitigate the power quality problems

generated by arc furnaces operation.

In addition to reducing the PST index, the compensator also

minimizes reactive power variations generated by the load and

improves voltage profiles level at PCC.

The adaptive hysteresis band used as a current control

technique for the D-STATCOM is a useful control strategy

which permits operating at a constant switching frequency,

minimizing switching losses and reducing total harmonic

distortion at PCC.

[6]

VI. APPENDIX

[14]

PSCAD and presented in Fig. 6.

Phase locked loop

Proportional gain = 50.0

Integral gain = 500.0

Off-set angle to PLL = 1.57079 rad

Low pass filter

Gain = 1.0

Damping Ratio = 0.2

Characteristic Frequency = 2.0Hz

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

statcom for voltage sag and swell reduction, in Proc. IEEE Power

Engineering Society General Meeting, vol. 1, pp. 278-282, 2005.

A. G. Cerrada, P. G. Gonzlez, R. Collantes, T. Gmez, and J. Anzola,

Comparison of thyristor-controlled reactors and voltage-source

inverters for compensation of flicker caused by arc furnaces, IEEE

Trans. On Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 1225-1231, Oct. 2000.

G. C. Montanari, M. Loggini, A. Cavallani and D. Zaninelli, Arc

furnace model for the study of flicker compensation in electrical

networks, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 9, pp. 2026-2036, Oct.

1994.

M. Anxo Prieto and M. P. Donsin, An improved time domain arc

furnace model for harmonic analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.

19, pp. 367-373, Jan. 2004.

O. Ozgun and A. Abur, Flicker Study Using a Novel Arc Furnace

Model, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 1158-1163, Oct.

2002.

A. Medina, M. G. Martinez and C. R. Fuerte, Application of bifurcation

theory to assess nonlinear oscillations produced by ac electric arc

furnaces, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 20, pp. 801-806, April.

2005

A. Alzate, J. Marulanda and A. Escobar Modelado de un horno de arco

elctrico para estudio de calidad de energa, Andescon 2010, May.

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FlickermeterFunctional and Testing Specifications, CEI, IEC Publ.

61000415, 1997.

P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S.D. Sudhoff, Analysis of Electric

Machinery. New York: IEEE Press and McGraw-Hill. Inc., 1995.

[10] M. Ucar, E. Ozdemir, "Control of a 3-phase 4-leg active power

filter under non-ideal mains voltage condition," Electric power systems

research, vol. 78, pp. 58-73, Jan. 2007.

M. KAZMIERKOWSKI, M. Malesani, "Current control techniques for

three-phase voltage source PWM converters," IEEE Trans. On Industrial

Electronics, vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 691-703, Oct. 1998.

BK. Bose, "An adaptive hysteresis band current control technique of a

voltage-fed PWM inverter for machine drive system," IEEE Trans. On

Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 402-408, Oct. 1990.

A. L. Pigazo, Mtodo de Control de Filtros Activos de Potencia

Paralelo Tolerante a Perturbaciones de la Tensin de Red, Tesis

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with Reduced Energy Storage Capacitor, IEEE Proc.-Electr. Power

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