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Acropolis Technical Campus, Indore 452020

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering


Lab-Computer Network EC 803

Group/Title: Network Devices

Evaluation

Type/Periods :Study

Name

Enrollment No.

Performing on
Extra
Regular

First submission

0875EC
Second submission

Grade and Remarks by the Tutor


1. Clarity about the objective of experiment
2. Clarity about the Outcome
3. Submitted the work in desired format
4. Shown capability to solve the problem
5. Contribution to the team work
Additional remarks
Grade:

Cross the grade.

Tutor

1. Title:

To study the functions of various networking devices used in local area

networks.

2. Outcome:
1. An ability to function in multi disciplinary teams for applications of working.

2. An ability to develop and conduct experimental investigations of complex problems of


transmission problems related to computer network
3. An ability to develop, select and use the modern techniques, tools and skills necessary for
engineering practice in computer networking.

3. Objective and value addition:

After completing the

experiment, student should able:


1. Understanding importance of networking devices.
2. How to use these devices in LAN
3. To understand the basic of software Cisco packet tracer
4. To determine practical use of networking devices.

4. Theory:
Repeater:
A repeater receives a signal, regenerates it, and passes it on. It can regenerate and retime
network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media.
The repeater does not have the intelligence to keep the frame from passing to the right side
when it is meant for a station on the left.
Study Group: Computer Network
Created by: Garima Jain/ Ms.NishaKiran

Exp.No: 01
Modified by:

Types of repeaters:
1. Single port:
It operates actually with two segments.
2. Multiport:
It has one input port and multiple output port.
3. Smart:
It is the hybrid device.
It is similar to bridge, in functionality.
Packet filtering is done.
4. Optical:
It repeats the optic signals.
It is implemented in all types of cables.
Hub:
Hubs are actually multiport repeaters. Using a hub changes the network topology from a
linear bus, where each device plugs directly into the wire, to a star. Hubs are also called
concentrators.
Three Different types of hubs:
1. Passive: A passive hub serves as a physical connection point only. It does not manipulate or
view the traffic that crosses it. It does not boost or clean the signal. A passive hub is used only
to share the physical media. As such, the passive hub does not need electrical power.
2. Active: An active hub must be plugged into an electrical outlet because it needs power to
amplify the incoming signal before passing it out to the other ports.
3. Intelligent: Intelligent hubs are sometimes called smart hubs. These devices basically
function as active hubs, but also include a microprocessor chip and diagnostic capabilities.
Intelligent hubs are more expensive than active hubs, but are useful in troubleshooting
situations.
Bridges:
It operates in both: physical and data link layer.
Bridges are more intelligent than repeaters and hub. It makes forwarding decisions based on
Media Access Control (MAC) addresses contained within the headers of transmitted data
frames.
A bridge is used to divide, or segment, a network. Bridges collect and selectively pass data
frames between two network segments.
In order to do this, bridges learn the MAC address of devices on each connected segment.

With this information, the bridge builds a bridging table and forwards or blocks traffic based
on that table.
This results in smaller collision domains and greater network efficiency.
If the destination device is on the same segment as the frame, the bridge blocks the frame
from going on to other segments. This process is known as filtering.
If the destination address is unknown to the bridge, the bridge forwards the frame to all
segments except the one on which it was received. This process is known as flooding.

Types of bridges:
1. Simple:
Most primitive and least expensive.
Links 2 segments.
The addresses of each station should be entered or deleted manually.
2. Multiport:
Link more than 2 LANs.
3. Transparent:
Build its table of station addresses on its own.
When the bridge is first installed, its table is empty. As it encounters each packet, it saves
the source and destination addresses in its table.
Switches:
It may act as a multiport bridge.
Layer 2, Layer 3 and Layer 4 uses Switch.
The switch normally has a buffer for each link.

Layer 2 Switches:
It operates using physical network addresses, identify individual devices.

They act very fast.


Layer 3 Switches:
It uses network or IP addresses to identify the location on the network, as well as the
physical device.
Smarter than Layer 2 device, but not faster.
It incorporates routing functions to calculate the best way to send a packet to its destination.
Layer 4 Switches:
It identifies the application protocols (HTTP, FTP) in each packet.
It makes packet forwarding decision based on the MAC address, IP address and the
application of the packet.
Switches are made based on two different strategies:
1. Store and Forward:
Stores the frame in the input buffer until the whole packet has arrived.
2. Cut through:
Forwards the packet to the output buffer, as soon as the destination address is received.

Self-Assessment 1:
Q1. Explain components of switch and hub.
Q2. Explain advantage of repeater?
Q3. How to use gateway in network
Q4. How to configure network device.
Routers:
A router is a three layer device (physical layer, data link layer, network layer).
It routes the packets based on their logical addresses.
It connects two or more networks. It may be similar or dissimilar networks.
It consists of combination of the hardware and software.
A router normally connects LANs and WANs in the Internet.
It has a routing table to make decisions about the route.
It determines the shortest path to the destination by using the routing algorithms to find the
best path.

.
Gateway:
It is generally software installed within a router.

It connects two independent networks.


It is a protocol converter. A gateway can accept a packet formatted for one protocol (e.g.
TCP/IP) and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol (e.g. Apple Talk) before
forwarding it.
It operates on all the 7 layers of the OSI model.
It must adjust data rate, size and data format.

Self-Assessment 2:
Q1. Explain components of Routers.
Q2. What is Routing Protocols?
Q3. What is Distance Vector Routing Protocols?
Q4. What is Routing Protocol? Explain its purposes.

References:
1 Tanenbaum: Computer Networks, Pearson Education.
2. Bertsekas and Gallager: Data Networks, PHI Learning.
3. Black: Computer Networks, PHI Learning.
4. Forouzan: Computer Networks, TMH.
5. Stallings: Computer Networking and Internet Protocol, Pearson Education.
6. Keiser: Local Area Network, TMH.

5. Results (To be submitted by students)

6. Quizzes and Viva questionnaire (To be


submitted by students)
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1) The maximum number of nodes per segment depends on the_______.?


a) Bandwidth
b) Desired throughput
c) Regeneration ability
d) Attenuation
2) Information can be transmitted via one of_______siganlling method(s).
a) One
b) Two
c) Four
d) Five
3) IEEE designates Thicknet as_______Ethernet.
a) 10Base5
b) 10BaseT
c) 10Base10

d)10Base2

4) Vertical connectors between floors are known as_______.


a) Spans
b) Riser
c) Lift
5) ________ensure(s) that data are transferred whole, in sequence, and without error from
one node on the network to another.
a) Data Packets
b) Addressing
c) Protocol
d) File services
6) The maximum segment lenght on a 10BaseT network is_______meters.
a) 10
b) 50
c) 100
d) 1000
7) The first networks transmitted data over thick, heavy coaxial cables.
a) True b) False
8) Which cannot support full-duplexing?
a) 100BASET4 b) 10BaseT
c) 100BaseTX
9) Which is not an example of transmission media?
a) Wire
b) Coaxial cable
c) Radio waves

d) Fiber

Q1 Define Network?
Q2. What is a Link?
Q3. What is a node?
Q4. What is a gateway or Router?
Q5. What is point-point link?
Q6. What is Multiple Access?
Q7 what are the key elements of protocols?
Q8. What is a Wireless LAN (WLAN)?
Q9Explain the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways
Q10 Explain RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
Q11Explain SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)
Q12 Explain NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)
Q13Explain Gateway-to-Gateway protocol
Q14Explain multicast routing

STUDENT REPORT
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Self-Assessment 1:
Q1. Explain components of switch and hub.
Ans- Hubs are used to build a LAN by connecting different computers in a star/hierarchal
network topology, the most common type on LANs now a day. A hub is a very simple (or
dumb) device, once it gets bits of data sent from computer A to B, it does not check the
destination, instead, it forwards that signal to all other computers (B, C, D) within the
network. B will then pick it up while other nodes discard it. This amplify that the traffic is
shared.
There are mainly two types of hubs:
1. Passive: The signal is forwarded as it is (so it doesnt need power supply).
2. Active: The signal is amplified, so they work as repeaters. In fact they have been called
multiport repeaters. (use power supply)
Hubs can be connected to other hubs using an uplink port to extend the network.
OSI Model: Hubs work on the physical layer (lowest layer). Thats the reason they cant deal
with addressing or data filtering.
Switches are more advanced. A switch actually checks for the destination MAC address and
forward it to the relevant port to reach that computer only. This way, switches reduce traffic
and divide the collision domain into segments, this is very sufficient for busy LANs and it
also protects frames from being sniffed by other computers sharing the same segment.
They build a table of which MAC address belongs to which segment. If a destination MAC
address is not in the table it forwards to all segments except the source segment. If the
destination is same as the source, frame is discarded.
Switches have built-in hardware chips solely designed to perform switching capabilities,
therefore they are fast and come with many ports. Sometimes they are referred to asintelligent
bridges or multiport bridges.
Different speed levels are supported. They can be 10 Mb/s, 100 Mb/s, 1 Gb/s or more.
Most common switching methods are:
1. Cut-through:Directly forward what the switch gets.
2. Store and forward: receive the full frame before retransmitting it.
Q2. Explain advantage of repeater?
Repeaters are simple devices that work at the physical layer of the OSI. They regenerate
signals (active hubs do that too). There is an important rule to obey while using
repeaters/hubs to extend a local network and is called the 5-4-3 rule or the IEEE way. The
rule forces that in a single collision domain there shouldnt be more than 5 segments, 4
repeaters between any two hosts in the network and only 3 of the segments can be populated
This rule ensures that a signal sent over the network will reach every part of it within an
acceptable length of time. If the network is bigger, the collision domain can be divided into
two parts or more using a switch or a bridge.
Q3. How to use gateway in network.
Ans- Gateways are very intelligent devices or else can be a computer running the appropriate
software to connect and translate data between networks with different protocols or
architecture, so their work is much more complex than a normal router. For instance,
allowing communication between TCP/IP clients and IPX/SPX or AppleTalk.

OSI: Gateways operate at the network layer and above, but most of them at the application
layer. The term Gateway is used to refer to routers in some articles so beware. In this case, the
router has gateway software. And Default Gateway is used to refer to the node (e.g. router)
connecting the LAN to the outside (e.g. internet).
Q4. How to configure network device.
Ans-1 Check the connection
If you receive an error like ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted when
executing ping, try to re-install the iputils package.
2 Set the hostname
A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network: it is configured
in /etc/hostname. The file can contain the system's domain name, if any. To set the hostname,
do:
# hostnamectl set-hostname myhostname
3 Device Driver
Check the status
Load the module
4 Network Interfaces
Device names
Get current device names
Change device name
Set device MTU and queue length
Enabling and disabling network interfaces
5 Configure the IP address
Dynamic IP address
systemd-networkd
Static IP address

Self-Assessment 2:
Q1. Explain components of Routers.
Ans- Routers are used to connect different LANs or a LAN with a WAN (e.g. the internet).
Routers control both collision domains and broadcast domains. If the packets destination is
on a different network, a router is used to pass it the right way, so without routers the internet
could not functions.
Routers use NAT (Network Address Translation) in conjunction with IP Masquerading to
provide the internet to multiple nodes in the LAN under a single IP address.
Now a day, routers come with hub or switch technology to connect computers directly.
OSI: Routers work on the network layer so they can filter data based on IP addresses. They
have route tables to store network addresses and forward packets to the right port.
Q2. What is Routing Protocols?
A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating
information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer
network. Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a priori
knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information
first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain
knowledge of the topology of the network.

There are many types of routing protocols; three major classes are in widespread use
on IP networks:
Interior gateway protocols type 1, link-state routing protocols, such as OSPF and ISIS
Interior gateway protocols type 2, distance-vector routing protocols, such as Routing
Information Protocol, RIPv2, IGRP.
Exterior gateway protocols are routing protocols used on the Internet for exchanging
routing information between Autonomous Systems, such as Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP), Path Vector Routing Protocol.
Q3. What is Distance Vector Routing Protocols?
Ans- Distance vector protocols (a vector contains both distance and direction), such as RIP,
determine the path to remote networks using hop count as the metric. A hop count is defined
as the number of times a packet needs to pass through a router to reach a remote destination.
Distance-vector routing protocol is one of the two major classes of intra domain routing
protocols, the other major class being the link-state protocol. Distance-vector routing
protocols use the BellmanFord algorithm, FordFulkerson algorithm, or DUAL FSM (in the
case of Cisco Systems's protocols) to calculate paths.
A distance-vector routing protocol requires that a router inform its neighbors of topology
changes periodically. Compared to link-state protocols, which require a router to inform all
the nodes in a network of topology changes, distance-vector routing protocols have
less computational complexity and message overhead.
The term distance vector refers to the fact that the protocol manipulates vectors (arrays) of
distances to other nodes in the network.

Quizzes and Viva answer


1). d) Attenuation
2) b) Two
3) a)10base 5
4) b) Riser
5) c) Protocol
6) c) 100
7) a) True
8) a) 100BASET4
9) e) none of the above
Q1 Define Network?
Ans:- A network is a set of devices connected by physical media links. A network is
recursively is a connection of two or more nodes by a physical link or two or more networks
connected by one or more nodes.
Q2. What is a Link?
Ans:- At the lowest level, a network can consist of two or more computers directly connected
by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is
called as Link.
Q3. What is a node?
Ans:- A network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical
medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as Links and
the computer it connects is called as Nodes.

Q4. What is a gateway or Router?


Ans:-A node that is connected to two or more networks is commonly called as router or
Gateway. It generally forwards message from one network to another.
Q5. What is point-point link?
Ans:-If the physical links are limited to a pair of nodes it is said to be point-point link.
Q6. What is Multiple Access?
If the physical links are shared by more than two nodes, it is said to be Multiple Access.
Q7What are the key elements of protocols?
Ans:- The key elements of protocols are:
a. Syntax
It refers to the structure or format of the data, that is the order in which they are presented.
b. Semantics
It refers to the meaning of each section of bits.
c. Timing
Timing refers to two characteristics: When data should be sent and how fast they can be
sent.

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