# ‫‪www.gisclub.

net‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬

‫‪Learn to Use ERDAS IMAGINE‬‬
‫‪Step by Step‬‬
‫‪bawahidi@yahoo.com‬‬

‫‪ - Image Preprocessing‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺼﻭﺭﺍﻻﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻤل ‪:‬‬
‫* ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻲ‬
‫*ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﺸﻌﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫*ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺠﻴﺞ‬
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‫‪Geometric Correction‬‬

‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻤل‬

‫ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻨﻜﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺸﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺍﻨﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﺴﻁﺢ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺍﺤﺔ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻴﺱ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻲ ﻴﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬

‫ﺘﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺼﺤﺤﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﺴﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﻭﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬
‫‪Rectification‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ) ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺼﻔﺭ( ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺼﻴﻎ ﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺭﻴﺎﻀﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻭﻫﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺓ )ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﻀﺭ( ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻀﺒﻁ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺱ ﺴﻨﻨﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻲ ﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻴﺭﺩﺍﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﻨﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬

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Change Detection
GIS Modeling
Classification
ArcInfo
Distance & Area Measurement
Mosaicking Images
Erdas Tour Guide, Erdas Field Guide, 1999
‫ﻴﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻥ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ ﺸﺎﺌﻌﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻲ‬

1-Image-to-map rectification ‫ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‬
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Spatial Interpolation
Nth order
Polynomial transformation

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Brightness values
Resampling

2-Image-to-image rectification

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Ground Control Points (GCP) 

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- GCPs
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Resampling 
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(Images used: tmAtlanta.img- 30m and georeferenced SPOT panchromatic - panAtlanta10m)
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SessionTile Viewers
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From Viewer 1:
File- Open- Raster Layer-tmAtlanta.img
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From Viewer :
File- Open- Raster Layer-panAtlanta.img

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From Viewer 1: Raster- Geometric Correction
OK
Polynomial

Minimum number of GCPs = ((n + 1) (n + 2)/2
n-

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