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Chapt1-2-3 18/06/02 17:34 Page 3 1 • Introduction • ‘Relay hardware is becoming even more standardised,
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1 •
Introduction
‘Relay hardware is becoming even more standardised, to the point at
which versions of a relay may differ only by the software they contain’.
This accurate prediction in the preface to the Third Edition of the Protective
Relay Application Guide (PRAG), 1987, has been followed by the rapid
development of integrated protection and control devices. The change in
technology, together with significant changes in Utility, Industrial and
Commercial organisations, has resulted in new emphasis on Secondary Systems
Engineering.
In addition to the traditional role of protection & control, secondary systems
are now required to provide true added value to organisations.
When utilised to its maximum, not only can the integration of protection &
control functionality deliver the required reduction in life-time cost of capital,
but the advanced features available (Quality of Supply, disturbance recording
and plant monitoring) enable system and plant performance to be improved,
increasing system availability.
The evolution of all secondary connected devices to form digital control
systems continues to greatly increase access to all information available within
the substation, resulting in new methodologies for asset management.
In order to provide the modern practising substation engineer with reference
material, the Network Protection & Automation Guide provides a substantially
revised and expanded edition of PRAG incorporating new chapters on all levels
of network automation. The first part of the book deals with the fundamentals,
basic technology, fault calculations and the models of power system plant,
including the transient response and saturation problems that affect
instrument transformers.
The typical data provided on power system plant has been updated and
significantly expanded following research that showed its popularity.
The book then provides detailed analysis on the application of protection
systems. This includes a new Chapter on the protection of a.c. electrified
railways. Existing chapters on distance, busbar and generator protection have
been completely revised to take account of new developments, including
improvements due to numerical protection techniques and the application
problems of embedded generation. The Chapter on relay testing and
commissioning has been completely updated to reflect modern techniques.
Finally, new Chapters covering the fields of power system measurements,
power quality, and substation and distribution automation are found, to reflect
the importance of these fields for the modern Power System Engineer.
The intention is to make NPAG the standard reference work in its’ subject area
- while still helping the student and young engineer new to the field. We trust
that you find this book invaluable and assure you that any comments will be
carefully noted ready for the next edition.
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:42 Page 4 2 Fundamentals • • of Protection Practice Introduction Protection equipment Zones
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2
Fundamentals
of
Protection
Practice
Introduction
Protection equipment
Zones of protection
Reliability
Selectivity
Stability
Speed
Sensitivity
Primary and back-up protection
Relay output devices
Relay tripping circuits
Trip circuit supervision
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:42 Page 5 2 • • Fundamentals of Protection Practice 2.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose
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2 •
Fundamentals
of Protection Practice
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate
and supply electrical energy to consumers. The system
should be designed and managed to deliver this energy
to the utilisation points with both reliability and
economy. Severe disruption to the normal routine of
modern society is likely if power outages are frequent or
prolonged, placing an increasing emphasis on reliability
and security of supply. As the requirements of reliability
and economy are largely opposed, power system design
is inevitably a compromise.
A power system comprises many diverse items of
equipment. Figure 2.2 shows a hypothetical power
system; this and Figure 2.1 illustrates the diversity of
equipment that is found.
Figure 2.1: Modern power station
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:42 Page 6 Hydro power station G 1 G 2 R 1 R 2
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Hydro power station
G 1
G 2
R 1
R 2
T 1
T 2
380kV
A
L
L
2
1A
L
1B
380kV
C
380kV
B
L
3
L 4
T 5
T 6
T 3
T 4
110kV
C'
33kV
B'
Steam power station
CCGT power station
G 3
G 4
G 5
G 6
G 7
R 3
R 4
R 5
R 6
R 7
T 7
T 8
T 9
T 10
T 11
L
220kV
D
7A
380kV
E
T 14
L
6
2 •
Grid
380kV
G
substation
L
L
7B
5
F
T 15
T 16
T 17
T 12
T 13
L
8
33kV
D'
Grid
110kV
G'
380kV
F'
e 2.
Figure 2.2: Example power system
Figur
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:42 Page 7 Figure 2.4: Possible consequence of inadequate protection 2.2 PROTECTION EQUIPMENT The
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Figure 2.4: Possible consequence of inadequate protection
2.2 PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
The definitions that follow are generally used in relation
to power system protection:
a.
Protection System: a complete arrangement of
protection equipment and other devices required to
achieve a specified function based on a protection
principal (IEC 60255-20)
b.
Protection Equipment: a collection of protection
devices (relays, fuses, etc.). Excluded are devices
such as CT’s, CB’s, Contactors, etc.
Figure 2.3: Onset of an overhead line fault
c.
Many items of equipment are very expensive, and so the
complete power system represents a very large capital
investment. To maximise the return on this outlay, the
system must be utilised as much as possible within the
applicable constraints of security and reliability of
supply. More fundamental, however, is that the power
system should operate in a safe manner at all times. No
matter how well designed, faults will always occur on a
power system, and these faults may represent a risk to
life and/or property. Figure 2.3 shows the onset of a fault
on an overhead line. The destructive power of a fault arc
carrying a high current is very great; it can burn through
copper conductors or weld together core laminations in
a transformer or machine in a very short time – some
tens or hundreds of milliseconds. Even away from the
fault arc itself, heavy fault currents can cause damage to
plant if they continue for more than a few seconds. The
provision of adequate protection to detect and
disconnect elements of the power system in the event of
fault is therefore an integral part of power system
design. Only by so doing can the objectives of the power
system be met and the investment protected. Figure 2.4
provides an illustration of the consequences of failure to
provide appropriate protection.
Protection Scheme: a collection of protection
equipment providing a defined function and
including all equipment required to make the
scheme work (i.e. relays, CT’s, CB’s, batteries, etc.)
In order to fulfil the requirements of protection with the
optimum speed for the many different configurations,
operating conditions and construction features of power
systems, it has been necessary to develop many types of
relay that respond to various functions of the power
system quantities. For example, observation simply of
the magnitude of the fault current suffices in some cases
but measurement of power or impedance may be
necessary in others. Relays frequently measure complex
functions of the system quantities, which are only readily
expressible by mathematical or graphical means.
2 •
Relays may be classified according to the technology
used:
a.
electromechanical
b.
static
c.
digital
d.
numerical
This is the measure of the importance of protection
systems as applied in power system practice and of the
responsibility vested in the Protection Engineer.
The different types have somewhat different capabilities,
due to the limitations of the technology used. They are
described in more detail in Chapter 7.
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:42 Page 8 In many cases, it is not feasible to protect against all
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In many cases, it is not feasible to protect against all
hazards with a relay that responds to a single power
system quantity. An arrangement using several
quantities may be required. In this case, either several
relays, each responding to a single quantity, or, more
commonly, a single relay containing several elements,
each responding independently to a different quantity
may be used.
Busbar
protection
e
Feeder
protection
(a) CT's on both sides of circuit breaker
The terminology used in describing protection systems
and relays is given in Appendix 1. Different symbols for
describing relay functions in diagrams of protection
schemes are used, the two most common methods (IEC
and IEEE/ANSI) are provided in Appendix 2.
A
Busbar
protection
e
F
2.3 ZONES OF PROTECTION
Feeder
protection
To limit the extent of the power system that is
disconnected when a fault occurs, protection is arranged
in zones. The principle is shown in Figure 2.5. Ideally, the
zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the
power system is left unprotected. This is shown in Figure
2.6(a), the circuit breaker being included in both zones.
(b) CT's on circuit side of circuit breaker
Figure 2.6: CT Locations
Zone 1
the circuit breaker A that is not completely protected
against faults. In Figure 2.6(b) a fault at F would cause
the busbar protection to operate and open the circuit
breaker but the fault may continue to be fed through the
feeder. The feeder protection, if of the unit type (see
section 2.5.2), would not operate, since the fault is
outside its zone. This problem is dealt with by
intertripping or some form of zone extension, to ensure
that the remote end of the feeder is tripped also.
Zone 2
Zone 3
The point of connection of the protection with the power
system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the
location of the current transformers. Unit type
protection will result in the boundary being a clearly
defined closed loop. Figure 2.7 illustrates a typical
arrangement of overlapping zones.
2 •
~
Zone 4
Zone 5
Zone 7
~
Feeder 1
Feeder 2
Feeder 3
Zone 6
Figure 2.5: Division of power system
Figure 2.52.6
into protection zones
Figure 2.7: Overlapping zones
Figure 2.7
of protection systems
For practical physical and economic reasons, this ideal is
not always achieved, accommodation for current
transformers being in some cases available only on one
side of the circuit breakers, as in Figure 2.6(b). This
leaves a section between the current transformers and
Alternatively, the zone may be unrestricted; the start will
be defined but the extent (or ‘reach’) will depend on
measurement of the system quantities and will therefore
be subject to variation, owing to changes in system
conditions and measurement errors.
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:42 Page 9 2.4 RELIABILITY 2.4.4 Testing The need for a high degree of
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2.4 RELIABILITY
2.4.4
Testing
The need for a high degree of reliability is discussed in
Section 2.1. Incorrect operation can be attributed to one
of the following classifications:
a.
incorrect design/settings
b.
incorrect installation/testing
c.
deterioration in service
Comprehensive testing is just as important, and this
testing should cover all aspects of the protection
scheme, as well as reproducing operational and
environmental conditions as closely as possible. Type
testing of protection equipment to recognised standards
fulfils many of these requirements, but it may still be
necessary to test the complete protection scheme (relays,
current transformers and other ancillary items) and the
tests must simulate fault conditions realistically.
2.4.1
Design
The design of a protection scheme is of paramount
importance. This is to ensure that the system will
operate under all required conditions, and (equally
important) refrain from operating when so required
(including, where appropriate, being restrained from
operating for faults external to the zone being
protected). Due consideration must be given to the
nature, frequency and duration of faults likely to be
experienced, all relevant parameters of the power system
(including the characteristics of the supply source, and
methods of operation) and the type of protection
equipment used. Of course, no amount of effort at this
stage can make up for the use of protection equipment
that has not itself been subject to proper design.
2.4.5
Deterioration in Service
Subsequent to installation in perfect condition,
deterioration of equipment will take place and may
eventually interfere with correct functioning. For
example, contacts may become rough or burnt owing to
frequent operation, or tarnished owing to atmospheric
contamination; coils and other circuits may become
open-circuited, electronic components and auxiliary
devices may fail, and mechanical parts may seize up.
The time between operations of protection relays may be
years rather than days. During this period defects may
have developed unnoticed until revealed by the failure of
the protection to respond to a power system fault. For
this reason, relays should be regularly tested in order to
check for correct functioning.
2.4.2
Settings
It is essential to ensure that settings are chosen for
protection relays and systems which take into account
the parameters of the primary system, including fault
and load levels, and dynamic performance requirements
etc. The characteristics of power systems change with
time, due to changes in loads, location, type and amount
of generation, etc. Therefore, setting values of relays
may need to be checked at suitable intervals to ensure
that they are still appropriate. Otherwise, unwanted
operation or failure to operate when required may occur.
Testing should preferably be carried out without
disturbing permanent connections. This can be achieved
by the provision of test blocks or switches.
The quality of testing personnel is an essential feature
when assessing reliability and considering means for
improvement. Staff must be technically competent and
adequately trained, as well as self-disciplined to proceed
in a systematic manner to achieve final acceptance.
2 •
2.4.3
Installation
The need for correct installation of protection systems is
obvious, but the complexity of the interconnections of
many systems and their relationship to the remainder of
the installation may make checking difficult. Site testing
is therefore necessary; since it will be difficult to
reproduce all fault conditions correctly, these tests must
be directed to proving the installation. The tests should
be limited to such simple and direct tests as will prove
the correctness of the connections, relay settings, and
freedom from damage of the equipment. No attempt
should be made to 'type test' the equipment or to
establish complex aspects of its technical performance.
Important circuits that are especially vulnerable can be
provided with continuous electrical supervision; such
arrangements are commonly applied to circuit breaker
trip circuits and to pilot circuits. Modern digital and
numerical relays usually incorporate self-
testing/diagnostic facilities to assist in the detection of
failures. With these types of relay, it may be possible to
arrange for such failures to be automatically reported by
communications link to a remote operations centre, so
that appropriate action may be taken to ensure
continued safe operation of that part of the power
system and arrangements put in hand for investigation
and correction of the fault.
2.4.6
Protection Performance
Protection system performance is frequently assessed
statistically. For this purpose each system fault is classed
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as an incident and only those that are cleared by the
tripping of the correct circuit breakers are classed as
'correct'. The percentage of correct clearances can then
be determined.
2.5.1 Time Grading
This principle of assessment gives an accurate evaluation
of the protection of the system as a whole, but it is
severe in its judgement of relay performance. Many
relays are called into operation for each system fault,
and all must behave correctly for a correct clearance to
be recorded.
Protection systems in successive zones are arranged to
operate in times that are graded through the sequence of
equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault,
although a number of protection equipments respond,
only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the
tripping function. The others make incomplete
operations and then reset. The speed of response will
often depend on the severity of the fault, and will
generally be slower than for a unit system.
Complete reliability is unlikely ever to be achieved by
further improvements in construction. If the level of
reliability achieved by a single device is not acceptable,
improvement can be achieved through redundancy, e.g.
duplication of equipment. Two complete, independent,
main protection systems are provided, and arranged so
that either by itself can carry out the required function.
If the probability of each equipment failing is x/unit, the
resultant probability of both equipments failing
simultaneously, allowing for redundancy, is x 2 . Where x
is small the resultant risk (x 2 ) may be negligible.
2.5.2 Unit Systems
It is possible to design protection systems that respond
only to fault conditions occurring within a clearly
defined zone. This type of protection system is known as
'unit protection'. Certain types of unit protection are
known by specific names, e.g. restricted earth fault and
differential protection. Unit protection can be applied
throughout a power system and, since it does not involve
time grading, is relatively fast in operation. The speed of
response is substantially independent of fault severity.
Where multiple protection systems are used, the tripping
signal can be provided in a number of different ways.
The two most common methods are:
a. all protection systems must operate for a tripping
operation to occur (e.g. ‘two-out-of-two’
arrangement)
b. only one protection system need operate to cause
a trip (e.g. ‘one-out-of two’ arrangement)
The former method guards against maloperation while
the latter guards against failure to operate due to an
unrevealed fault in a protection system. Rarely, three
main protection systems are provided, configured in a
‘two-out-of three’ tripping arrangement, to provide both
reliability of tripping, and security against unwanted
tripping.
2 •
It has long been the practice to apply duplicate
protection systems to busbars, both being required to
operate to complete a tripping operation. Loss of a
busbar may cause widespread loss of supply, which is
clearly undesirable. In other cases, important circuits are
provided with duplicate main protection systems, either
being able to trip independently. On critical circuits, use
may also be made of a digital fault simulator to model
the relevant section of the power system and check the
performance of the relays used.
Unit protection usually involves comparison of quantities
at the boundaries of the protected zone as defined by the
locations of the current transformers. This comparison
may be achieved by direct hard-wired connections or
may be achieved via a communications link. However
certain protection systems derive their 'restricted'
property from the configuration of the power system and
may be classed as unit protection, e.g. earth fault
protection applied to the high voltage delta winding of a
power transformer. Whichever method is used, it must
be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of
relay design. It also depends on the correct co-
ordination of current transformers and relays with a
suitable choice of relay settings, taking into account the
possible range of such variables as fault currents,
maximum load current, system impedances and other
related factors, where appropriate.
2.6
STABILITY
The term ‘stability’ is usually associated with unit
protection schemes and refers to the ability of the
protection system to remain unaffected by conditions
external to the protected zone, for example through load
current and external fault conditions.
2.7
SPEED
2.5 SELECTIVITY
When a fault occurs, the protection scheme is required
to trip only those circuit breakers whose operation is
required to isolate the fault. This property of selective
tripping is also called 'discrimination' and is achieved by
two general methods.
The function of protection systems is to isolate faults on
the power system as rapidly as possible. The main
objective is to safeguard continuity of supply by
removing each disturbance before it leads to widespread
loss of synchronism and consequent collapse of the
power system.
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As the loading on a power system increases, the phase
shift between voltages at different busbars on the
system also increases, and therefore so does the
probability that synchronism will be lost when the
system is disturbed by a fault. The shorter the time a
fault is allowed to remain in the system, the greater can
be the loading of the system. Figure 2.8 shows typical
relations between system loading and fault clearance
times for various types of fault. It will be noted that
phase faults have a more marked effect on the stability
of the system than a simple earth fault and therefore
require faster clearance.
2.9 PRIMARY AND BACK-UP PROTECTION
The reliability of a power system has been discussed
earlier, including the use of more than one primary (or
‘main’) protection system operating in parallel. In the
event of failure or non-availability of the primary
protection some other means of ensuring that the fault
is isolated must be provided. These secondary systems
are referred to as ‘back-up protection’.
Figure 2.8
Phase-earth
Phase-phase
Phase-phase-earth
Three-phase
Time
Figure 2.8: Typical power/time relationship
for various fault types
Back-up protection may be considered as either being
‘local’ or ‘remote’. Local back-up protection is achieved
by protection which detects an un-cleared primary
system fault at its own location and which then trips its
own circuit breakers, e.g. time graded overcurrent relays.
Remote back-up protection is provided by protection
that detects an un-cleared primary system fault at a
remote location and then issues a local trip command,
e.g. the second or third zones of a distance relay. In both
cases the main and back-up protection systems detect a
fault simultaneously, operation of the back-up
protection being delayed to ensure that the primary
protection clears the fault if possible. Normally being
unit protection, operation of the primary protection will
be fast and will result in the minimum amount of the
power system being disconnected. Operation of the
back-up protection will be, of necessity, slower and will
result in a greater proportion of the primary system
being lost.
System stability is not, however, the only consideration.
Rapid operation of protection ensures that fault damage
is minimised, as energy liberated during a fault is
proportional to the square of the fault current times the
duration of the fault. Protection must thus operate as
quickly as possible but speed of operation must be
weighed against economy. Distribution circuits, which
do not normally require a fast fault clearance, are usually
protected by time-graded systems. Generating plant and
EHV systems require protection gear of the highest
attainable speed; the only limiting factor will be the
necessity for correct operation, and therefore unit
systems are normal practice.
The extent and type of back-up protection applied will
naturally be related to the failure risks and relative
economic importance of the system. For distribution
systems where fault clearance times are not critical, time
delayed remote back-up protection may be adequate.
For EHV systems, where system stability is at risk unless
a fault is cleared quickly, multiple primary protection
systems, operating in parallel and possibly of different
types (e.g. distance and unit protection), will be used to
ensure fast and reliable tripping. Back-up overcurrent
protection may then optionally be applied to ensure that
two separate protection systems are available during
maintenance of one of the primary protection systems.
2 •
2.8 SENSITIVITY
Sensitivity is a term frequently used when referring to
the minimum operating level (current, voltage, power
etc.) of relays or complete protection schemes. The relay
or scheme is said to be sensitive if the primary operating
parameter(s) is low.
With older electromechanical relays, sensitivity was
considered in terms of the sensitivity of the measuring
movement and was measured in terms of its volt-ampere
consumption to cause operation. With modern digital
and numerical relays the achievable sensitivity is seldom
limited by the device design but by its application and
CT/VT parameters.
Back-up protection systems should, ideally, be
completely separate from the primary systems. For
example a circuit protected by a current differential relay
may also have time graded overcurrent and earth fault
relays added to provide circuit breaker tripping in the
event of failure of the main primary unit protection. To
maintain complete separation and thus integrity, current
transformers, voltage transformers, relays, circuit breaker
trip coils and d.c. supplies would be duplicated. This
ideal is rarely attained in practice. The following
compromises are typical:
a. separate current transformers (cores and secondary
windings only) are provided. This involves little extra
cost or accommodation compared with the use of
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common current transformers that would have to be
larger because of the combined burden. This practice
is becoming less common when digital or numerical
relays are used, because of the extremely low input
burden of these relay types
b. voltage transformers are not duplicated because of
cost and space considerations. Each protection relay
supply is separately protected (fuse or MCB) and
continuously supervised to ensure security of the VT
output. An alarm is given on failure of the supply and,
where appropriate, prevent an unwanted operation of
the protection
The majority of protection relay elements have self-reset
contact systems, which, if so desired, can be modified to
provide hand reset output contacts by the use of
auxiliary elements. Hand or electrically reset relays are
used when it is necessary to maintain a signal or lockout
condition. Contacts are shown on diagrams in the
position corresponding to the un-operated or de-
energised condition, regardless of the continuous service
condition of the equipment. For example, an
undervoltage relay, which is continually energised in
normal circumstances, would still be shown in the de-
energised condition.
c. trip supplies to the two protections should be
separately protected (fuse or MCB). Duplication of
tripping batteries and of circuit breaker tripping coils
may be provided. Trip circuits should be continuously
supervised
A 'make' contact is one that closes when the relay picks
up, whereas a 'break' contact is one that is closed when
the relay is de-energised and opens when the relay picks
up. Examples of these conventions and variations are
shown in Figure 2.9.
d. it is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or
duplicate main protections) should operate on different
principles, so that unusual events that may cause
failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other
Self reset
Hand reset
Digital and numerical relays may incorporate suitable
back-up protection functions (e.g. a distance relay may
also incorporate time-delayed overcurrent protection
elements as well). A reduction in the hardware required to
provide back-up protection is obtained, but at the risk that
a common relay element failure (e.g. the power supply)
will result in simultaneous loss of both main and back-up
protection. The acceptability of this situation must be
evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
`make' contacts
`break' contacts
(normally open)
(normally open)
Time delay on
Time delay on
pick up
drop-off
Figure 2.9: Contact types
2.10 RELAY OUTPUT DEVICES
In order to perform their intended function, relays must be
fitted with some means of providing the various output
signals required. Contacts of various types usually fulfil
this function.
2 •
A protection relay is usually required to trip a circuit
breaker, the tripping mechanism of which may be a
solenoid with a plunger acting directly on the
mechanism latch or an electrically operated valve. The
power required by the trip coil of the circuit breaker may
range from up to 50 watts for a small 'distribution'
circuit breaker, to 3000 watts for a large, extra-high-
voltage circuit breaker.
2.10.1 Contact Systems
Relays may be fitted with a variety of contact systems
for providing electrical outputs for tripping and remote
indication purposes. The most common types
encountered are as follows:
The relay may therefore energise the tripping coil
directly, or, according to the coil rating and the number
of circuits to be energised, may do so through the
agency of another multi-contact auxiliary relay.
a.
Self-reset
The contacts remain in the operated condition only
while the controlling quantity is applied, returning
to their original condition when it is removed
b.
Hand or electrical reset
These contacts remain in the operated condition
after the controlling quantity is removed. They can
be reset either by hand
electromagnetic element
or by an auxiliary
The basic trip circuit is simple, being made up of a hand-
trip control switch and the contacts of the protection
relays in parallel to energise the trip coil from a battery,
through a normally open auxiliary switch operated by
the circuit breaker. This auxiliary switch is needed to
open the trip circuit when the circuit breaker opens
since the protection relay contacts will usually be quite
incapable of performing the interrupting duty. The
auxiliary switch will be adjusted to close as early as
possible in the closing stroke, to make the protection
effective in case the breaker is being closed on to a fault.
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:45 Page 13 Where multiple output contacts, or contacts with appreciable current-carrying capacity are
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Page 13
Where multiple output contacts, or contacts with
appreciable current-carrying capacity are required,
interposing, contactor type elements will normally be used.
2.11 TRIPPING CIRCUITS
There are three main circuits in use for circuit breaker
tripping:
In general, static and microprocessor relays have discrete
measuring and tripping circuits, or modules. The
functioning of the measuring modules is independent of
operation of the tripping modules. Such a relay is
equivalent to a sensitive electromechanical relay with a
tripping contactor, so that the number or rating of
outputs has no more significance than the fact that they
have been provided.
a.
series sealing
b.
shunt reinforcing
c.
shunt reinforcement with sealing
These are illustrated in Figure 2.10.
TC
PR
52a
For larger switchgear installations the tripping power
requirement of each circuit breaker is considerable, and
further, two or more breakers may have to be tripped by
one protection system. There may also be remote
signalling requirements, interlocking with other
functions (for example auto-reclosing arrangements),
and other control functions to be performed. These
various operations may then be carried out by multi-
contact tripping relays, which are energised by the
protection relays and provide the necessary number of
adequately rated output contacts.
(a)
Series sealing
TC
PR
52a
(b)
Shunt reinforcing
TC
PR
52a
2.10.2 Operation Indicators
(c)
Shunt reinforcing with series sealing
Protection systems are invariably provided with
indicating devices, called 'flags', or 'targets', as a guide
for operations personnel. Not every relay will have one,
as indicators are arranged to operate only if a trip
operation is initiated. Indicators, with very few
exceptions, are bi-stable devices, and may be either
mechanical or electrical. A mechanical indicator consists
of a small shutter that is released by the protection relay
movement to expose the indicator pattern.
Figure 2.10: Typical relay tripping circuits
Electrical indicators may be simple attracted armature
elements, where operation of the armature releases a
shutter to expose an indicator as above, or indicator
lights (usually light emitting diodes). For the latter, some
kind of memory circuit is provided to ensure that the
indicator remains lit after the initiating event has passed.
For electromechanical relays, electrically operated
indicators, actuated after the main contacts have closed,
avoid imposing an additional friction load on the
measuring element, which would be a serious handicap
for certain types. Care must be taken with directly
operated indicators to line up their operation with the
closure of the main contacts. The indicator must have
operated by the time the contacts make, but must not
have done so more than marginally earlier. This is to stop
indication occurring when the tripping operation has not
been completed.
2 •
With the advent of digital and numerical relays, the
operation indicator has almost become redundant.
Relays will be provided with one or two simple indicators
that indicate that the relay is powered up and whether
an operation has occurred. The remainder of the
information previously presented via indicators is
available by interrogating the relay locally via a ‘man-
machine interface’ (e.g. a keypad and liquid crystal
display screen), or remotely via a communication system.
With modern digital and numerical relays, the use of
various alternative methods of providing trip circuit
functions is largely obsolete. Auxiliary miniature
contactors are provided within the relay to provide
output contact functions and the operation of these
contactors is independent of the measuring system, as
mentioned previously. The making current of the relay
output contacts and the need to avoid these contacts
breaking the trip coil current largely dictates circuit
breaker trip coil arrangements. Comments on the
various means of providing tripping arrangements are,
however, included below as a historical reference
applicable to earlier electromechanical relay designs.
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13
Fundamentals
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:45 Page 14 2.11.1 Series sealing is countered by means of a further contact
Chap2-4-15 21/06/02
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Page 14
2.11.1
Series sealing
is
countered by
means of
a further contact
on the
auxiliary unit connected as a retaining contact.
The coil of the series contactor carries the trip current
initiated by the protection relay, and the contactor closes
a contact in parallel with the protection relay contact.
This closure relieves the protection relay contact of further
duty and keeps the tripping circuit securely closed, even if
chatter occurs at the main contact. The total tripping time
is not affected, and the indicator does not operate until
current is actually flowing through the trip coil.
This means that provision must be made for releasing the
sealing circuit when tripping is complete; this is a
disadvantage, because it is sometimes inconvenient to
find a suitable contact to use for this purpose.
2.12 TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION
The main disadvantage of this method is that such series
elements must have their coils matched with the trip
circuit with which they are associated.
The coil of these contacts must be of low impedance,
with about 5% of the trip supply voltage being dropped
across them.
When used in association with high-speed trip relays,
which usually interrupt their own coil current, the
auxiliary elements must be fast enough to operate and
release the flag before their coil current is cut off. This
may pose a problem in design if a variable number of
auxiliary elements (for different phases and so on) may
be required to operate in parallel to energise a common
tripping relay.
The trip circuit includes the protection relay and other
components, such as fuses, links, relay contacts, auxiliary
switch contacts, etc., and in some cases through a
considerable amount of circuit wiring with intermediate
terminal boards. These interconnections, coupled with
the importance of the circuit, result in a requirement in
many cases to monitor the integrity of the circuit. This
is known as trip circuit supervision. The simplest
arrangement contains a healthy trip lamp, as shown in
Figure 2.11(a).
The resistance in series with the lamp prevents the
breaker being tripped by an internal short circuit caused
by failure of the lamp. This provides supervision while
the circuit breaker is closed; a simple extension gives
pre-closing supervision.
2.11.2
Shunt reinforcing
Figure 2.11(b) shows how, the addition of a normally
closed auxiliary switch and a resistance unit can provide
supervision while the breaker is both open and closed.
Here the sensitive contacts are arranged to trip the
circuit breaker and simultaneously to energise the
auxiliary unit, which then reinforces the contact that is
energising the trip coil.
PR
52a
TC
Two contacts are required on the protection relay, since
it is not permissible to energise the trip coil and the
reinforcing contactor in parallel. If this were done, and
more than one protection relay were connected to trip
the same circuit breaker, all the auxiliary relays would be
energised in parallel for each relay operation and the
indication would be confused.
(a)
Supervision while circuit breaker is closed (scheme H4)
PR
52a
TC
52b
(b)
Supervision while circuit breaker is open or closed (scheme H5)
PR
52a
TC
2 •
The duplicate main contacts are frequently provided as a
three-point arrangement to reduce the number of
contact fingers.
A
B
C
Alarm
(c)
Supervision with circuit breaker open or closed
2.11.3
Shunt reinforcement with sealing
with remote alarm (scheme H7)
This is a development of the shunt reinforcing circuit to
make it applicable to situations where there is a
possibility of contact bounce for any reason.
Trip
Circuit breaker
TC
Trip
52a
Using the shunt reinforcing system under these
circumstances would result in chattering on the auxiliary
unit, and the possible burning out of the contacts, not
only of the sensitive element but also of the auxiliary
unit. The chattering would end only when the circuit
breaker had finally tripped. The effect of contact bounce
52b
(d)
Implementation of H5 scheme in numerical relay
Figure 2.11: Trip circuit supervision circuits.
14
Network
Protection
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Fundamentals
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Chap2-4-15 21/06/02 10:45 Page 15 In either case, the addition of a normally open push- button
Chap2-4-15 21/06/02
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Page 15
In either case, the addition of a normally open push-
button contact in series with the lamp will make the
supervision indication available only when required.
Schemes using a lamp to indicate continuity are suitable
for locally controlled installations, but when control is
exercised from a distance it is necessary to use a relay
system. Figure 2.11(c) illustrates such a scheme, which is
applicable wherever a remote signal is required.
With the circuit healthy, either or both of relays A and B
are operated and energise relay C. Both A and B must
reset to allow C to drop-off. Relays A, B and C are time
delayed to prevent spurious alarms during tripping or
closing operations. The resistors are mounted separately
from the relays and their values are chosen such that if
any one component is inadvertently short-circuited,
tripping will not take place.
The alarm supply should be independent of the tripping
supply so that indication will be obtained in case of
failure of the tripping supply.
The above schemes are commonly known as the H4, H5
and H7 schemes, arising from the diagram references of
the Utility specification in which they originally
appeared. Figure 2.11(d) shows implementation of
scheme H5 using the facilities of a modern numerical
relay. Remote indication is achieved through use of
programmable logic and additional auxiliary outputs
available in the protection relay.
2 •
Network
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&
Automation
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15
Fundamentals
of
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Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:22 Page 16 3 Fundamental Theory • • Introduction 3.1 Vector algebra 3.2 Manipulation
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:22
Page 16
3
Fundamental
Theory
Introduction
3.1
Vector algebra
3.2
Manipulation of complex quantities
3.3
Circuit quantities and conventions
3.4
Impedance notation
3.5
Basic circuit laws,
theorems and network reduction
3.6
References
3.7
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:23 Page 17 3 • Fundamental Theory • 3.1 INTRODUCTION The Protection Engineer is
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:23
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3 •
Fundamental Theory
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The Protection Engineer is concerned with limiting the
effects of disturbances in a power system. These
disturbances, if allowed to persist, may damage plant
and interrupt the supply of electric energy. They are
described as faults (short and open circuits) or power
swings, and result from natural hazards (for instance
lightning), plant failure or human error.
To facilitate rapid removal of a disturbance from a power
system, the system is divided into 'protection zones'.
Relays monitor the system quantities (current, voltage)
appearing in these zones; if a fault occurs inside a zone,
the relays operate to isolate the zone from the remainder
of the power system.
The operating characteristic of a relay depends on the
energizing quantities fed to it such as current or voltage,
or various combinations of these two quantities, and on
the manner in which the relay is designed to respond to
this information. For example, a directional relay
characteristic would be obtained by designing the relay
to compare the phase angle between voltage and current
at the relaying point. An impedance-measuring
characteristic, on the other hand, would be obtained by
designing the relay to divide voltage by current. Many
other more complex relay characteristics may be
obtained by supplying various combinations of current
and voltage to the relay. Relays may also be designed to
respond to other system quantities such as frequency,
power, etc.
In order to apply protection relays, it is usually necessary
to know the limiting values of current and voltage, and
their relative phase displacement at the relay location,
for various types of short circuit and their position in the
system. This normally requires some system analysis for
faults occurring at various points in the system.
The main components that make up a power system are
generating sources, transmission and distribution
networks, and loads. Many transmission and distribution
circuits radiate from key points in the system and these
circuits are controlled by circuit breakers. For the
purpose of analysis, the power system is treated as a
network of circuit elements contained in branches
radiating from nodes to form closed loops or meshes.
The system variables are current and voltage, and in
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Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:25 Page 18 steady state analysis, they are regarded as time varying The representation
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:25
Page 18
steady state analysis, they are regarded as time varying
The representation of a vector quantity algebraically in
quantities at a single and constant frequency. The
terms of its rectangular co-ordinates is called a 'complex
network parameters are impedance and admittance;
quantity'. Therefore, x + jy is a complex quantity and is
these are assumed to be linear, bilateral (independent of
the rectangular form of the vector |Z|∠θ where:
current direction) and constant for a constant frequency.
(
2
2
)
Z
=
xy
+
3.2 VECTOR ALGEBRA
y
− 1
θ = tan
x
A vector represents a quantity in both magnitude and
x
=
Z cos θ
direction. In Figure 3.1 the vector OP has a magnitude
|Z| at an angle θ with the reference axis OX.
y
=
Z
sin θ
…Equation 3.2
Figure 3.1
Y
From Equations 3.1 and 3.2:
Z = |Z| (cos θ + jsin θ)
…Equation 3.3
P
and
since
cos θ
and
sin θ
may
be
expressed
in
exponential form by the identities:
|Z|
j
θ
j
θ
q
y
e
e
sin θ =
2 j
X
0
x
j
θ
j
θ
e
e
cos θ =
2
Figure 3.1: Vector OP
it follows that Z may also be written as:
It may be resolved into two components at right angles
Z =
|Z|e j θ
…Equation 3.4
to each other, in this case x and y. The magnitude or
Therefore, a vector quantity may also be represented
scalar value of vector Z is known as the modulus |Z|, and
trigonometrically and exponentially.
the angle θ is the argument, or amplitude, and is written
as arg. Z. The conventional method of expressing a vector
Z
is to write simply |Z|∠θ.
3.3
MANIPULATION
OF COMPLEX QUANTITIES
This form completely specifies a vector for graphical
representation or conversion into other forms.
Complex quantities may be represented in any of the
four co-ordinate systems given below:
For vectors to be
useful, they must
be expressed
algebraically. In Figure 3.1, the vector Z is the resultant
a.
Polar
Z ∠ θ
of vectorially adding its components x and y ;
3 •
b.
Rectangular
x + jy
algebraically this vector may be written as:
c.
Trigonometric
|Z| (cos θ + jsin θ)
Z = x + jy
…Equation 3.1
d.
Exponential
|Z|e jθ
where the operator j indicates that the component y is
The modulus |Z| and the argument θ are together known
perpendicular to component x . In electrical
as 'polar co-ordinates', and x and y are described as
nomenclature, the axis OC is the 'real' or 'in-phase' axis,
'cartesian co-ordinates'. Conversion between co-
and the vertical axis OY is called the 'imaginary' or
ordinate systems is easily achieved. As the operator j
'quadrature' axis. The operator j rotates a vector anti-
obeys the ordinary laws of algebra, complex quantities in
clockwise through 90°. If a vector is made to rotate anti-
rectangular form can be manipulated algebraically, as
clockwise through 180°, then the operator j has
can be seen by the following:
performed its function twice, and since the vector has
Z 1 +
Z 2 = (x 1 +x 2 ) + j(y 1 +y 2 )
…Equation 3.5
reversed its sense, then:
Z 1 -
Z 2 = (x 1 -x 2 ) + j(y 1 -y 2 )
…Equation 3.6
j x j or j 2 = -1
(see Figure 3.2)
whence j = √-1
18
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Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:25 Page 19 3.3.2 Complex Numbers ZZ = Z Z ∠+ θ θ 
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:25
Page 19
3.3.2 Complex Numbers
ZZ
=
Z
Z
∠+ θ
θ
12
1 2
1
2
A complex number may be defined as a constant that
Z
Z
1
1
represents the real and imaginary components of a
=
∠− θ
θ
1
2
Z
Z
physical quantity. The impedance parameter of an
2
2
…Equation 3.7
electric circuit is a complex number having real and
imaginary components, which are described as resistance
and reactance respectively.
Y
Confusion often arises between vectors and complex
numbers. A vector, as previously defined, may be a
complex number. In this context, it is simply a physical
quantity of constant magnitude acting in a constant
|Z 2 |
y 2
direction. A complex number, which, being a physical
quantity relating stimulus and response in a given
operation, is known as a 'complex operator'. In this
|Z 1 |
context, it is distinguished from a vector by the fact that
y 1
it has no direction of its own.
X
0
x
x
1
2
Because complex numbers assume a passive role in any
calculation, the form taken by the variables in the
Figure 3.2: Addition of vectors
problem determines the method of representing them.
3.3.1 Complex variables
3.3.3 Mathematical Operators
Some complex quantities are variable with, for example,
Mathematical operators are complex numbers that are
time; when manipulating such variables in differential
used to move a vector through a given angle without
equations it is expedient to write the complex quantity
changing the magnitude or character of the vector. An
in exponential form.
operator is not a physical quantity; it is dimensionless.
When dealing with such functions it is important to
The symbol j , which has been compounded with
appreciate that the quantity contains real and imaginary
quadrature components of complex quantities, is an
components. If it is required to investigate only one
operator that rotates a quantity anti-clockwise through
component of the complex variable, separation into
90°. Another useful operator is one which moves a
components must be carried out after the mathematical
vector anti-clockwise through 120 ° , commonly
operation has taken place.
represented by the symbol a.
Example: Determine the rate of change of the real
Operators are distinguished by one further feature; they
component of a vector |Z|∠wt with time.
are the roots of unity. Using De Moivre's theorem, the
nth root of unity is given by solving the expression:
|Z|∠wt = |Z| (coswt + jsinwt)
1 1/n = (cos2πm + jsin2πm) 1/n
= |Z|e jwt
3 •
where m is any integer. Hence:
The real component of the vector is |Z|coswt.
2
π
m
2
π m
Differentiating |Z| e jwt with respect to time:
1
1/ n
=
cos
+ j
sin
n
n
d
jwt
jwt
e
=
jw Z
e
where m has values 1, 2, 3,
...
(n-1)
dt Z
From the above expression j is found to be the 4th root
= jw|Z| (coswt + jsinwt)
and a the 3rd root of unity, as they have four and three
Separating into real and imaginary components:
distinct values respectively. Table 3.1 gives some useful
functions of the a operator.
d
(
jwt
Z
e
) =−( Z
w sin wt
+
jw cos wt
)
dt
Thus, the rate of change of the real component of a
vector |Z|∠wt is:
-|Z| w sinwt
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Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:25 Page 20 For example, the instantaneous value, e, of a voltage 2 π
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:25
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For example, the instantaneous value, e, of a voltage
2 π
varying sinusoidally with time is:
1
3
a
=−
+
je j
=
3
2
2
e=E m sin(wt+δ)
…Equation 3.8
4 π
1
3
2
a
=−
je j
=
3
where:
2
2
E m is the maximum amplitude of the waveform;
1=1+ j0 = e j0
ω=2πf, the angular velocity,
1+ a + a 2 = 0
δ is the argument defining the amplitude of the
voltage at a time t=0
2
1
− aj
=
3
a
At t=0, the actual value of the voltage is E m sin δ. So if
2
1
− a =− ja
3
E m is regarded as the modulus of a vector, whose
argument is δ, then E m sin δ is the imaginary component
2
aa
= j
3
of the vector |E m |∠δ. Figure 3.3 illustrates this quantity
2
as a vector and as a sinusoidal function of time.
a
a
j =
3
Y
e
Figure 3.3
Table 3.1: Properties of the a operator
|E m |
E m
3.4
CIRCUIT QUANTITIES
t
AND CONVENTIONS
X'
0
X
Circuit analysis may be described as the study of the
response of a circuit to an imposed condition, for
example a short circuit. The circuit variables are current
t = 0
Y'
and voltage. Conventionally, current flow results from
the application of a driving voltage, but there is
Figure 3.3: Representation
complete duality between the variables and either may
of a sinusoidal function
be regarded as the cause of the other.
When a circuit exists, there is an interchange of energy;
The current resulting from applying a voltage to a circuit
a circuit may be described as being made up of 'sources'
depends upon the circuit impedance. If the voltage is a
and 'sinks' for energy. The parts of a circuit are described
sinusoidal function at a given frequency and the
as elements; a 'source' may be regarded as an 'active'
impedance is constant the current will also vary
element and a 'sink' as a 'passive' element. Some circuit
harmonically at the same frequency, so it can be shown
elements are dissipative, that is, they are continuous
on the same vector diagram as the voltage vector, and is
sinks for energy, for example resistance. Other circuit
given by the equation
elements may be alternately sources and sinks, for
E
example capacitance and inductance. The elements of a
m
i
=
sin ( wt +−
δ
φ )
3 •
circuit are connected together to form a network having
Z
…Equation 3.9
nodes (terminals or junctions) and branches (series
where:
groups of elements) that form closed loops (meshes).
2
2
In steady state a.c. circuit theory, the ability of a circuit
Z
=
RX
+
to accept a current flow resulting from a given driving
1
 
voltage is called the impedance of the circuit. Since
X
=
ω
L
 
ω C
current and voltage are duals the impedance parameter
must also have a dual, called admittance.
− 1
X
φ
=
tan
R
…Equation 3.10
3.4.1 Circuit Variables
From Equations 3.9 and 3.10 it can be seen that the
As current and voltage are sinusoidal functions of time,
angular displacement φ between the current and voltage
varying at a single and constant frequency, they are
vectors and the current magnitude |I m |=|E m |/|Z| is
regarded as rotating vectors and can be drawn as plan
dependent upon the impedance Z . In complex form the
vectors (that is, vectors defined by two co-ordinates) on
impedance may be written
Z = R + jX .
The
'real
a vector diagram.
component', R , is the circuit resistance, and the
20
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Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:26 Page 21 'imaginary component', X, is the circuit reactance. When steady state terms
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:26
Page 21
'imaginary component', X, is the circuit reactance. When
steady state terms Equation 3.12 may be written:
the circuit reactance is inductive (that is, wL>1/wC), the
current 'lags' the voltage by an angle φ, and when it is
E
=
IZ
…Equation 3.13
capacitive (that is, 1/wC>wL) it 'leads' the voltage by an
and this is known as the equated-voltage equation [3.1].
angle φ.
It is the equation most usually adopted in electrical
When drawing vector diagrams, one vector is chosen as
network calculations, since it equates the driving
the 'reference vector' and all other vectors are drawn
voltages, which are known, to the passive voltages,
relative to the reference vector in terms of magnitude
which are functions of the currents to be calculated.
and angle. The circuit impedance |Z| is a complex
operator and is distinguished from a vector only by the
In describing circuits and drawing vector diagrams, for
fact that it has no direction of its own. A further
formal analysis or calculations, it is necessary to adopt a
convention is that sinusoidally varying quantities are
notation which defines the positive direction of assumed
described by their 'effective' or 'root mean square' (r.m.s.)
current flow, and establishes the direction in which
values; these are usually written using the relevant
positive voltage drops and voltage rises act. Two
symbol without a suffix.
methods are available; one, the double suffix method, is
used for symbolic analysis, the other, the single suffix or
Thus:
diagrammatic method, is used for numerical
calculations.
I
=
I
2
m
In the double suffix method the positive direction of
E
=
E
2 
m
…Equation 3.11
current flow is assumed to be from node a to node b and
the current is designated I ab . With the diagrammatic
The 'root mean square' value is that value which has the
method, an arrow indicates the direction of current flow.
same heating effect as a direct current quantity of that
value in the same circuit, and this definition applies to
The voltage rises are positive when acting in the
non-sinusoidal as well as sinusoidal quantities.
direction of current flow. It can be seen from Figure 3.4
that E 1 and E an are positive voltage rises and E 2 and
E bn are negative voltage rises. In the diagrammatic
3.4.2 Sign Conventions
method their direction of action is simply indicated by an
In describing the electrical state of a circuit, it is often
arrow, whereas in the double suffix method, E an and
E bn
necessary to refer to the 'potential difference' existing
indicate that there is a potential rise in directions na and nb.
between two points in the circuit. Since wherever such
Figure 3.4 Methods or representing a circuit
a potential difference exists, current will flow and energy
will either be transferred or absorbed, it is obviously
necessary to define a potential difference in more exact
Z 3
terms. For this reason, the terms voltage rise and voltage
I
drop are used to define more accurately the nature of the
Z
1
Z 2
potential difference.
Voltage rise is a rise in potential measured in the
E 1
E 2
direction of current flow between two points in a circuit.
3 •
Voltage drop is the converse. A circuit element with a
E 1 -E 2 =(Z 1 +Z 2 +Z 3 )I
voltage rise across it acts as a source of energy. A circuit
(a) Diagrammatic
element with a voltage drop across it acts as a sink of
energy. Voltage sources are usually active circuit
Z ab
a
b
elements, while sinks are usually passive circuit
I
ab
elements. The positive direction of energy flow is from
Z an
Z bn
sources to sinks.
Kirchhoff's first law states that the sum of the driving
E an
E bn
voltages must equal the sum of the passive voltages in a
closed loop. This is illustrated by the fundamental
n
equation of an electric circuit:
E an -E bn =(Z an +Z ab +Z bn )I ab
(b) Double suffix
Ldi
1
iR ++
idt = e
…Equation 3.12
dt
C
Figure 3.4 Methods of representing a circuit
where the terms on the left hand side of the equation are
voltage drops across the circuit elements. Expressed in
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Fundamental Theory
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:26 Page 22 Voltage drops are also positive when acting in the component of
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:26
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Voltage drops are also positive when acting in the
component of current, and is known as 'reactive power'.
direction of current flow.
From Figure 3.4(a) it can be
As P and Q are constants which specify the power
seen that (
Z 1 +
Z 2 + Z 3 ) I is the total voltage drop in the
exchange in a given circuit, and are products of the
loop in the direction of current flow, and must equate to
current and voltage vectors, then if S
is the vector
the total voltage rise
E 1 -
E 2 . In Figure 3.4(b), the voltage
— —
product E I it follows that with E as the reference vector
drop between nodes a and b designated V ab indicates
and φ as the angle between E and I :
that point b is at a lower potential than a, and is positive
when current flows from a to b. Conversely V ba is a
S = P + jQ
…Equation 3.16
negative voltage drop.
The quantity S is described as the 'apparent power', and
Symbolically:
is the term used in establishing the rating of a circuit.
S has units of VA.
V
-
V
V ab =
an
bn
V ba = V bn -
V
…Equation 3.14
an
3.4.4 Single-Phase and Polyphase Systems
where n is a common reference point.
A system is single or polyphase depending upon whether
the sources feeding it are single or polyphase. A source
is single or polyphase according to whether there are one
3.4.3 Power
or several driving voltages associated with it. For
The product of the potential difference across and the
example, a three-phase source is a source containing
current through a branch of a circuit is a measure of the
three alternating driving voltages that are assumed to
rate at which energy is exchanged between that branch
reach a maximum in phase order, A, B, C. Each phase
and the remainder of the circuit. If the potential
driving voltage is associated with a phase branch of the
difference is a positive voltage drop, the branch is
system network as shown in Figure 3.5(a).
passive and absorbs energy. Conversely, if the potential
If a polyphase system has balanced voltages, that is,
difference is a positive voltage rise, the branch is active
equal in magnitude and reaching a maximum at equally
and supplies energy.
displaced time intervals, and the phase branch
The rate at which energy is exchanged is known as
impedances are identical, it is called a 'balanced' system.
power, and by convention, the power is positive when
It will become 'unbalanced' if any of the above
energy is being absorbed and negative when being
conditions are not satisfied. Calculations using a
supplied. With a.c. circuits the power alternates, so, to
balanced polyphase system are simplified, as it is only
obtain a rate at which energy is supplied or absorbed, it
necessary to solve for a single phase, the solution for the
is necessary to take the average power over one whole
remaining phases being obtained by symmetry.
cycle.
The power system is normally operated as a three-phase,
If e=E m sin(wt+δ) and i=I m sin(wt+δ-φ), then the power
balanced, system. For this reason the phase voltages are
equation is:
equal in magnitude and can be represented by three
p =ei =P[1 -cos2(wt +δ )] +Qsin2(wt +δ)
vectors spaced 120° or 2π/3 radians apart, as shown in
Figure 3.5(b).
…Equation 3.15
where:
3 •
P=|E||I|cos φ
and
A
A'
Q=|E||I|sin φ
E an
Phase branches
N
N'
E cn
E bn
From Equation 3.15 it can be seen that the quantity P
C
B
C'
B'
varies from 0 to 2P and quantity Q varies from -Q to +Q
in one cycle, and that the waveform is of twice the
(a) Three-phase system
periodic frequency of the current voltage waveform.
E a
The average value of the power exchanged in one cycle
Direction
is a constant, equal to quantity P, and as this quantity is
of rotation
120°
120°
the product of the voltage and the component of current
which is 'in phase' with the voltage it is known as the
E c =aE a
120°
E b =a 2 E a
'real' or 'active' power.
(b) Balanced system of vectors
The average value of quantity Q is zero when taken over
a cycle, suggesting that energy is stored in one half-cycle
Figure 3.5: Three-phase systems
and returned to the circuit in the remaining half-cycle.
Q is the product of voltage and the quadrature
22
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Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:26 Page 23 Since the voltages are symmetrical, they may be system impedances may
Chap3-16-29 1/07/02 8:26
Page 23
Since the voltages are symmetrical, they may be
system impedances may be converted to those base
expressed in terms of one, that is:
quantities by using the equations given below:
MVA
E a = E a
b 2
Z
=
Z
×
b
2
b
1
MVA
b 1
E b = a 2
E a
2
E c = a
kV
E a
…Equation 3.17
b 1
Z
=
Z
× 
b
2
b
1
 kV
b 2
…Equation 3.20
where a is the vector operator e j2π/3 . Further, if the phase
where suffix b1 denotes the value to the original base
branch impedances are identical in a balanced system, it
follows that the resulting currents are also balanced.
and b2 denotes the value to new base
The choice of impedance notation depends upon the
complexity of the system, plant impedance notation and
3.5 IMPEDANCE NOTATION
the nature of the system calculations envisaged.
It
can
be seen
by inspection of any power
system
If the system is relatively simple and contains mainly
diagram that:
transmission line data, given in ohms, then the ohmic
a. several voltage levels exist in a system
method can be adopted with advantage. However, the
per unit method of impedance notation is the most
b. it is common practice
to refer to plant
MVA in
common for general system studies since:
terms of per unit or percentage values
1.
impedances are the same referred to either side of
c. transmission line and cable constants are given in
a transformer if the ratio of base voltages on the
ohms/km
two sides of a transformer is equal to the
Before any system calculations can take place, the
transformer turns ratio
system parameters must be referred to 'base quantities'
2.
confusion caused by the introduction of powers of
and represented as a unified system of impedances in
100 in percentage calculations is avoided
either ohmic, percentage, or per unit values.
3.
by a suitable choice of bases, the magnitudes of
The base quantities are power and voltage. Normally,
the data and results are kept within a predictable
they are given in terms of the three-phase power in MVA
range, and hence errors in data and computations
and the line voltage in kV. The base impedance resulting
are easier to spot
from the above base quantities is:
Most power system studies are carried out using
(
kV
) 2
software in per unit quantities. Irrespective of the
Z
ohms
b =
…Equation 3.18
MVA
method of calculation, the choice of base voltage, and
unifying system impedances to this base, should be
and, provided the system is balanced, the base
approached with caution, as shown in the following
impedance may be calculated using either single-phase
example.
or three-phase quantities.
The per unit or percentage value of any impedance in the
system is the ratio of actual to base impedance values.
3 •
11.8kV
11.8/141kV
132/11kV
Hence:
132kV
11kV
MVA
Overhead line
Distribution
Z
(
p u
.
.
)=
Z ohms
(
)× (
b
2
kV
)
b
Wrong selection of base voltage
Z
(
%
)=
Z pu
(
..
100
…Equation 3.19
11.8kV
132kV
11kV
Right selection
where MVA b = base MVA
141
11.8kV
141kV
x 11=11.7kV
132
kV b = base kV
Simple transposition of the above formulae will refer the
Figure 3.6: Selection of base voltages
ohmic value of impedance to the per unit or percentage
values and base quantities.
Having chosen base quantities of suitable magnitude all
Network
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23
Fundamental Theory
Chap3-16-29 21/06/02 10:28 Page 24 From Figure 3.6 it can be seen that the base voltages
Chap3-16-29
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Page 24
From Figure 3.6 it can be seen that the base voltages in
3.6 BASIC CIRCUIT LAWS,
the three circuits are related by the turns ratios of the
THEOREMS AND NETWORK REDUCTION
intervening transformers. Care is required as the
Most practical power system problems are solved by
nominal transformation ratios of the transformers
using steady state analytical methods. The assumptions
quoted may be different from the turns ratios- e.g. a
made are that the circuit parameters are linear and
110/33kV (nominal) transformer may have a turns ratio
bilateral and constant for constant frequency circuit
of 110/34.5kV. Therefore, the rule for hand calculations
variables. In some problems, described as initial value
is: 'to refer an impedance in ohms from one circuit to
problems, it is necessary to study the behaviour of a
another multiply the given impedance by the square of
circuit in the transient state. Such problems can be
the turns ratio (open circuit voltage ratio) of the
solved using operational methods. Again, in other
intervening transformer'.
problems, which fortunately are few in number, the
Where power system simulation software is used, the
assumption of linear, bilateral circuit parameters is no
software normally has calculation routines built in to
longer valid. These problems are solved using advanced
adjust transformer parameters to take account of
mathematical techniques that are beyond the scope of
differences between the nominal primary and secondary
this book.
voltages and turns ratios. In this case, the choice of base
voltages may be more conveniently made as the nominal
voltages of each section of the power system. This
3.6.1 Circuit Laws
approach avoids confusion when per unit or percent
In linear, bilateral circuits, three basic network laws
values are used in calculations in translating the final
apply, regardless of the state of the circuit, at any
results into volts, amps, etc.
particular instant of time. These laws are the branch,
For example, in Figure 3.7, generators G 1 and G 2 have a
junction and mesh laws, due to Ohm and Kirchhoff, and
sub-transient reactance of 26% on 66.6MVA rating at
are stated below, using steady state a.c. nomenclature.
11kV, and transformers T 1 and
T 2 a
voltage ratio of
3.6.1.1
Branch law
11/145kV and an impedance of 12.5% on 75MVA.
The current
I
in
a
given branch of impedance
Z
is
Choosing 100MVA as base MVA and 132kV as base
proportional to the potential difference
V appearing
voltage, find the percentage impedances to new base
— —
across the branch, that is, V = I Z .
quantities.
3.6.1.2
Junction law
a. Generator reactances to new bases are:
The algebraic sum of all currents entering any junction
2
)
100
11
(or node) in a network is zero, that is:
26
×
× (
= 0 . 27
%
2
66 6
.
(
132
)
I
= 0
b. Transformer reactances to new bases are:
3.6.1.3
Mesh law
2
(
)
100
145
12
.
5
×
×
= 20 .% 1
The algebraic sum of all the driving voltages
in
any
2
75
(
132
)
closed path (or mesh) in a network is equal to the
algebraic sum of all the passive voltages (products of the
3 •
NOTE: The base voltages of the generator and circuits
impedances and the currents) in the components
are 11kV and 145kV respectively, that is, the turns
branches, that is:
ratio of the transformer. The corresponding per unit
values can be found by dividing by 100, and the ohmic
E =
ZI
value can be found by using Equation 3.19.
Alternatively, the total change in potential around a
closed loop is zero.
Figure 3.7
T 1
G 1
3.6.2 Circuit Theorems
132kV
overhead
From the above network laws, many theorems have been
lines
G 2
derived for the rationalisation of networks, either to
T 2
reach a quick, simple, solution to a problem or to
represent a complicated circuit by an equivalent. These
theorems are divided into two classes: those concerned
with the general properties of networks and those
Figure 3.7: Section of a power system
24
Network
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Chap3-16-29 21/06/02 10:28 Page 25 concerned with network reduction. 3.6.3 Network Reduction Of the many theorems
Chap3-16-29
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Page 25
concerned with network reduction.
3.6.3 Network Reduction
Of
the
many theorems that
exist,
the three most
The aim of network reduction is to reduce a system to a
important are given. These are: the Superposition
simple equivalent while retaining the identity of that
Theorem, Thévenin's Theorem and Kennelly's Star/Delta
part of the system to be studied.
Theorem.
For example, consider the system shown in Figure 3.9.
3.6.2.1
Superposition Theorem
The network has two sources E ’ and E ’’, a line AOB
(general network theorem)
shunted by an impedance, which may be regarded as the
reduction of a further network connected between A and
The resultant current that flows in any branch of a
B, and a load connected between O and N. The object of
network due to the simultaneous action of several
the reduction is to study the effect of opening a breaker
driving voltages is equal to the algebraic sum of the
at A or B during normal system operations, or of a fault
component currents due to each driving voltage acting
at A or B. Thus the identity of nodes A and B must be
alone with the remainder short-circuited.
retained together with the sources, but the branch ON
3.6.2.2
Thévenin's Theorem
can be eliminated, simplifying the study. Proceeding, A,
(active network reduction theorem)
B, N, forms a star branch and can therefore be converted
to an equivalent delta.
Any
active
network that
may
be
viewed
from two
terminals
can
be replaced
by
a
single driving voltage
acting in series with a single impedance.
The driving
Figure 3.9
voltage is the open-circuit voltage between the two
2.55Ω
terminals and the impedance is the impedance of the
1.6Ω
0.4Ω
network viewed from the terminals with all sources
A
B
short-circuited.
0
0.75Ω
0.45Ω
3.6.2.3
Kennelly's Star/Delta Theorem
E'
E'
(passive network reduction theorem)
18.85Ω
Any three-terminal network can be replaced by a delta or
star impedance equivalent without disturbing the
N
external network. The formulae relating the replacement
of a delta network by the equivalent star network is as
Figure 3.9: Typical power system network
follows (Figure 3.8):
Z co =
Z 13
Z 23 / ( Z 12 + Z 13 + Z 23 )
Z
Z
AO
NO
and so on.
ZZZ
=++
AN
AO
NO
Z
BO
Z
Z ao
O
0 75
.
×
18 85
.
Z bo
12
a
b
1
2
=+
0 75
.
18 85
.
+
0 45
.
= 51 ohms
Z co
Z 13
Z 23
3 •
c
3
Z
Z
BO
NO
(a) Star network
(b) Delta network
ZZZ
=++
BN
BO
NO
Z
AO
Figure 3.8: Star/Delta network reduction
Figure 3.8: Star-Delta network transformation
0 45
.
×
18 85
.
=+
0 45
.
18 85
.
+
0 75
.
The impedance of a delta network corresponding to and
=30.6 ohms
replacing any star network is:
Z ao
Z bo
————————
Z 12 =
Z ao + Z bo +
Z
Z
Z co
AO
BO
ZZZ
=
++
AN
AO
BO
and so on.
Z
NO
= 1.2 ohms (since Z NO >>> Z AO Z BO )
Figure 3.10
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25
Fundamental Theory
Chap3-16-29 21/06/02 10:28 Page 26 Most reduction problems follow the same pattern as the 2.5Ω example
Chap3-16-29
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Page 26
Most reduction problems follow the same pattern as the
2.5Ω
example above. The rules to apply in practical network
reduction are:
1.6Ω
1.2Ω
0.4Ω
A
B
a.
decide
on
the
nature
of
the disturbance or
disturbances to be studied
51Ω
30.6Ω
E'
E'
b.
decide on the information required, for example
the branch currents in the network for a fault at a
N
particular location
c.
reduce
all
passive sections of the network
not
Figure 3.10: Reduction using
star/delta transform
directly
involved
with
the
section
under
examination
The network is now reduced as shown in Figure 3.10.
d.
reduce all active meshes to a simple equivalent,
By applying Thévenin's theorem to the active loops, these
that is, to a simple source in series with a single
can be replaced by a single driving voltage in series with
impedance
an impedance as shown in Figure 3.11.
With the widespread availability of computer-based
power system simulation software, it is now usual to use
1.6 x 51
Figure 3.11
such software on a routine basis for network calculations
1.6Ω
52.6
A
A
without significant network reduction taking place.
However, the network reduction techniques given above
51
E'
51Ω
are still valid, as there will be occasions where such
E'
52.6
software is not immediately available and a hand
calculation must be carried out.
N
N
In certain circuits, for example parallel lines on the same
(a) Reduction of left active mesh
towers, there is mutual coupling between branches.
0.4 x 30.6
Correct circuit reduction must take account of this
0.4Ω
31
coupling.
B
B
30.6Ω
30.6
E''
E''
Figure 3.13
I
31
Z aa
a
I
N
N
P
Q
Z ab
(b) Reduction of right active mesh
I
b
Z bb
Figure 3.11: Reduction of active meshes:
(a) Actual circuit
Thévenin's Theorem
The network shown in Figure 3.9 is now reduced to that
I
P
Q
3 •
shown in Figure 3.12 with the nodes A and B retaining
Z= Z aa Z bb -Z 2 ab
their identity. Further, the load impedance has been
Z aa +Z bb -2Z ab
completely eliminated.
(b) Equivalent when Z aa ≠Z bb
The network shown in Figure 3.12 may now be used to
I
study system disturbances, for example power swings
P
Q
with and without faults.
1
Z=
(Z aa +Z bb )
2
(c) Equivalent when Z aa =Z bb
2.5Ω
Figure 3.12
1.55Ω
0.39Ω
Figure 3.13: Reduction of two branches
A
B
with mutual coupling
1.2Ω
Three cases are of interest. These are:
0.97E'
0.99E'
a.
two branches connected together at their nodes
b.
two branches connected together at one node only
N
c.
two branches that remain unconnected
Figure 3.12: Reduction of typical
power system network
26
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Chap3-16-29 21/06/02 10:28 Page 27 Considering each case in turn: The assumption is made that an
Chap3-16-29
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Considering each case in turn:
The assumption is made that an equivalent star
network can replace the network shown. From
a. consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.13(a). The
inspection with one terminal isolated in turn and a
application of a voltage V between the terminals P
voltage V impressed across the remaining terminals
and Q gives:
it can be seen that:
V
= I a Z aa + I b Z ab
Z a +Z c =Z aa
V
= I a Z ab + I b Z bb
Z b +Z c =Z bb
where I a and I b are the currents in branches a and
Z a +Z b =Z aa +Z bb -2Z ab
b, respectively and I = I a + I b , the total current
entering at terminal P and leaving at terminal Q.
Solving these equations gives:
Solving for I a and I b :
ZZ
=
Z
a
aa
ab
(
Z
ZV
)
bb
ab
ZZ
=
Z
I
=
b
bb
ab
a
ZZ
Z
2
aa
bb
ab
Z
=
Z
c
ab
…Equation 3.23
from which
-see Figure 3.14(b).
(
Z
ZV
)
aa
ab
I
=
b
ZZ
Z
2
aa
bb
ab
c. consider the four-terminal network given in Figure
and
3.15(a), in which the branches 11' and 22' are
electrically separate except for a mutual link. The
VZ
(
+
Z
− 2
Z
)
aa
bb
ab
equations defining the network are:
II
=+=
I
a
b
ZZ
Z
2
aa
bb
ab
V
1 =Z
I 1 +Z
11
12 I 2
so that the equivalent
impedance of the original
V
2 =Z
I 1 +Z
circuit is:
21
22 I 2
I
1 =Y 11
V 1 +Y 12
V 2
V
ZZ
Z
2
aa
bb
ab
Z =
=
I
ZZ
2 =Y 21
V 1 +Y 22
V 2
I
+
− 2
Z
aa
bb
ab
…Equation 3.21
where Z 12 =Z 21 and Y 12 =Y 21 , if the network is
(Figure 3.13(b)), and, if the branch impedances are
assumed to be reciprocal. Further, by solving the
equal, the usual case, then:
above equations it can be shown that:
1
Z =
(
ZZ
+
)
Y
=
Z
aa
ab
11
22
2
…Equation 3.22
Y
=
Z
(Figure 3.13(c)).
22
11
Y
=
Z
12
12
b. consider the circuit in Figure 3.14(a).
∆ =
ZZ
Z
2
11
22
12
…Equation 3.24
3 •
There are three independent coefficients, namely
Z aa
A
Z 12 , Z 11 , Z 22 , so the original circuit may be
replaced by an equivalent mesh containing four
Z ab
C
external terminals, each terminal being connected
to the other three by branch impedances as shown
B
in Figure 3.15(b).
Z bb
(a) Actual circuit
Z a =Z aa -Z ab
Z 11
Z 11
1
1'
1
1'
A
Z 12
Z 12
Z 12
Z 21
Z 12
C
Z c =Z ab
2
2'
2
2'
B
Z 22
Z 22
(a) Actual circuit
(b) Equivalent circuit
Z b =Z bb -Z ab
(b) Equivalent circuit
Figure 3.15 : Equivalent circuits for
four terminal network with mutual coupling
Figure 3.14: Reduction of mutually-coupled branches
with a common terminal
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Fundamental Theory
Chap3-16-29 21/06/02 10:28 Page 28 In order to evaluate the branches of the equivalent defining the
Chap3-16-29
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In order to evaluate the branches of the equivalent
defining the equivalent mesh in Figure 3.15(b), and
mesh let all points of entry of the actual circuit be
inserting radial branches having impedances equal
commoned except node 1 of circuit 1, as shown in
to Z 11 and Z 22 in terminals 1 and 2, results in
Figure 3.15(c). Then all impressed voltages except
Figure 3.15(d).
V 1 will be zero and:
I 1 = Y 11 V 1
3.7 REFERENCES
I 2 = Y 12 V 1
3.1
Power System Analysis. J. R. Mortlock and
If the same conditions are applied to the equivalent
M. W. Humphrey Davies. Chapman & Hall.
mesh, then:
3.2
Equivalent Circuits I. Frank M. Starr, Proc. A.I.E.E.
I 1 = V 1 Z 11
Vol. 51. 1932, pp. 287-298.
I 2 = -V 1 /Z 12 = -V 1 /Z 12
These relations follow from the fact that the branch
connecting nodes 1 and 1' carries current I 1 and
the branches connecting nodes 1 and 2' and 1 and
2 carry current I 2 . This must be true since branches
between pairs of commoned nodes can carry no
current.
By considering each node
in
turn
with the
remainder commoned, the following relationships
are found:
Z 11’ = 1/Y 11
Z 22’ = 1/Y 22
Z 12’ = -1/Y 12
Z 12 = Z 1’ 2’ = -Z 21’
= -Z 12’
Hence:
Z 11’ = Z 11 Z 22 -Z 2 12
_______________
Z 22
Z 22’ = Z 11 Z 22 -Z 2 12
_______________
Z 11
Z 12 = Z 11 Z 22 -Z 2 12
_______________
…Equation 3.25
Z 12
A similar but equally rigorous equivalent circuit is
3 •
shown in Figure 3.15(d). This circuit [3.2] follows
from the fact that the self-impedance of any circuit
is independent of all other circuits. Therefore, it
need not appear in any of the mutual branches if it
is lumped as a radial branch at the terminals. So
putting Z 11 and Z 22 equal to zero in Equation 3.25,
Z 11
1
1
1'
Z 12
Z 11
Z 12
Z 12
-Z 12
-Z 12
Z 12
C
2
2'
Z 12
(c) Equivalent with all
(d) Equivalent circuit
nodes commoned
except 1
Figure 3.15: Equivalent circuits for
four terminal network with mutual coupling
28
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Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 30 4 Fault Calculations • • Introduction 4.1 Three phase fault calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
9:57
Page 30
4
Fault
Calculations
Introduction
4.1
Three phase fault calculations
4.2
Symmetrical component analysis
of a three-phase network
4.3
Equations and network connections
for various types of faults
4.4
Current and voltage distribution
in a system due to a fault
4.5
Effect of system earthing
on zero sequence quantities
4.6
References
4.7
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 31 4 • Fault Calculations • 4.1 INTRODUCTION A power system is
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
9:57
Page 31
4 •
Fault Calculations
4.1
INTRODUCTION
A power system is normally treated as a balanced
symmetrical three-phase network. When a fault occurs,
the symmetry is normally upset, resulting in unbalanced
currents and voltages appearing in the network. The only
exception is the three-phase fault, which, because it
involves all three phases equally at the same location, is
described as a symmetrical fault. By using symmetrical
component analysis and replacing the normal system
sources by a source at the fault location, it is possible to
analyse these fault conditions.
For the correct application of protection equipment, it is
essential to know the fault current distribution
throughout the system and the voltages in different
parts of the system due to the fault. Further, boundary
values of current at any relaying point must be known if
the fault is to be cleared with discrimination. The
information normally required for each kind of fault at
each relaying point is:
i. maximum fault current
ii. minimum fault current
iii. maximum through fault current
To obtain the above information, the limits of stable
generation and possible operating conditions, including
the method of system earthing, must be known. Faults
are always assumed to be through zero fault impedance.
4.2
THREE-PHASE FAULT CALCULATIONS
Three-phase faults are unique in that they are balanced,
that is, symmetrical in the three phases, and can be
calculated from the single-phase impedance diagram
and the operating conditions existing prior to the fault.
A fault condition is a sudden abnormal alteration to the
normal circuit arrangement. The circuit quantities,
current and voltage, will alter, and the circuit will pass
through a transient state to a steady state. In the
transient state, the initial magnitude of the fault current
will depend upon the point on the voltage wave at which
the fault occurs. The decay of the transient condition,
until it merges into steady state, is a function of the
parameters of the circuit elements. The transient current
may be regarded as a d.c. exponential current
Network
Protection
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31
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 32 superimposed on the symmetrical steady state fault be added to the
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
9:57
Page 32
superimposed on the symmetrical steady state fault
be added to the currents circulating in the system due to
current. In a.c. machines, owing to armature reaction,
the fault, to give the total current in any branch of the
the machine reactances pass through 'sub transient' and
system at the time of fault inception. However, in most
'transient' stages before reaching their steady state
problems, the load current is small in comparison to the
synchronous values. For this reason, the resultant fault
fault current and is usually ignored.
current during the transient period, from fault inception
In a practical power system, the system regulation is
to steady state also depends on the location of the fault
such that the load voltage at any point in the system is
in the network relative to that of the rotating plant.
within 10% of the declared open-circuit voltage at that
In a system containing many voltage sources, or having
point. For this reason, it is usual to regard the pre-fault
a complex network arrangement, it is tedious to use the
voltage at the fault as being the open-circuit voltage,
normal system voltage sources to evaluate the fault
and this assumption is also made in a number of the
current in the faulty branch or to calculate the fault
standards dealing with fault level calculations.
current distribution in the system. A more practical
For an example of practical three-phase fault
method [4.1] is to replace the system voltages by a single
calculations, consider a fault at A in Figure 3.9. With the
driving voltage at the fault point. This driving voltage is
network reduced as shown in Figure 4.2, the load voltage
the voltage existing at the fault point before the fault
at A before the fault occurs is:
occurs.
Consider the circuit given in Figure 4.1 where the driving
voltages are E and E’ , the impedances on either side of
Figure 4.2:
2.5
fault point F are Z 1 ’ and Z 1 ’’ , and the current through
0.39 Ω
1.55 Ω
point F before the fault occurs is I .
A
B
1.2
Figure 4.1:
0.97E '
0.99E ''
Z '
Z ''
1
1
F
I
N
E'
E'
V
Figure 4.2: Reduction of typical
power system network
V = 0.97 E’ - 1.55 I
N
 12 .
×
25
.
V =
0 99
.
E
''
+
+
0 39
.
I
25
.
+
12
.
Figure 4.1: Network with fault at F
For
practical
working
conditions,
E ’ 〉〉〉 1.55 I and
E’’ 〉〉〉 1.207 I . Hence E’ ≅ E’’ ≅ V.
The voltage V at F before fault inception is:
Replacing the driving voltages
E’ and
E’’ by
the load
— —
— —
4 •
V = E - I Z‘ = E’’ + I Z’’
voltage V between A and N modifies the circuit as shown
in Figure 4.3(a).
After the fault the voltage V is zero. Hence, the change
in voltage is - V . Because of the fault, the change in the
The node A is the junction of three branches. In practice,
current flowing into the network from F is:
the node would be a busbar, and the branches are
(
feeders radiating from the bus via circuit breakers, as
Z
'
+
Z
''
)
V
1
1
∆ I =−
=− V
shown in Figure 4.3(b). There are two possible locations
Z
1
Z Z
'
''
for a fault at A; the busbar side of the breakers or the
1
1
line side of the breakers. In this example, it is assumed
and, since no current was flowing into the network from
that the fault is at X, and it is required to calculate the
F prior to the fault, the fault current flowing from the
current flowing from the bus to X.
network into the fault is:
(
)
The
network viewed
from AN
has
a
driving point
Z
'
+
Z
''
1
1
impedance |Z 1 | = 0.68 ohms.
I f
=−
∆ I
=
V
Z Z
'
''
1
1
V
The current in the fault is
By applying the principle of superposition, the load
Z 1
.
currents circulating in the system prior to the fault may
32
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Protection
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Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 33 Let this current be 1.0 per unit. It is now necessary
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
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Page 33
Let this current be 1.0 per unit. It is now necessary to
Therefore, current in 2.5 ohm branch
find the fault current distribution in the various branches
1 2
.
×
0 563
.
of the network and in particular the current flowing from
=
= 0 . 183
p.u.
A to X on the assumption that a relay at X is to detect
3
.
7
the fault condition. The equivalent impedances viewed
and the current in 1.2 ohm branch
from either side of the fault are shown in Figure 4.4(a).
2 5
.
×
0 563
.
=
= 0 38
.
p.u.
3
.
7
2.5Ω
Figure 4.3
Total current entering X from the left, that is, from A to
1.55Ω
0.39Ω
X, is 0.437 + 0.183 = 0.62 p.u. and from B to X is
Figure 4.4
A
B
1.2Ω
0.38p.u. The equivalent network as viewed from the
V
relay is as shown in Figure 4.4(b). The impedances on
either side are:
N
(a) Three - phase fault diagram for a fault at node A
0.68/0.62 = 1.1 ohms
and
Busbar
Circuit breaker
0.68/0.38 = 1.79 ohms
The circuit of Figure 4.4 (b) has been included because
A
the Protection Engineer is interested in these equivalent
X
parameters when applying certain types of protection
relay.
(b) Typical physical arrangement of node A with a fault shown at X
4.3 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS
Figure 4.3: Network with fault at node A
OF A THREE-PHASE NETWORK
The Protection Engineer is interested in a wider variety of
1.55Ω
1.21Ω
faults than just a three-phase fault. The most common
A
fault is a single-phase to earth fault, which, in LV
systems, can produce a higher fault current than a three-
phase fault. Similarly, because protection is expected to
V
operate correctly for all types of fault, it may be
necessary to consider the fault currents due to many
N
different types of fault. Since the three-phase fault is
(a) Impedance viewed from node A
unique in being a balanced fault, a method of analysis
that is applicable to unbalanced faults is required. It can
1.1Ω
1.79Ω
be shown [4.2] that, by applying the 'Principle of
X
Superposition', any general three-phase system of
4 •
vectors may be replaced by three sets of balanced
(symmetrical) vectors; two sets are three-phase but
V
having opposite phase rotation and one set is co-phasal.
These vector sets are described as the positive, negative
N
and zero sequence sets respectively.
(b) Equivalent impedances viewed from node X
The equations between phase and sequence voltages are
given below:
Figure 4.4: Impedances viewed from fault
The currents from Figure 4.4(a) are as follows:
E
=++
EE
E
a
120
2
E
=
a
E
++
aE
E
1 55
.
b
1
20
From the right:
=
0 563
.
p.u.
2 76
.
2
E
=+
aE
a
E
+
E
c
1
2
0
…Equation 4.1
1 21
.
From the left:
=
0 437
.
p.u.
2 76
.
There is a parallel branch to the right of A
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33
Fault
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Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 34 — fault branch changes from 0 to I and the positive
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
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fault branch changes from 0 to
I
and
the
positive
1
(
2
E
=
E
++
aE
a
E
)
1
ab
c
sequence voltage across the branch changes from V to
V 1 ;
3
replacing the fault branch by a source equal to the change
1
(
2
in voltage and short-circuiting all normal driving voltages
E
=
E
++
a
E
aE
)
2
a
bc
3
in the system results in a current ∆ I flowing into the
1
system, and:
E
=
(
EEE
++
)
0
abc
3
…Equation 4.2
(
V
V
1 )
where all quantities are referred to the reference phase
∆I
= −
Z
…Equation 4.3
A.
A similar set of equations can be written for phase
1
and sequence currents. Figure 4.5 illustrates the
where
Z
is
the positive sequence impedance of the
1
resolution of a system of unbalanced vectors.
system viewed from the fault.
As before the fault no
current was flowing from the fault into the system, it
follows that
,
the
fault current flowing from the
E o
I 1
Figure 4.5
E o
a 2 E 2
system into the fault must equal - ∆ I . Therefore:
E 2
E a
V 1
=
V -
I
…Equation 4.4
E c
1
Z 1
aE 1
E 1
is the relationship between positive sequence currents
and voltages in the fault branch during a fault.
In Figure 4.6,
which represents a simple
system, the
a 2 E 1
E
b
voltage drops
I
’ Z 1 ’ and
I
’ Z 1 ’’ are equal to ( V -
1
1
V 1 )
where the currents
I 1 ’
and I 1 ’’ enter the fault from the
left and right respectively and impedances Z 1 ’ and
’’
Z 1
aE 2
are the total system impedances viewed from either side
of the fault branch. The voltage V is equal to the open-
E o
circuit voltage in the system, and it has been shown that
——
V ≅ E ≅ E ’’ (see Section 3.7). So the positive sequence
Figure 4.5: Resolution of a system
of unbalanced vectors
voltages in the system due to the fault are greatest at the
source, as shown in the gradient diagram, Figure 4.6(b).
When a fault occurs in a power system, the phase
impedances are no longer identical (except in the case of
X
three-phase faults) and the resulting currents and
Figure 4.6
∆Z '
Z ''
Z S1
1
F
1
voltages are unbalanced, the point of greatest unbalance
I
'
I ''
1
1
being at the fault point. It has been shown in Chapter 3
I
that the fault may be studied by short-circuiting all
Z '
1
1
normal driving voltages in the system and replacing the
V
E '
1
E '
fault connection by a source whose driving voltage is
equal to the pre-fault voltage at the fault point. Hence,
N
(a) System diagram
the system impedances remain symmetrical, viewed from
4 •
I '
the fault, and the fault point may now be regarded as the
1
N
point of injection of unbalanced voltages and currents
X
I
'
Z '
1
1
into the system.
V
This is a most important approach in defining the fault
F
V ' 1 +I ' 1 ∆Z '
1
conditions since it allows the system to be represented
V
1
by sequence networks [4.3] using the method of
N '
(b) Gradient diagram
symmetrical components.
Figure 4.6: Fault at F:
Positive sequence diagrams
4.3.1 Positive Sequence Network
4.3.2 Negative Sequence Network
During normal balanced system conditions, only positive
sequence currents and voltages can exist in the system,
If only positive sequence quantities appear in a power
and therefore the normal system impedance network is a
system under normal conditions, then negative sequence
positive sequence network.
quantities can only exist during an unbalanced fault.
When a fault occurs in a power system, the current in the
If no negative sequence quantities are present in the
34
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Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 35 fault branch prior to the fault, then, when a fault occurs,
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fault branch prior to the fault, then, when a fault occurs,
4.4 EQUATIONS AND NETWORK CONNECTIONS
the change in voltage is V 2 , and the resulting current
I
FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FAULTS
2
flowing from the network into the fault is:
The most important types of faults are as follows:
− V
a.
single-phase to earth
2
I
=
2
Z
…Equation 4.5
2
b.
phase to phase
The impedances in the negative sequence network are
c.
phase-phase-earth
generally
the
same
as
those in
the positive
sequence
d.
three-phase (with or without earth)
network. In machines
Z 2 , but the difference is
Z 1 ≠
generally ignored, particularly in large networks.
The above faults are described as single shunt faults
because they occur at one location and involve a
The negative sequence diagrams, shown in Figure 4.7, are
connection between one phase and another or to earth.
similar to the positive sequence diagrams, with two
important differences; no driving voltages exist before
In addition, the Protection Engineer often studies two
the fault and the negative sequence voltage
is
other types of fault:
V 2
greatest at the fault point.
e.
single-phase open circuit
f.
cross-country fault
Figure 4.7
X
By determining the currents and voltages at the fault
Z
∆ Z '
I '
I ''
S1
F
Z ''
point, it is possible to define the fault and connect the
1
2
2
1
sequence networks to represent the fault condition.
From the initial equations and the network diagram, the
I
2
Z '
1
nature of the fault currents and voltages in different
V
2
branches of the system can be determined.
N
For shunt faults of zero impedance, and neglecting load
(a) Negative sequence network
current, the equations defining each fault (using phase-
F
neutral values) can be written down as follows:
X
a.
Single-phase-earth (A-E)
V
2
I
= 0 
V 2 + I ' 2 ∆Z '
b
1
I
= 0
N
c
(b) Gradient diagram
V
= 0 
a
…Equation 4.7
Figure 4.7: Fault at F:
b.
Phase-phase (B-C)
Negative sequence diagram
I
= 0
a
4.3.3 Zero Sequence Network
I
= −
I
The zero sequence current and voltage relationships
b
c
during a fault condition are the same as those in the
V
=
V
b
c
…Equation 4.8
4 •
negative sequence network. Hence:
c.
Phase-phase-earth (B-C-E)
V 0
= -
I
Z 0
…Equation 4.6
0
I
= 0 
a
Also, the zero sequence diagram is that of Figure 4.7,
substituting
I 0 for I 2 , and so on.
V
= 0
b
The currents and voltages in the zero sequence network
V
= 0 
c
…Equation 4.9
are co-phasal, that is, all the same phase. For zero
d.
Three-phase (A-B-C or A-B-C-E)
sequence currents to flow in a system there must be a
return connection through either a neutral conductor or
III
++= 0 
abc
the general mass of earth. Note must be taken of this
fact when determining zero sequence equivalent circuits.
V
=
V
a
b
Further, in general
Z 0 and the value of Z 0 varies
Z 1 ≠
V
=
V
b
c
according to the type of plant, the winding arrangement
…Equation 4.10
and the method of earthing.
It should be noted from the above that for any type of
fault there are three equations that define
the fault
conditions.
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35
Fault
Calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 36 — — — — — When there is a fault impedance,
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
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Page 36
— —
— —
When there is a fault impedance, this must be taken into
V
-
I 1 Z 1 = I 2 Z 2
account when writing down the equations. For example,
and substituting for I 2 from Equation 4.15:
with a single-phase-earth fault through fault impedance
Z f , Equations 4.7 are re-written:
V
=
Z 1 +
Z 2 )
I 1 (
…Equation 4.17
The constraints imposed by Equations 4.15 and 4.17
I
= 0
b
indicate that there is no zero sequence network
I
= 0
connection in the equivalent circuit and that the positive
c
and negative sequence networks are connected in
V
=
IZ
a
af
…Equation 4.11
parallel. Figure 4.9 shows the defining and equivalent
circuits satisfying the above equations.
Figure 4.8
F
V a
A
F 1
F 2
F 0
I
a
V b
Figure 4.9
F
B
V a
A
F 1
F 2
F 0
I
Z 1
Z 2
Z 0
b
I
V c
a
C
V b
B
N 2
N 0
I
c
Z 1
Z 2
Z 0
V
V c
C
N 1
I
N 2
N 0
b
V
I
N 1
c
I b =0
I c =0
I a =0
V
a =0
I b =-I c
V b =-V c
(a) Definition of fault
(b) Equivalent circuit
(a) Definition of fault
(b) Equivalent circuit
Figure 4.8: Single-phase-earth fault at F
Figure 4.9: Phase-Phase fault at F
4.4.3 Phase-phase-earth Fault (B-C-E)
4.4.1 Single-phase-earth Fault (A-E)
Again, from Equation 4.9 and Equations 4.1 and 4.2:
Consider a fault defined by Equations 4.7 and by Figure
4.8(a). Converting Equations 4.7 into sequence
I 1 = -( I 2 +
I o )
…Equation 4.18
quantities by using Equations 4.1 and 4.2, then:
and
1
II
===
I
I
V 2 =
1
2
o
a
V 1 =
V 0
…Equation 4.19
…Equation 4.12
3
Substituting for V 2 and
V 0 using network Equations 4.5
V
= - ( V 2 +
V 0 )
…Equation 4.13
1
and 4.6:
Substituting for
V
1 , V 2 and
V 0 in Equation 4.13 from
— —
— —
Equations 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6:
I 2 Z 2 = I 0 Z 0
— —
— —
— —
thus, using Equation 4.18:
V
-
I 1 Z 1 = I 2 Z 2 + I 0 Z 0
but, from Equation 4.12, I 1 = I 2 = I 0 , therefore:
Z
I
2
1
I
=
0
Z
+
Z
…Equation 4.20
V
=
Z 1 + Z 2 +
Z 3 )
…Equation 4.14
0
2
I 1 (
4 •
The constraints imposed by Equations 4.12 and 4.14
Z
I
0
1
I
=
2
indicate that the equivalent circuit for the fault is
Z
+
Z
…Equation 4.21
0
2
obtained by connecting the sequence networks in series,
Now equating V 1 and V 2 and using Equation 4.4 gives:
as shown in Figure 4.8(b).
— —
— —
V
-
Z 1 = -
I 1
I 2 Z 2
or
4.4.2 Phase-phase Fault (B-C)
— —
— —
V
=
-
From Equation 4.8 and using Equations 4.1 and 4.2:
I 1 Z 1 I 2 Z 2
Substituting for I 2 from Equation 4.21:
I 1 = -
I 2
…Equation 4.15
I 0 = 0
Z
Z
0
2
V
=
Z
+
I
1
1
Z
+
Z
V 1
=
V 2
…Equation 4.16
0
2
or
From network Equations 4.4 and 4.5, Equation 4.16 can
be re-written:
(
Z
+
Z
)
0
2
— —
— —
— —
I
=
V
V
-
1
I 1 Z 1 = I 2 Z 2 + I 0 Z 0
ZZ
+
ZZ
+
Z
Z
…Equation 4.22
10
12
0
2
36
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Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 9:57 Page 37 From the above equations it follows that connecting the Hence, from
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02
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From the above equations it follows that connecting the
Hence, from Equations 4.2,
three sequence networks in parallel as shown in Figure
V 0 = 1/3 V a
4.10(b) may represent a phase-phase-earth fault.
V 1 = 1/3 V a
F
V
V 2 = 1/3 V a
a
A
Figure 4.10 Phase-phase-earth fault
F 1
F 2
F 0
I
a
V
b
B
and therefore:
Z 1
Z 2
Z 0
V
c
C
N 2
N 0
VV
===
V
1
3
V
I
120
a
b
V
N 1
I
c
I
=++
II
I
=
0
a
120
…Equation 4.28
I
a =0
From
Equations
4.28,
it
can
be concluded that the
V
b =0
sequence networks are connected in parallel, as shown in
V
c =0
Figure 4.12(b).
(a) Definition of fault
(b) Equivalent circuit
Figure 4.10: Phase-phase-earth fault at F
P
Q
V
V
a
a'
ν a
4.4.4
Three-phase Fault (A-B-C or A-B-C-E)
I
V
b'
b
V
ν b
V
c
I
c'
Assuming that the fault includes earth, then, from
c
ν c
Equations 4.10 and 4.1, 4.2, it follows that:
(a) Circuit diagram
V
=
V
0
a
I
I 1
P
2
I 0
1
P 2
P 0
V
=
V
=
0 
…Equation 4.23
+ve
-ve
Zero
1
2
N 1
N 2
N 0
ν
Sequence
Sequence
1
ν 2
Sequence
ν 0
and
Network
Network
Network
Q
1
Q 2
Q 0
I 0 = 0
…Equation 4.24
Substituting V 2 = 0 in Equation 4.5 gives:
(b) Equivalent circuit
I 2 = 0
Figure 4.12: Open circuit on phase A
…Equation 4.25
and substituting V 1 = 0 in Equation 4.4:
4.4.6 Cross-country Faults
— —
0 =
-
V 1 I 1 Z 1
A cross-country fault is one where there are two faults
or
— —
affecting the same circuit, but in different locations and
V =
I
Z 1
…Equation 4.26
1
possibly involving different phases. Figure 4.13(a)
Further, since from Equation 4.24 I o = 0 , it follows from
illustrates this.
Equation 4.6 that
is
zero when
is
finite.
The
V o
Z o
The constraints expressed in terms of sequence
equivalent sequence connections for a three-phase fault
quantities are as follows:
are shown in Figure 4.11.
a)
At point F
F
V
a
I
+
I
= 0 
A
F 1
F 2
F 0
b
c
V
b
B
4 •
V
= 0
Z 1
Z 2
Z 0
a
…Equation 4.29
V
c
C
N 2
N 0
Therefore:
Figure 4.11
I
V
I
a
N 1
I
b
c
II
=
=
I
aa
120
a
I
a +I b +I c =0
VV
++=
V
0
…Equation 4.30
V
a +V b +V c =0
aa
120
a
b)
At point F’
(a) Definition of fault
(b) Equivalent circuit
I
'
=
I
'
= 0 
Figure 4.11: Three-phase-earth fault at F
a
c
V
'
= 0
4.4.5
Single-phase Open Circuit Fault
b
…Equation 4.31
The single-phase open circuit
fault
is
shown
and therefore:
diagrammatically in Figure 4.12(a). At the fault point,
I ’ b1 = I ’ b2 = I ’
…Equation 4.32
b0
the boundary conditions are:
To solve, it is necessary to convert the currents and
I
= 0
voltages at point F ’ to the sequence currents in the
a
same phase as those at point F. From Equation 4.32,
V
=
V
= 0 
…Equation 4.27
b
c
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Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 38 F F ' a-e b-e (a) `A' phase to ground at
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 38
F
F '
a-e
b-e
(a) `A' phase to ground at F and `B' phase to ground at F'
I
I
'
a1
a1
F '
F 1
1
V
'
V
a1
a1
N '
N 1
1
2
a I '
a2
I
I
'
1
a2
a2
F '
F 2
2
2
a
2
a
V '
a2
V
'
V
a2
a2
N '
N 2
2
aI '
a0
I
I
'
a0
a0
F '
1
F 0
0
a
aV '
a0
V
'
V
a0
a0
N '
N 0
0
(b) Equivalent circuit
Figure 4.13: Cross - country fault - phase A to phase B
4 •
a 2 I a1 = aI ’
4.5 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION
a2 = I ’
a0
IN A SYSTEM DUE TO A FAULT
or
I a1 = a 2 I a2 = aI ’
Practical fault calculations involve the examination of
…Equation 4.33
a0
the effect of a fault in branches of network other than
and, for the voltages
the faulted branch, so that protection can be applied
V
correctly to isolate the section of the system directly
’ b1 + V ’ b2 +V ’ b0 = 0
involved in the fault. It is therefore not enough to
Converting:
calculate the fault current in the fault itself; the fault
a 2 V a1 + aV ’
a2 +V ’ a0 = 0
current distribution must also be established. Further,
abnormal voltage stresses may appear in a system
or
because of a fault, and these may affect the operation of
V
a1 + a 2 V ’
a2 + aV ’ a0 = 0
…Equation 4.34
the protection. Knowledge of current and voltage
distribution in a network due to a fault is essential for
The fault constraints involve phase shifted sequence
the application of protection.
quantities. To construct the appropriate sequence
networks, it is necessary to introduce phase-shifting
The approach to network fault studies for assessing the
transformers to couple the sequence networks. This
application of protection equipment may be summarised as
is shown in Figure 4.13(b).
follows:
38
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
Fault
Calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 39 a. from the network diagram and accompanying data, a. single-phase-earth (A-E)
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 39
a. from the network diagram and accompanying data,
a.
single-phase-earth (A-E)
assess the limits of stable generation and possible
I
'
= (
2
C
+
CI
)
a
1
00
operating conditions for the system
I
'
=− (
C
CI
)
b
1
00
NOTE:
When
full information
is
not available
assumptions may have to be made
I
'
=− (
C
CI
)
c
1
00
…Equation 4.35
b. with faults assumed to occur at each relaying point
b.
phase-phase (B-C)
in turn, maximum and minimum fault currents are
calculated for each type of fault
I
'
= 0
a
NOTE:
The
fault
is assumed
to
be through
zero
(
2
I
'
=
)
impedance
a
a
CI
b
1
1
c. by calculating
the current
distribution
in
the
(
2
I
'
=
a
a
)
CI
c
1
1
…Equation 4.36
network for faults applied at different points in the
network (from (b) above) the maximum through
c.
phase-phase-earth (B-C-E)
fault currents at each relaying point are
established for each type of fault
I
'
=− (
C
CI
)
a
1
00
d. at this stage more or less definite ideas on the type
Z
of protection
to
be applied are formed.
Further
2
0
2
I
'
=
(
aaC
)
aC
C
I
b
1
1
00
calculations for establishing voltage variation at
Z
1
the relaying
point,
or
the stability limit
of
the
Z
0
system with a fault on it, are now carried out in
I
'
=
(
2
a
aC
)
aC
+
C
I
c
1
1
00
Z
1
order to determine
the
class of protection
necessary, such as high or low speed, unit or non-
…Equation 4.37
unit, etc.
d.
three-phase (A-B-C or A-B-C-E)
I
'
=
CI
a
1
1
4.5.1 Current Distribution
2
I
'
=
aCI
b
1
1
The phase current in any branch of a network is
determined from the sequence current distribution in the
I
'
=
aC I
c
1
1
…Equation 4.38
equivalent circuit of the fault. The sequence currents are
As an example of current distribution technique, consider
expressed in per unit terms of the sequence current in
the system in Figure 4.14(a). The equivalent sequence
the fault branch.
networks are given in Figures 4.14(b) and (c), together
In power system calculations, the positive and negative
with typical values of impedances. A fault is assumed at
sequence impedances are normally equal. Thus, the
A and it is desired to find the currents in branch OB due
division of sequence currents in the two networks will
to the fault. In each network, the distribution factors are
also be identical.
given for each branch, with the current in the fault
branch taken as 1.0p.u. From the diagram, the zero
The impedance values and configuration of the zero
4 •
sequence distribution factor C o in branch OB is 0.112
sequence network are usually different from those of the
and the positive sequence factor C 1 is 0.373. For an
positive and negative sequence networks, so the zero
earth fault at A the phase currents in branch OB from
sequence current distribution is calculated separately.
Equation 4.35 are:
If C o and C 1 are described as the zero and positive
I
a = (0.746 + 0.112)
I
sequence distribution factors then the actual current in
0
= 0.858
I
a sequence branch is given by multiplying the actual
0
and
current in the sequence fault branch by the appropriate
I
I ’ c = -(0.373 + 0.112)
I
distribution factor. For this reason, if
I 2 and
I 0 are
b =
I 1 ,
0
sequence currents in an arbitrary branch of a network
= -0.261
I
0
due to a fault at some point in the network, then the
By using network reduction methods and assuming that
phase currents in that branch may be expressed in terms
all
impedances are reactive, it
can
be
shown
that
of the distribution constants and the sequence currents
Z 0 = j0.68 ohms.
Z 1 =
in the fault. These are given below for the various
common shunt faults, using Equation 4.1 and the
Therefore, from Equation 4.14, the current
in
fault
appropriate fault equations:
V
branch I a =
0.68
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
39
Fault
Calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 40 4.5.2 Voltage Distribution Power system The voltage distribution in any branch
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 40
4.5.2 Voltage Distribution
Power system
The voltage distribution in any branch of a network is
A
B
determined from the sequence voltage distribution. As
shown by Equations 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6 and the gradient
O
diagrams, Figures 4.6(b) and 4.7(b), the positive
sequence voltage is a minimum at the fault, whereas the
Fault
zero and negative sequence voltages are a maximum.
Thus, the sequence voltages in any part of the system
Load
may be given generally as:
(a) Single line diagram
j7.5Ω
n
 
0.08
'
V
=−
V
IZ
C
Z
j0.9Ω
j0.4Ω
1
11
1 n
1 n
A
B
j2.6Ω
0
j1.6Ω
1
1.0
0.165
0.112
n
0.755
0.192
j4.8Ω
V
'
=−
IZ
C
Z
2
21
1 n
1 n
0.053
1
(b) Zero sequence network
n
V
' =−
IZ
C
Z
0
00
0 n
0 n
j2.5Ω
0.183
1
…Equation 4.39
j1.6Ω
j0.4Ω
A
B
j0.75Ω
j0.45Ω
0
Using the above equation, the fault voltages at bus B in
1.0
0.395
0.373
the previous example can be found.
0.422
0.556
j18.85Ω
0.022
From the positive sequence distribution diagram Figure
4.8(c):
(c) Positive and negative sequence networks
Figure 4.14: Typical power system
V '
1 =−
VI
[
Z
1 −
j
{(
0..
395
×
0 75
)
+
(
0..
373
×
0 45
)}
1
Assuming that | V | = 63.5 volts, then:
V
'
2 =−
V
IZ
[
j 0.464
]
1
1
63 5
.
1
I
==
I
=
31 2 A
.
0
a
From the zero sequence distribution diagram Figure
3
3
x
0 68
.
4.8(b):
If V is taken as the reference vector, then:
I ’ a = 26.8∠ -90° A
V '
0 =−
IZ
[
j
{(
0.165
×
2...
6
)
+
(
)}]
0 112
×
1 6
0
0
I ’ b = I ’ c =8.15∠ -90° A
=
IZ
[
j 0.608
]
The vector diagram for the above fault
condition is
0
0
shown in Figure 4.15.
For earth faults, at the fault
I 2 = I 0 = j31.2A, when
I 1 =
| V | = 63.5 volts and is taken as the reference vector.
Further,
Z 0 = j0.68 ohms.
Z 1 =
Figure 4.15
4 •
V
' c =61.5-116.4°
Hence:
V’ 1 = 63.5 - (0.216 x 31.2)
= 56.76 ∠0°
volts
I
' b =I ' c =8.15-90°
V’ 2 = 6.74 ∠180°
volts
V=63.5-0°
V’ 0 = 2.25 ∠180°
volts
and, using Equations 4.1:
V
' a =47.8-0°
V
=
V 1 + V 2 +
V
a
0
= 56.76 -(6.74 + 2.25)
I
' a =26.8-90°
V’ a = 47.8 ∠0°
V’ b = a 2 V’ 1 + a V’ 2 + V’ 0
V
' b =61.5-116.4°
= 56.76a 2 -(6.74a + 2.25)
Figure 4.15: Vector diagram: Fault currents
V’ b = 61.5 ∠-116.4° volts
and voltages in branch OB due to P-E fault at bus A
40
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
Fault
Calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 41 — — — — — — — — V’ c =
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 41
V’ c = a V’ 1 + a 2 V’ 2 + V’ 0
and since V bn = a 2
V cn =a V an then:
V an ,
= 56.75a -(6.74a 2 + 2.25)
V R = 3
…Equation 4.43
V ne
V’ c = 61.5 ∠116.4° volts
where V cn - neutral displacement voltage.
These voltages are shown on the vector diagram, Figure
Measurements of residual quantities are made using
4.15.
current and voltage transformer connections as shown in
Figure 4.16. If relays are connected into the circuits in
place of the ammeter and voltmeter, it follows that earth
4.6 EFFECT OF SYSTEM EARTHING
faults in the system can be detected.
ON ZERO SEQUENCE QUANTITIES
It has been shown previously that zero sequence currents
flow in the earth path during earth faults, and it follows
I
a
A
that the nature of these currents will be influenced by
I
b
the method of earthing. Because these quantities are
B
I
unique in their association with earth faults they can be
c
C
utilised in protection, provided their measurement and
V ae
character are understood for all practical system
V be
V ce
conditions.
A
4.6.1
Residual Current and Voltage
Residual currents and voltages depend for their existence
V
on two factors:
(a) Residual current
(b) Residual voltage
a. a system connection to earth at two or more points
b. a potential difference between the earthed points
Figure 4.16: Measurement of residual quantities
resulting in a current flow in the earth paths
Under normal system operation there is a capacitance
4.6.2 System
Z 1 Ratio
Z 0 /
between the phases and between phase and earth; these
The system
/
Z 1 ratio is defined as the ratio of zero
capacitances may be regarded as being symmetrical and
Z 0
sequence and positive sequence impedances viewed from
distributed uniformly through the system. So even when
the fault; it is a variable ratio, dependent upon the
(a) above is satisfied, if the driving voltages are
method of earthing, fault position and system operating
symmetrical the vector sum of the currents will equate
arrangement.
to zero and no current will flow between any two earth
points in the system. When a fault to earth occurs in a
When assessing the distribution of residual quantities
system an unbalance results in condition (b) being
through a system, it is convenient to use the fault point
satisfied. From the definitions given above it follows
as the reference as it is the point of injection of
that residual currents and voltages are the vector sum of
unbalanced quantities into the system. The residual
phase currents and phase voltages respectively.
voltage is measured in relation to the normal phase-
4 •
neutral system voltage and the residual current is
Hence:
compared with the three-phase fault current at the fault
I
=++
III
point. It can be shown [4.4/4.5] that the character of
R
abc
these quantities can be expressed in terms of the system
and
——
Z 1 ratio.
Z 0 /
…Equation 4.40
VVVV
=++
R
ae
be
ce
The positive sequence impedance of a system is mainly
Also, from Equations 4.2:
reactive, whereas the zero sequence impedance being
affected by the method of earthing may contain both
I
=
3
I
R
0
resistive
and
reactive
components
of
comparable
…Equation 4.41
magnitude. Thus the express of the
/
ratio
V
=
3
V
Z 0
Z 1
R
0
approximates to:
It should be further noted that:
Z
X
R
0
0
0
VVV
=
+
=
j
ae
an
ne
Z
X
X
1
1
1
…Equation 4.44
VVV
=
+
be
bn
ne
Expressing the residual current in terms of the three-
VVV
=
+
…Equation 4.42
ce
cn
ne
phase current and
Z 1 ratio:
Z 0 /
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
41
Fault
Calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 42 a. Single-phase-earth (A-E) 3.0 Residual current for 3 V 3 V
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 42
a.
Single-phase-earth (A-E)
3.0
Residual current for
3
V
3
V
Double-Phase-Earth fault
I
=
=
R
2 Z
+
Z
(
2
+ K
)
Z
2.5
10
1
Residual voltage for
Single-Phase-Earth fault
where K =
Z 0 / Z 1
2.0
V
I
=
3
φ
Z
1.5
1
Thus:
Residual voltage for
1.0
Double-Phase-Earth fault
I
3
R
=
…Equation 4.45
I
(
3
+ K
)
φ
2
0.5
Residual current for
b.
Phase-phase-earth (B-C-E)
Double-Phase-Earth fault
0
12345
3 Z
1
I
=
3
I
=−
I
R
0
1
Z
0
Z
+
Z
K
=
1
0
Z
1
VZ
(
+
Z
)
1
0
Figure 4.17: Variation of residual quantities
I
=
1
at fault point
2
2 ZZ
+
Z
10
1
4.6.3 Variation of Residual Quantities
Hence:
The variation of residual quantities in a system due to
3 V Z
3
V
1
different earth arrangements can be most readily
I
=
=
R
2
2 ZZ
+
Z
(
2
K
+
1
)
Z
1
understood by using vector diagrams. Three examples
10
1
have been chosen, namely solid fault-isolated neutral,
Therefore:
solid fault-resistance neutral, and resistance fault-solid
neutral. These are illustrated in Figures 4.18, 4.19 and
I
3
R
=
4.20 respectively.
I
(
2
K
+
1
)
3
ϕ
…Equation 4.46
Similarly, the residual voltages are found by multiplying
— —
X
Equations 4.45 and 4.46 by - K V .
I
ab +I ac
F
A
I
a.
Single-phase-each (A-E)
ab
N
B
I
ac
C
3 K
V
=
V
R
(
2
+ K
)
…Equation 4.47
I
I
ab
ac
I
ab +I ac
b.
Phase-phase-earth (B-C-E)
4 •
3
K
(a) Circuit diagram
V
=
V
R
I
(
2
K
+
1
)
ac
…Equation 4.48
c
-V cF =E ac
n
a(F)
The curves in Figure 4.17 illustrate the variation of the
V bF
V cF
above residual quantities with the
/
Z 1 ratio.
The
I
Z 0
ab
-V bF =E ab
V R
residual
current
in
any part
of
the
system
can
be
b
obtained by multiplying the current from the curve by
(b) Vector diagram
(c) Residual voltage diagram
the appropriate zero sequence distribution factor.
Similarly, the residual voltage is calculated by
Figure 4.18: Solid fault-isolated neutral
subtracting from the voltage curve three times the zero
sequence voltage drop between the measuring point in
the system and the fault.
42
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
Fault
Calculations
V R and I R as multiples of V and I 3
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 43 4.6.3.1 Solid fault-isolated neutral 4.6.3.2 Solid fault-resistance neutral From Figure 4.18
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 43
4.6.3.1 Solid fault-isolated neutral
4.6.3.2 Solid fault-resistance neutral
From Figure 4.18 it can be seen that the capacitance to
Figure 4.19 shows that the capacitance of the faulted
earth of the faulted phase is short circuited by the fault
phase is short-circuited by the fault and the neutral
and the resulting unbalance causes capacitance currents
current
combines with the
sound phase
capacitive
to flow into the fault, returning via sound phases
currents to give I a in the faulted phase.
through sound phase capacitances to earth.
With
a
relay at
X, residually connected as shown in
At the fault point:
Figure 4.16, the residual current will be I an , that is, the
neutral earth loop current.Figure 4.19
V aF = 0
and
At the fault point:
= V bF +
V
V R
cF
since
V Fe = 0
V R = V bF +
V cF
= -3
E an
At source:
At source:
V R =
V
V aX + V bX +
cX
V R = 3 V ne = -3
E an
From the residual voltage diagram it is clear that there is
little variation in the residual voltages at source and fault,
since
as most residual voltage is dropped across the neutral
E cn = 0
E an + E bn +
resistor. The degree of variation in residual quantities is
Thus, with an isolated neutral system, the residual
therefore dependent on the neutral resistor value.
voltage is three times the normal phase-neutral voltage
4.6.3.3 Resistance fault-solid neutral
of the faulted phase and there is no variation between
Capacitance can be neglected because, since the
V R at source and V R at fault.
capacitance of the faulted phase is not short-circuited,
In practice, there is some leakage impedance between
the circulating capacitance currents will be negligible.
neutral and earth and a small residual current would be
At the fault point:
detected at X if a very sensitive relay were employed.
V
V R = V Fn + V bn +
cn
I
X
a
Z L
F
A
At relaying point X:
I
ab
B
V
V R = V Xn + V bn +
cn
I
ac
C
I
an
I ab
I ab
I
a
X
I
Z S
F
Z L
F
A
B
C
(a)
Circuit diagram
I
F
I
I
F
ac
c
4 •
(a)
Circuit diagram
-V cf
c
-V cX
a(F)
I
V cF
a
V
n
I
cn
ac
-I a Z L
V an
n
a
-V Xn
I
ab
-I F Z S
V Xn
I
V
X
an
bn
V
X
-V bf
Fn
-I F Z L
F
I
-V bX
I
ab
F
V
b
bF
b
(b)
Vector diagram
(b)
Vector diagram
V
V
Xn
R
V Fn
V R
V cX
V cF
V R
V bf
V
cn
V bn
V cn
V bn
(at source)
V
aX
V R
(at fault)
V bX
(c) Residual voltage
(d) Residual voltage at
at fault
relaying point
(c) Residual voltage diagram
Figure 4.19: Solid fault-resistance neutral
Figure 4.20: Resistance fault-solid neutral
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
43
Fault
Calculations
Chap4-30-45 21/06/02 10:00 Page 44 From the residual voltage diagrams shown in Figure 4.20, it is
Chap4-30-45
21/06/02
10:00
Page 44
From the residual voltage diagrams shown in Figure 4.20,
it is apparent that the residual voltage is greatest at the
fault and reduces towards the source. If the fault
resistance approaches zero, that is, the fault becomes
solid, then V Fn approaches zero and the voltage drops in
Z S and Z L become greater. The ultimate value of
V
Fn
will depend on the effectiveness of the earthing, and this
is a function of the system
Z 1 ratio.
Z 0 /
4.7 REFERENCES
4.1
Circuit Analysis of A.C. Power Systems, Volume I.
Edith Clarke. John Wiley & Sons.
4.2
Method of Symmetrical Co-ordinates Applied to
the Solution of Polyphase Networks. C.L.
Fortescue. Trans. A.I.E.E.,Vol. 37, Part II, 1918, pp
1027-40.
4.3
Power System Analysis.
J.R. Mortlock and M.W.
Humphrey Davies. Chapman and Hall.
4.4
Neutral Groundings. R Willheim and M. Waters,
Elsevier.
4.5
Fault Calculations. F.H.W. Lackey, Oliver & Boyd.
4 •
44
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
Fault
Calculations
Chapt 5-46-77 21/06/02 9:31 Page 46 5 Equivalent Circuits and Parameters • • of Power System
Chapt 5-46-77
21/06/02
9:31
Page 46
5
Equivalent
Circuits
and Parameters
of
Power System Plant
Introduction
Synchronous machines
Armature reaction
Steady state theory
Salient pole rotor
Transient analysis
Asymmetry
Machine reactances
Negative sequence reactance
Zero sequence reactance
Direct and quadrature axis values
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
Effect of saturation on machine reactances
Transformers
Transformer positive sequence equivalent circuits
Transformer zero sequence equivalent circuits
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
Auto-transformers 5.16
Transformer impedances
Overhead lines and cables
Calculation of series impedance
Calculation of shunt impedance
Overhead line circuits with or without earth wires
OHL equivalent circuits
Cable circuits
Overhead line and cable data
References
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
Chapt 5-46-77 21/06/02 9:31 Page 47 • 5 • Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System
Chapt 5-46-77
21/06/02
9:31
Page 47
• 5 •
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters
of Power System Plant
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Knowledge of the behaviour of the principal electrical
system plant items under normal and fault conditions is
a prerequisite for the proper application of protection.
This chapter summarises basic synchronous machine,
transformer and transmission line theory and gives
equivalent circuits and parameters so that a fault study
can be successfully completed before the selection and
application of the protection systems described in later
chapters. Only what might be referred to as 'traditional'
synchronous machine theory is covered, as that is all that
calculations for fault level studies generally require.
Readers interested in more advanced models of
synchronous machines are referred to the numerous
papers on the subject, of which reference [5.1] is a good
starting point.
Power
system
plant
may
be
divided into two
broad
groups - static and rotating.
The modelling of static plant for fault level calculations
provides few difficulties, as plant parameters generally
do not change during the period of interest following
fault inception. The problem in modelling rotating plant
is that the parameters change depending on the
response to a change in power system conditions.
5.2 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
There are two main types of synchronous machine:
cylindrical rotor and salient pole. In general, the former
is confined to 2 and 4 pole turbine generators, while
salient pole types are built with 4 poles upwards and
include most classes of duty. Both classes of machine
are similar in so far that each has a stator carrying a
three-phase winding distributed over its inner periphery.
Within the stator bore is carried the rotor which is
magnetised by a winding carrying d.c. current.
The essential difference between the two classes of
machine lies in the rotor construction. The cylindrical
rotor type has a uniformly cylindrical rotor that carries
its excitation winding distributed over a number of slots
Network
Protection
&
Automation
Guide
47
Chapt 5-46-77 21/06/02 9:31 Page 48 around its periphery. This construction is unsuited to most common.
Chapt 5-46-77
21/06/02
9:31
Page 48
around its periphery. This construction is unsuited to
most common. Two-stroke diesel engines are often
multi-polar machines but it is very sound mechanically.
derivatives of marine designs with relatively large outputs
Hence it is particularly well adapted for the highest
(circa 30MW is possible) and may have running speeds of
speed electrical machines and is universally employed for
the order of 125rpm. This requires a generator with a
2 pole units, plus some 4 pole units.
large number of poles (48 for a 125rpm, 50Hz generator)
and consequently is of large diameter and short axial
The
salient
pole type
has
poles that
are physically
length. This is a contrast to turbine-driven machines that
separate, each carrying a concentrated excitation
are of small diameter and long axial length.
winding. This type of construction is in many ways
complementary to that of the cylindrical rotor and is
employed in machines having 4 poles or more. Except in
special cases its use is exclusive in machines having more
than 6 poles. Figure 5.1 illustrates a typical large
cylindrical rotor generator installed in a power plant.
Two and four pole generators are most often used in
Weak
Strong
Weak
Strong
applications where steam or gas turbines are used as the
N
S
driver. This is because the steam turbine tends to be
suited to high rotational speeds. Four pole steam turbine
generators are most often found in nuclear power
Direction of rotation
stations as the relative wetness of the steam makes the
high rotational speed of a two-pole design unsuitable.
(a)
Most generators with gas turbine drivers are four pole
machines to obtain enhanced mechanical strength in the
rotor- since a gearbox is often used to couple the power
turbine to the generator, the choice of synchronous
speed of the generator is not subject to the same
constraints as with steam turbines.
N
S
N
Generators with diesel engine drivers are invariably of
four or more pole design, to match the running speed of
the driver without using a gearbox. Four-stroke diesel
(b)
engines usually have a higher running speed than two-
stroke engines, so generators having four or six poles are
Figure 5.2: Distortion of flux
due to armature reaction
5 •
Figure 5.1: Modern large synchronous generator
48