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Fuel and Combustion

S.
No.

Description

Gross calorific value

Symbol

Formula

GCV
kcal/kg-fuel
C
S
H
N

Net calorific value

NCV
kcal/kg-fuel
GCV
H
m

Useful heat value

Standard coal factor

Stoichiometric Combustion
Air
or
Minimum Combustion
Air

UHV
kcal/kg-fuel

SCF
-

SCA
kg/s

Ash
m

m
NCV
Formula-1

NCV
F
Formula-2

C
H
O
S
F
Formula-3

m
GCV
F
6

Specific Stoichiometric

SSCA

Formula-1

Combustion Air
or
Specific Minimum
Combustion Air

kg/kg-fuel
NCV
Formula-2

C
H
O
S
Formula-3

m
GCV
Formula-4

SCF
7

Theoretical Flame Temperature

TFT
deg.C
NCV
SSCA

True CO2 in kiln exit gas

TCO2
vol%
CO2
CO2
O2

Burner Tip Velocity

10 %Primary Air

BTV
m/s

Ps

%PA
%
PA
SCA

11 Flame Momentum
or
Relative Impulse
(Source : F.L. Smidth)

FM
%.m/s

%PA
BTV

Fuel and Combustion


Formula
80.8 * C + 22.45 * S + 339.53 * H - 35.89 * O

Carbon content in fuel, wt%


Sulphur content in fuel, wt%
Hydrogen content in fuel, wt%
Nitrogen content in fuel, wt%
GCV - 52.53 * H - 6 * m

Gross calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel


Hydrogen content in fuel, wt%
Moisture content in fuel, wt%
8900 - 138 * ( Ash + m )
Ash content in fuel, wt%

Moisture content in fuel, wt%


( 1 - m / 100 ) * NCV / 7000

Moisture content in fuel, wt%


Net calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel

NCV * F
709 * 3600

Net calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel


Fuel rate in kiln, kg/hr

[ 0.11594 * C + 0.34783 * ( H - O / 8 ) + 0.04348 * S ] * F


3600

Weight% of Carbon in fuel


Weight% of Hydrogen in fuel
Weight% of Oxygen in fuel
Weight% of Sulphur in fuel
Fuel rate in kiln, kg/hr

10.478 * ( 100 - m ) * GCV * F


100 * 7000 * 3600

Weight% of Moisture in fuel


Gross calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel
Fuel rate in kiln, kg/hr

Example

C
S
H
O
GCV
Target

GCV
H
m
NCV
Target

Ash
m
UHV
Target

m
NCV
SCF
Target

NCV
F
SCA
Target

C
H
O
S
F
SCA
Target

m
GCV
F
SCA
Target

NCV

NCV
709

SSCA
Target

Net calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel

0.11594 * C + 0.34783 * ( H - O / 8 ) + 0.04348 * S

Weight%
Weight%
Weight%
Weight%

of
of
of
of

Carbon in fuel
Hydrogen in fuel
Oxygen in fuel
Sulphur in fuel

10.478 * ( 100 - m ) * GCV


100 * 7000

Weight% of Moisture in fuel


Gross calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel

C
H
O
S
SSCA
Target

m
GCV
SSCA
Target

SCF
10.478 * SCF

SSCA
Target

3.107 * NCV
SCA

NCV
SSCA

Standard coal factor, -

Net calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg-fuel


Specific stoichiometric combustion air, kg/kg-fuel
100 * ( CO2 + CO )
100 + ( 1.89 * CO ) - ( 4.78 * O2 )

Kiln exit gas CO2, vol%


Kiln exit gas CO, vol%
Kiln exit gas O2, vol%

CO2
CO
O2
TCO2
Target

4 * Ps 0.5

Static pressure in duct, mmWG


PA * 100
SCA

Primary air, kg/s


Stoichiometric combustion air, kg/s
%PA * BTV

%Primary air, %
Burner tip velocity, m/s

TFT
Target

Ps
BTV
Target

PA
SCA
%PA
Target

%PA
BTV
FM
Target

Example
70.86
0.58
3.87
6.08
6834
6007
3.2
1.3
5831
14.99
1.93
6565
1.93
6500
0.911
6500
11000
28.01
-

70.78
3.46
5.12
0.71
11000
28.17
-

1.9
6700
10500
28.70
6500

9.17
-

70.78
3.46
5.12
0.71
9.22
1.9
6700
9.84
-

0.925
9.69
6500
9.28
2176
36.5
0.002
4.2
45.7
1800
170
2.05
27.24
7.53
11.2
150
1680
1000-2000